University of Kansas
The University of Kansas, often referred to as KU or Kansas, is a public research university in the U. S. state of Kansas. The main campus in Lawrence, one of the largest college towns in Kansas, is on Mount Oread, two branch campuses are in the Kansas City metropolitan area, the Edwards Campus in Overland Park, and the universitys medical school and hospital in Kansas City. There are educational and research sites in Parsons, Garden City and Leavenworth, the university is one of the 62 members of the Association of American Universities. The university overall employed 2,814 faculty members in fall 2015, on February 20,1863, Kansas Governor Thomas Carney signed into law a bill creating the state university in Lawrence. The law was conditioned upon a gift from Lawrence of a $15,000 endowment fund, if Lawrence failed to meet these conditions, Emporia instead of Lawrence would get the university. The site selected for the university was a known as Mount Oread. Robinson and his wife Sara bestowed the 40-acre site to the State of Kansas in exchange for land elsewhere, the philanthropist Amos Adams Lawrence donated $10,000 of the necessary endowment fund, and the citizens of Lawrence raised the remaining cash by issuing notes backed by Governor Carney.
On November 2,1863, Governor Carney announced that Lawrence had met the conditions to get the university. The schools Board of Regents held its first meeting in March 1865, work on the first college building began that year. The university opened for classes on September 12,1866, during World War II, Kansas was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. KU is home to the Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics, the Beach Center on Disability, Lied Center of Kansas and radio stations KJHK,90.7 FM, and KANU,91.5 FM. The university is host to several including the University of Kansas Natural History Museum. The University of Kansas is a large, state-sponsored university, with five campuses, the university offers more than 345 degree programs. In its 2017 list, U. S. News & World Report ranked KU as tied for 118th place among National Universities and 56th place among public universities.
The city management and urban policy program was ranked first in the nation, uSN&WR ranked several programs in the top 25 among U. S. universities. The Bachelor of Architecture degree was added in 1920, in 1969, the School of Architecture and Urban Design was formed with three programs, architectural engineering, and urban planning. In 2001 architectural engineering merged with civil and environmental engineering, the design programs from the discontinued School of Fine Arts were merged into the school in 2009 forming the current School of Architecture and Planning. S in 2012. The University of Kansas School of Business is a business school on the main campus of the University of Kansas in Lawrence
George Washington University
The George Washington University is a private research university in Washington, D. C. GW is the largest institution of education in Washington, D. C. In his will, Washington left his 50 shares in the Potomac Company to help endow the university, due to the companys financial difficulties, the funding did not materialize. The university was chartered by an act of Congress on February 9,1821 and its name was changed to Columbian University in 1873 and to the George Washington University in 1904, in honor of Washington. GWs Graduate School of Political Management is the school of applied politics in the nations capital. GWs professional schools and the Elliott School of International Affairs are consistently ranked highly in national and international college rankings lists, the Princeton Review consistently ranks GW as one of the Most Politically Active schools. Some of the graduates have gone on to high positions within both the U. S. government and foreign governments. Notable alumni include former Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid, former Secretary of State Colin Powell and he presented numerous letters to Congress and included the subject in his last will and testament.
Baptist missionary and leading minister Luther Rice raised funds to purchase a site in Washington, the first commencement in 1824 was considered an important event for the young city of Washington, D. C. In attendance were President Monroe, John C, Henry Clay, Marquis de Lafayette and other dignitaries. During the Civil War, most students left to join the Confederacy, walt Whitman was among many of the volunteers to work on the campus. Following the war, in 1873, Columbian College became the Columbian University and moved to a downtown location centered on 15th and H streets. The university moved its operations to the D. C. neighborhood of Foggy Bottom in 1912. The George Washington University, like much of Washington, D. C. traces many of its origins back to the Freemasons, the Bible that the presidents of the university use to swear an oath on upon inauguration is the Bible of Freemason George Washington. Freemasonry symbols are displayed throughout the campus including the foundation stones of many of the university buildings.
Many of the Colleges of the George Washington University stand out for their age, the Law School is the oldest law school in the District of Columbia. The School of Medicine and Health Sciences is the 11th oldest medical school in the nation, the Columbian College was founded in 1821, and is the oldest unit of the university. The Elliott School of International Affairs was formalized in 1898, the majority of the present infrastructure and financial stability at GW is due to the tenures of Presidents Cloyd Heck Marvin, Lloyd Hartman Elliott and Stephen Joel Trachtenberg
The Smithsonian Institution, established in 1846 for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. Originally organized as the United States National Museum, that ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Virginia, more than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, and Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates. The Institutions thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge and its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with 2/3 coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institutions endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, and earned retail, Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford, Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1,1836.
The American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest, Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithsons rather vague mandate for the increase, the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas which soon defaulted. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842, in 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation, in 1847, money was appropriated for meteorological research. The Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, the Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. The Smithsonian Institution Building began construction in 1849, designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contract Gilbert Cameron and the building opened in 1855.
The Smithsonians first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881, Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income. It did, and the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonians Department of Living Animals and this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. More than 40 years would pass before the museum, the Museum of History. It was designed by the firm of McKim, Mead & White. That same year, the Smithsonian signed an agreement to take over the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration, the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum opened in the Old Patent Office Building on October 7,1968. The first new building to open since the National Museum of Natural History was the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nations prime federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Department of Justice, Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, although many of the FBIs functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint and these overseas offices exist primarily for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not usually conduct unilateral operations in the host countries.
The FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation and its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, in the fiscal year 2012, the Bureaus total budget was approximately $8.12 billion. In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created an urgent perception that America was under threat from anarchists. The Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, the Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the breakage of the Oregon land fraud scandal at approximately the turn of the 20th Century, President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General.
Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the Secret Service, for personnel, on May 27,1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelts urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26,1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including veterans of the Secret Service. Its first Chief was Stanley Finch, Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908. The bureaus first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the White Slave Traffic Act, or Mann Act, in 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation. The following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition, in the same year, its name was officially changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J.
Edgar Hoover served as Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, Hoover was substantially involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure
Horton is a city in Brown County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,776 and it was named for Albert H. Horton, chief justice of the Kansas Supreme Court. On January 22,2013, the host of CNBC television show The Profit toured Horton in hopes of revitalizing Hortons downtown business district, Horton is located at 39°39′50″N 95°31′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 1.80 square miles. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,776 people,732 households, the population density was 997.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 904 housing units at a density of 507.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82. 5% White,0. 8% African American,10. 7% Native American,0. 5% Asian,0. 8% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 3. 7% of the population. 34. 3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.02.
The median age in the city was 38.3 years. 27. 5% of residents were under the age of 18,8. 3% were between the ages of 18 and 24,21. 2% were from 25 to 44,22. 8% were from 45 to 64, and 20. 2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48. 5% male and 51. 5% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 1,967 people,812 households, and 506 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,125.8 people per square mile, there were 906 housing units at an average density of 518.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84. 65% White,0. 97% African American,10. 78% Native American,0. 66% Asian,0. 51% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 2. 08% of the population. 34. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 18. 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was out with 27. 5% under the age of 18,6. 7% from 18 to 24,22. 9% from 25 to 44,20. 2% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 39 years, for every 100 females there were 88.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males, the median income for a household in the city was $22,991, and the median income for a family was $31,447. Males had an income of $25,000 versus $21,474 for females
Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable, Forensic anthropologists are instrumental to the investigation and documentation of genocide and mass graves. Along with forensic pathologists, forensic dentists, and homicide investigators, using physical markers present on a skeleton, a forensic anthropologist can potentially determine a victims age, sex and ancestry. The methods used to identity a person from a skeleton relies on the past contributions of various anthropologists, through the collection of thousands of specimens and the analysis of differences within a population, estimations can be made based on physical characteristics. Through these, a set of remains can potentially be identified, forensic anthropology is a well established discipline within the forensic field.
Anthropologists are called upon to investigate remains and to identify individuals from bones when other physical characteristics which could be used to identify a body no longer exist. Forensic anthropologists work in conjunction with forensic pathologists to identify remains based on their skeletal characteristics, in addition to these duties, forensic anthropologists often assist in the investigation of war crimes and mass fatality investigations. Anthropologists have helped victims of genocide in countries around the world. War crimes anthropologists have helped investigate include the Rwandan Genocide and the Srebrenica Genocide, the use of anthropology in the forensic investigation of remains grew out of the recognition of anthropology as a distinct scientific discipline and the growth of physical anthropology. The field of anthropology began in the United States and struggled to obtain recognition as a legitimate science during the years of the twentieth century. Earnest Hooton pioneered the field of anthropology and became the first physical anthropologist to hold a full-time teaching position in the United States.
He was a committee member of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists along with its founder Aleš Hrdlička. Hootons students created some of the first doctoral programs in physical anthropology during the early 20th century, in addition to physical anthropology, Hooton was a proponent of criminal anthropology. Now considered a pseudoscience, criminal anthropologists believed that phrenology and physiognomy could link a persons behavior to specific physical characteristics, the use of criminal anthropology to try to explain certain criminal behaviors arose out of the eugenics movement, popular at the time. The study of information helped shape anthropologists understanding of the human skeleton. Another prominent early anthropologist, Thomas Wingate Todd, was responsible for the creation of the first large collection of human skeletons in 1912. In total, Todd acquired 3,300 human skulls and skeletons,600 anthropoid skulls and skeletons, todds contributions to the field of anthropology remain in use in the modern era and include various studies regarding suture closures on the skull and timing of teeth eruption in the mandible.
Todd developed age estimates based on characteristics of the pubic symphysis
National Museum of Natural History
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed exclusively to hold the national collections and research facilities. The main building has an area of 1,500,000 square feet with 325,000 square feet of exhibition and public space. The museums collections contain over 126 million specimens of plants, fossils, rocks, human remains, the United States National Museum was founded in 1846 as part of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum was housed in the Smithsonian Institution Building, which is better known today as the Smithsonian Castle. A formal exhibit hall opened in 1858, the growing collection led to the construction of a new building, the National Museum Building. Covering a then-enormous 2.25 acres, it was built in just 15 months at a cost of $310,000, congress authorized construction of a new building on June 28,1902.
The regents began considering sites for the new building in March, the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall was chosen to design the structure. Testing of the soil for the foundations was set for July 1903, the Natural History Building opened its doors to the public on March 17,1910, in order to provide the Smithsonian Institution with more space for collections and research. The building was not fully completed until June 1911, the structure cost $3.5 million dollars. The Neoclassical style building was the first structure constructed on the side of the National Mall as part of the 1901 McMillan Commission plan. In addition to the Smithsonians natural history collection, it housed the American history, art. Between 1981 and 2003, the National Museum of Natural History had 11 permanent, there were six directors alone between 1990 and 2002. Turnover was high as the directors were disenchanted by low levels of funding. Robert W. Fri was named the director in 1996. One of the largest donations in Smithsonian history was made during Fris tenure, kenneth E.
Behring donated $20 million in 1997 to modernize the museum. Fri resigned in 2001 after disagreeing with Smithsonian leadership over the reorganization of the scientific research programs. J. Dennis OConnor, Provost of the Smithsonian Institution was named acting director of the museum on July 25,2001, eight months later, OConner resigned to become the vice president of research and dean of the graduate school at the University of Maryland