The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
Christopher Eric Hitchens was a British author, essayist, orator and social critic. Hitchens was the author, co-author, editor or co-editor of over 30 books, including five collections of essays on culture and literature. A staple of public discourse, his confrontational style of debate made him both a lauded intellectual and a controversial public figure, he contributed to New Statesman, The Nation, The Weekly Standard, The Atlantic, London Review of Books, The Times Literary Supplement, Free Inquiry and Vanity Fair. Having long described himself as a democratic socialist, Marxist and an anti-totalitarian, he broke from the political left after what he called the "tepid reaction" of the Western left to the Satanic Verses controversy, followed by what he perceived as an ill-advised embrace of Bill Clinton by parts of the left and the antiwar movement's opposition to NATO intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 1990s, his support of the Iraq War separated him further. His writings include critiques of public figures Bill Clinton, Henry Kissinger, Mother Teresa and Diana, Princess of Wales.
He was the elder brother of author Peter Hitchens. As an antitheist, he regarded concepts of a god or supreme being as a totalitarian belief that impedes individual freedom, he argued in favour of free expression and scientific discovery, that it was superior to religion as an ethical code of conduct for human civilization. He advocated for the separation of church and state; the dictum "What can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence" has become known as Hitchens's razor. Hitchens was born the elder of two boys in Hampshire; when they were children Christopher never got on well with his brother Peter Hitchens, a Christian and conservative journalist. His parents, Eric Ernest Hitchens and Yvonne Jean Hitchens, met in Scotland when both were serving in the Royal Navy during World War II. Christopher referred to Eric as the'commander'. Eric was deployed on HMS Jamaica which took part in the sinking of the German battleship Scharnhorst in the Battle of the North Cape on 26 December 1943.
Christopher would pay tribute to his father's contribution to the war: "Sending a Nazi convoy raider to the bottom is a better day's work than any I have done." He stated that "the remark that most summed him up was the flat statement that the war of 1939 to 1945 had been'the only time when I felt I knew what I was doing'." Eric Hitchens would work as a bookkeeper for boatbuilders, speedboat-manufacturers and at a prep school. In life, Hitchens identified as a secular Jew—since Judaism is matrilineal and he discovered his mother was Jewish, his mother was a'Wren'. His father's naval career required the family to move a number of times from base to base throughout Britain and its dependencies, including to Malta, where Christopher's brother Peter was born in Sliema in 1951. Hitchens attended Mount House School in Tavistock, from the age of eight, followed by the independent Leys School in Cambridge. In 1967, Hitchens enrolled at Balliol College, where he was tutored by Steven Lukes and Anthony Kenny and read Philosophy and Economics, graduating in 1970 with a third-class degree.
Hitchens was'bowled over' in his adolescence by Richard Llewellyn's How Green Was My Valley, Arthur Koestler's Darkness at Noon, Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment, R. H. Tawney's critique on Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, the works of George Orwell. In 1968, he took. In the 1960s, Hitchens joined the political left, drawn by disagreement over the Vietnam War, nuclear weapons and oligarchy, including that of "the unaccountable corporation", he expressed affinity with the politically charged countercultural and protest movements of the 1960s and 1970s. He avoided the recreational drug use of the time, saying "in my cohort we were anti-hedonistic...it made it much easier for police provocation to occur, because the planting of drugs was something that happened to everyone one knew." Hitchens was inspired to become a journalist after reading a piece by James Cameron. Hitchens was bisexual during his younger days, he claimed to have had sexual relations with two male students at Oxford who would become Tory ministers during the prime ministership of Margaret Thatcher, although he would not reveal their names publicly.
Hitchens joined the Labour Party in 1965, but along with the majority of the Labour students' organisation was expelled in 1967, because of what Hitchens called "Prime Minister Harold Wilson's contemptible support for the war in Vietnam". Under the influence of Peter Sedgwick, who translated the writings of Russian revolutionary and Soviet dissident Victor Serge, Hitchens forged an ideological interest in Trotskyism and anti-Stalinist socialism. Shortly after, he joined "a small but growing post-Trotskyist Luxemburgist sect". Early in his career Hitchens began working as a correspondent for the magazine International Socialism, published by the International Socialists, the forerunners of today's British Socialist Workers Party; this group was broadly Trotskyist, but differed from more orthodox Trotskyist groups in its refusal to defend communist states as "workers' states". Their slogan was "Neither Washington nor Moscow but International Socialism". In 1971 Hitchens went to work at the Times Higher Education Supplement where he served as a social science correspondent.
Hitchens admitted that he hated the position, was fired after six months in the job. Next he was a research
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal is a U. S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp; the newspaper is published in online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser; the Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.475 million copies as of June 2018, compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, accessible only to subscribers since it began; the newspaper is notable for its award-winning news coverage, has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes. The editorial pages of the Journal are conservative in their position. The"Journal" editorial board has promoted fringe views on the science of climate change, acid rain, ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke and asbestos.
The first products of Dow Jones & Company, the publisher of the Journal, were brief news bulletins, nicknamed "flimsies", hand-delivered throughout the day to traders at the stock exchange in the early 1880s. They were aggregated in a printed daily summary called the Customers' Afternoon Letter. Reporters Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser converted this into The Wall Street Journal, published for the first time on July 8, 1889, began delivery of the Dow Jones News Service via telegraph. In 1896, The "Dow Jones Industrial Average" was launched, it was the first of several indices of bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1899, the Journal's Review & Outlook column, which still runs today, appeared for the first time written by Charles Dow. Journalist Clarence Barron purchased control of the company for US$130,000 in 1902. Barron and his predecessors were credited with creating an atmosphere of fearless, independent financial reporting—a novelty in the early days of business journalism.
In 1921, Barron's, the United States's premier financial weekly, was founded. Barron died in 1928, a year before Black Tuesday, the stock market crash that affected the Great Depression in the United States. Barron's descendants, the Bancroft family, would continue to control the company until 2007; the Journal took its modern shape and prominence in the 1940s, a time of industrial expansion for the United States and its financial institutions in New York. Bernard Kilgore was named managing editor of the paper in 1941, company CEO in 1945 compiling a 25-year career as the head of the Journal. Kilgore was the architect of the paper's iconic front-page design, with its "What's News" digest, its national distribution strategy, which brought the paper's circulation from 33,000 in 1941 to 1.1 million at the time of Kilgore's death in 1967. Under Kilgore, in 1947, the paper won its first Pulitzer Prize for William Henry Grimes's editorials. In 1967, Dow Jones Newswires began a major expansion outside of the United States that put journalists in every major financial center in Europe, Latin America and Africa.
In 1970, Dow Jones bought the Ottaway newspaper chain, which at the time comprised nine dailies and three Sunday newspapers. The name was changed to "Dow Jones Local Media Group".1971 to 1997 brought about a series of launches and joint ventures, including "Factiva", The Wall Street Journal Asia, The Wall Street Journal Europe, the WSJ.com website, Dow Jones Indexes, MarketWatch, "WSJ Weekend Edition". In 2007, News Corp. acquired Dow Jones. WSJ. A luxury lifestyle magazine, was launched in 2008. A complement to the print newspaper, The Wall Street Journal Online, was launched in 1996 and has allowed access only by subscription from the beginning. In 2003, Dow Jones began to integrate reporting of the Journal's print and online subscribers together in Audit Bureau of Circulations statements. In 2007, it was believed to be the largest paid-subscription news site on the Web, with 980,000 paid subscribers. Since online subscribership has fallen, due in part to rising subscription costs, was reported at 400,000 in March 2010.
In May 2008, an annual subscription to the online edition of The Wall Street Journal cost $119 for those who do not have subscriptions to the print edition. By June 2013, the monthly cost for a subscription to the online edition was $22.99, or $275.88 annually, excluding introductory offers. On November 30, 2004, Oasys Mobile and The Wall Street Journal released an app that would allow users to access content from the Wall Street Journal Online via their mobile phones. Many of The Wall Street Journal news stories are available through free online newspapers that subscribe to the Dow Jones syndicate. Pulitzer Prize–winning stories from 1995 are available free on the Pulitzer web site. In September 2005, the Journal launched a weekend edition, delivered to all subscribers, which marked a return to Saturday publication after a lapse of some 50 years; the move was designed in part to attract more consumer advertising. In 2005, the Journal reported a readership profile of about 60 percent top management, an average income of $191,000, an average household net worth of $2.1 million, an average age of 55.
In 2007, the Journal launched a worldwide expansion of its website to include major foreign-language editions. The p
Raoul Gustaf Wallenberg was a Swedish architect, businessman and humanitarian. He is remembered for saving tens of thousands of Jews in Nazi-occupied Hungary during the Holocaust from German Nazis and Hungarian Fascists during the stages of World War II. While serving as Sweden's special envoy in Budapest between July and December 1944, Wallenberg issued protective passports and sheltered Jews in buildings designated as Swedish territory. On 17 January 1945, during the Siege of Budapest by the Red Army, Wallenberg was detained by SMERSH on suspicion of espionage and subsequently disappeared, he was reported to have died on 17 July 1947 while imprisoned by the KGB secret police in the Lubyanka, the KGB headquarters and affiliated prison in Moscow. The motives behind Wallenberg's arrest and imprisonment by the Soviet government, along with questions surrounding the circumstances of his death and his ties to US intelligence, remain mysterious and are the subject of continued speculation; as a result of his successful efforts to rescue Hungarian Jews, Wallenberg has been the subject of numerous humanitarian honours in the decades following his presumed death.
In 1981, US Congressman Tom Lantos, one of those saved by Wallenberg, sponsored a bill making Wallenberg an honorary citizen of the United States, the second person to receive this honour. Wallenberg is an honorary citizen of Canada, Hungary and Israel. Israel has designated Wallenberg one of the Righteous Among the Nations. Numerous monuments have been dedicated to him, streets have been named after him throughout the world; the Raoul Wallenberg Committee of the United States was created in 1981 to "perpetuate the humanitarian ideals and the nonviolent courage of Raoul Wallenberg." It gives the Raoul Wallenberg Award annually to recognize persons. He was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress "in recognition of his achievements and heroic actions during the Holocaust." Wallenberg was born in 1912 in Lidingö Municipality, near Stockholm, where his maternal grandparents, Professor Per Johan Wising and his wife Sophie Wising, had built a summer house in 1882. His paternal grandfather, Gustaf Wallenberg, was a diplomat and envoy to Tokyo and Sofia.
His parents, who married in 1911, were Raoul Oscar Wallenberg, a Swedish naval officer, Maria "Maj" Sofia Wising. His father died of cancer three months before he was born, his maternal grandfather died of pneumonia three months after his birth, his mother and grandmother, now both widows, raised him together. In 1918, his mother married Fredric von Dardel. After high school and his compulsory eight months in the Swedish military, Wallenberg's paternal grandfather sent him to study in Paris, he spent one year there, in 1931, he matriculated at the University of Michigan in the United States to study architecture. Although the Wallenberg family was rich, he worked at odd jobs in his free time and joined other young male students as a passenger rickshaw handler at Chicago's Century of Progress, he used his vacations to explore the United States, with hitchhiking being his preferred method of travel. About his experiences, he wrote to his grandfather saying, "When you travel like a hobo, everything's different.
You have to be on the alert the whole time. You're in close contact with new people every day. Hitchhiking gives you training in diplomacy and tact." Wallenberg was aware of his one-sixteenth Jewish ancestry, proud of it. It came from his great-great-grandfather Michael Benedicks, who immigrated to Stockholm in 1780. Professor Ingemar Hedenius recalls a conversation with Raoul dating back to 1930, when they were together in an army hospital during military service: We had many long and intimate conversations, he was full of plans for the future. Although I was a good deal older – you could choose when to do your service – I was enormously impressed by him, he was proud of his partial Jewish ancestry and, must have exaggerated it somewhat. I remember him saying,'A person like me, both a Wallenberg and half-Jewish, can never be defeated', he graduated from university in 1935, but upon his return to Sweden, he found his American degree did not qualify him to practice as an architect. That year, his grandfather arranged a job for him in Cape Town, South Africa, in the office of a Swedish company that sold construction material.
After six months in South Africa, he took a new job at a branch office of the Holland Bank in Haifa. He returned to Sweden in 1936, securing a job in Stockholm with the help of his uncle and godfather, Jacob Wallenberg, at the Central European Trading Company, an export-import company trading between Stockholm and central Europe, owned by Kálmán Lauer, a Hungarian Jew. Beginning in 1938, the Kingdom of Hungary, under the regency of Miklós Horthy, passed a series of anti-Jewish measures modeled on the so-called Nuremberg Race Laws enacted in Germany by the Nazis in 1935. Like their German counterparts, the Hungarian laws focused on restricting Jews from certain professions, reducing the number of Jews in government and public service jobs, prohibiting intermarriage; because of this, Wallenberg's business associate, Kálmán Lauer, found it difficult to travel to his native Hungary, moving still deeper into the German orbit, becoming a member of the Axis powers in November 1940 and joining the Nazi-led invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.
Out of necessity Wallenberg became Lauer's personal representative, traveling to Hungary to conduct busin
Magdalen College, Oxford
Magdalen College is one of the wealthiest constituent colleges of the University of Oxford, with an estimated financial endowment of £273 million as of 2018. Magdalen stands next to the River Cherwell and has within its grounds a deer park and Addison's Walk; the large, square Magdalen Tower is an Oxford landmark, it is a tradition, dating to the days of Henry VII, that the college choir sings from the top of it at 6 a.m. on May Morning. Magdalen College was founded in 1458 by William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor. Wayneflete had founded a university hall named Magdalen Hall in 1448; the founder's statutes included provision for a choral foundation of men and boys and made reference to the pronunciation of the name of the college in English. The college received another substantial endowment from the estate of Sir John Fastolf of Caister Castle in Norfolk. A second university hall named Magdalen Hall emerged on a site adjacent to Magdalen College, moved to Catte Street in 1822 and became Hertford College in 1874.
Magdalen's prominence since the mid-20th century owes much to such famous fellows as C. S. Lewis and A. J. P. Taylor, its academic success to the work of such dons as Thomas Dewar Weldon. Like many of Oxford's colleges, Magdalen admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after more than half a millennium as a men-only institution. In 2015, Magdalen topped Oxford's Norrington Table of college undergraduate examination results, its average score over the 2006–2016 period is the best among the colleges; the college grounds stretch north and east from the college, include most of the area bounded by Longwall Street, the High Street, St Clement's. The Great Tower was built between 1492 and 1509 by William Orchard, is an imposing landmark on the eastern approaches to the city centre; the hall and chapel were built at similar times, though both have undergone some changes in the intervening years. The Cloister or Great Quad has been altered several times since then. In 1822, the north side was in bad shape, was knocked down while most of the fellows were away from college.
It was rebuilt shortly afterwards. In the early 1900s, renovations were performed, it was returned to a more mediaeval character. Student rooms were installed in the roof space in the 1980s; the New Building was built across a large lawn to the north of the Great Quad beginning in 1733. Its spacious setting is due to the builders' intentions to create an new quad, but only one side was completed. Edward Gibbon and C. S. Lewis had their rooms in this building and as many rooms are occupied by tutors, the few student rooms are sought after; the college has four other quads. The irregularly shaped St John's Quad is the first on entering the college, includes the Outdoor Pulpit and old Grammar Hall, it connects to the Great Quad via the Perpendicular Gothic Founders Tower, richly decorated with carvings and pinnacles and has carved bosses in its vault. The Chaplain's Quad runs to the foot of the Great Tower. St Swithun's Quad and Longwall Quad date from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, make up the southwest corner of the college.
The Grove Buildings are the newest, built in the 1990s in a traditional style. The Waynflete Building, located across Magdalen Bridge from the main college site, was designed by Booth and Pinckheard and completed in 1964; this large meadow occupies most of the north west of the college's grounds, from the New Buildings and the Grove Quad up to Holywell Ford. During the winter and spring, it is the home of a herd of fallow deer, it is possible to view the meadow from the path between New Buildings and Grove Quad, from the archway in New Buildings. In the 16th century, long before the introduction of the deer, the grove consisted of gardens and bowling greens. During the Civil War, it was used to house a regiment of soldiers. At one point in the 19th century it was home to three traction engines belonging to the works department of the college. By the 20th century it had become well-wooded with many large trees, but most of them were lost to Dutch elm disease in the 1970s; this triangular meadow lies to the east of the college, bounded on all sides by the River Cherwell.
In the spring, it is filled with the flower Fritillaria meleagris, which gives it an attractive green-purple colour. These flowers grow in few places, have been recorded growing in the meadow since around 1785. Once the flowering has finished, the deer are moved in for autumn. In wet winters, some or all of the meadow may flood, as the meadow is lower lying than the surrounding path. All around the edge of the meadow is a tree-lined path, Addison's Walk, it is a beautiful and tranquil walk, favoured by students and visitors alike. It links the college with Holywell Ford, the Fellows' Garden. Located to the north east of the Meadow, directly behind the new building of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies; this long and narrow garden follows the Cherwell to the edge of the University Parks. In spring, the ground is covered with flowers. In summer, there are some flowers, many different shrubs, the varied trees provide dappled cover from the sun, it is linked to Addison's Walk by a bridge. Magdalen Ground is located North of the fellows' garden.
The Chapel of Magdalen College is a place of worship for members of the college and others in the University of Oxford community an
The Cambridge Union
The Cambridge Union Society referred to as the Cambridge Union, is a debating and free speech society in Cambridge and the largest society at the University of Cambridge. It is the oldest continuously running debating society in the world. Additionally, the Cambridge Union has served as a model for the foundation of similar societies at several other prominent universities, including the Oxford Union and the Yale Political Union; the Union is a private society with membership open to all students of Cambridge University, more Anglia Ruskin University. The Cambridge Union is a registered charity and is separate from the Cambridge University Students' Union; the Union has hosted political and other figures in its chamber, both state- and international-based, including the Dalai Lama, President Ronald Reagan, Professor Germaine Greer, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher, Clint Eastwood. Speakers from the 21st century include academics Slavoj Žižek, Richard Dawkins, Rowan Williams, former British prime minister John Major, former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf and comedian Stephen Fry, civil rights leader Jesse Jackson, Olympic legend Lord Coe and activist Russell Brand, presidential candidate and Senator Bernie Sanders and actor Sir Ian McKellen.
Previous students involved in the Cambridge Union have included Arianna Huffington, the famous economist John Maynard Keynes. The Cambridge Union was founded on 13 February 1815. Several years after it was founded, on 24 March 1817, the Union was temporarily shut down by the University. In 1821 the Union was allowed under strict guidelines; the Union's Bridge Street premises were designed by Alfred Waterhouse and formally opened on 30 October 1866. An additional wing was added several decades later; the future radical Liberal politician, Sir Charles Dilke, was the President chiefly responsible for construction. Included among the building's many rooms are the debating chamber, a dining room, snooker room, the Keynes Library and various offices. Although Cambridge escaped undamaged from the widespread bombing destruction of World War II, the Union's building was hit by a bomb dropped during one attack; the explosion caused extensive damage to the Union's library. The Union is a self-funded charity that owns and has full control over its private property and buildings in the Cambridge city centre.
It enjoys strong relations with the university, allows other student societies to hire rooms for a nominal cost. Guests are sometimes admitted to Union events for a charge. After more than 200 years, The Cambridge Union is best known for its debates, which receive national and international media attention; the top members of its debating team compete internationally against other top debating societies. The Union organises talks by visiting speakers and a wide array of events throughout the academic year; the Cambridge Union is sometimes confused with the Cambridge University Students' Union, the student representative body set up in 1971. Although The Cambridge Union has never functioned as a students' union in the modern sense, it did affiliate to the UK's National Union of Students in 1924. In 2015 the Union celebrated its bicentenary; this included special debates and parties in Cambridge and, for the first time in its history, in London. In January 2015 the Union announced a £9.5m refurbishment project to begin in late 2016 to address major structural problems and to expand existing facilities, subject to approval by planners, to include a new Wine Bar on the ground floor and a Jazz & Comedy Club in the basement.
It announced a plan to use the revenue generated from the new building to reduce membership fees to make the Union more accessible to students from lower income backgrounds, to increase the size of its competitive debating activities for disadvantaged children and students. The development was to be financed through the leasing of disused parts of its site to Trinity College in a deal worth £4.5 million. Planning permission was received in 2016, a fundraising campaign to cover the remaining cost was to be launched on 11 March 2017 with a special debate between Jon Snow and Nick Robinson. Construction on the major redevelopment project is scheduled to begin in Michaelmas 2018; the Cambridge Union receives no formal funding from the University and raises funds for event expenses and building maintenance through membership fees and sponsorship. Membership is open to students at the University of Anglia Ruskin University. Members are able to bring guests to certain functions provided that the guests would not be allowed to purchase membership.
Social events and events organised by external bodies are open to the public, with discounts for Union members. The Union launched online membership in late 2015, which allowed any student around the world access to live streams of events for an annual subscription; the Union awards honorary memberships to distinguished individuals. Honorary members include: The Union puts on a wide variety of events for its members, but is best known for its Thursday night debates and individual speaker events. In both of these, leading figures from public life are invited to discuss something of interest to the membership. One of the Union's most famous debates in recent years was between Richard Dawkins and Rowan Williams in February 2013, on the motion,'This House Believes Religion ha
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat