University of Alberta
The University of Alberta is a public research university located in Edmonton, Canada. It was founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta, Henry Marshall Tory, its first president, its enabling legislation is the Post-secondary Learning Act. The university is considered a “Comprehensive academic and research university”, which means that it offers a range of academic and professional programs, which lead to undergraduate and graduate level credentials, have a strong research focus; the university comprises four campuses in Edmonton, the Augustana Campus in Camrose, a staff centre in downtown Calgary. The original north campus consists of 150 buildings covering 50 city blocks on the south rim of the North Saskatchewan River valley, directly across from downtown Edmonton. 39,000 students from Canada and 150 other countries participate in 400 programs in 18 faculties. The University of Alberta is a major economic driver in Alberta; the university's impact on the Alberta economy is an estimated $12.3 billion annually, or five per cent of the province's gross domestic product.
The University of Alberta is a leading institution for the study of Ukraine and is home to the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. The University of Alberta has graduated more than 275,000 alumni, including Governor General Roland Michener; the university is a member of the Alberta Rural Development Network, the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education and the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System. The University of Alberta, a single, public provincial university, was chartered in 1906 in Edmonton, Alberta with the University Act in the first session of the new Legislative Assembly, with Premier Alexander C. Rutherford as its sponsor; the university was modelled on the American state university, with an emphasis on extension work and applied research. The governance was modelled on Ontario's University of Toronto Act of 1906: a bicameral system consisting of a senate responsible for academic policy, a board of governors controlling financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters.
The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and perform institutional leadership. Heated wrangling took place between the cities of Calgary and Edmonton over the location of the provincial capital and of the university, it was stated that the capital would be north of the North Saskatchewan River and that the university would be in a city south of it. The city of Edmonton became the capital and the then-separate city of Strathcona on the south bank of the river, where Premier Alexander Rutherford lived, was granted the university; when the two cities were amalgamated in 1912, Edmonton became both the political and academic capital. With Henry Marshall Tory as its first president, the University of Alberta started operation in 1908. Forty-five students attended classes in English and modern languages, on the top floor of the Queen Alexandra Elementary School in Strathcona, while the first campus building, Athabasca Hall, was under construction. In a letter to Alexander Cameron Rutherford in early 1906, while he was in the process of setting up McGill University College in Vancouver, Tory wrote, "If you take any steps in the direction of a working University and wish to avoid the mistakes of the past, mistakes which have fearfully handicapped other institutions, you should start on a teaching basis."Under Tory's guidance, the early years were marked by recruitment of professors and construction of the first campus buildings.
Today, he has a building named after him. Percy Erskine Nobbs & Frank Darling designed the master plan for the University of Alberta in 1909–10. Nobbs designed the Arts Building and Power House. With Cecil S. Burgess, Nobbs designed the Provincial College of Medicine. Architect Herbert Alton Magoon designed several buildings on campus, including St. Stephen's Methodist College and the residence for professor Rupert C. Lodge; the University of Alberta awarded its first degrees in 1912, the same year it established the Department of Extension. The Faculty of Medicine was established the following year, the Faculty of Agriculture began in 1915, but along with these early milestones came the First World War and the global influenza pandemic of 1918, whose toll on the university resulted in a two-month suspension of classes in the fall of 1918. Despite these setbacks, the university continued to grow. By 1920, it had two schools, it awarded a range of degrees: Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, Bachelor of Laws, Bachelor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Divinity, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Doctor of Laws.
There were 851 male students and 251 female students, 171 academic staff, including 14 women. The Breton Soil Plots were established at the faculty of agriculture from 1929 – present to provide agricultural research on fertilization, crop rotations and farming practices on Gray-Luvisolic soils, which cover many regions in western Canada; the University of Alberta spearheaded an extraordinary rate of volunteerism in the Province of Alberta to the First World War from its medical faculty. Experience gained was used by returning veteran
University of Calgary
The University of Calgary is a public research university located in Calgary, Canada. The University of Calgary started in 1944 as the Calgary branch of the University of Alberta, founded in 1908, prior to being instituted into a separate, autonomous university in 1966, it is composed over 85 research institutes and centres. The main campus is located in the northwest quadrant of the city near the Bow River and a smaller south campus is located in the city center, its enrollment is 25,000 undergraduate and 5,000 graduate students with over 170,000 alumni in 152 countries, including James Gosling, who invented the Java computer language, Garrett Camp, who co-founded Uber, former Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper, former Canadian astronaut Robert Thirsk, Lululemon Athletica founder, Chip Wilson. A member of the U15, the University of Calgary is one of Canada's top research universities; the university has a sponsored research revenue of $380.4 million, with total revenues exceeding $1.2 billion, one of the highest in Canada.
Being in Calgary, with Canada's highest concentration of engineers and geoscientists, the university maintains close ties to the petroleum and geoscience industry through the Department of Geosciences and the Schulich School of Engineering while maintaining a history of environmental research and leadership through the Faculty of Environmental Design, the School of Public Policy and the Faculty of Law. The main campus houses most of the research facilities and works with provincial and federal research and regulatory agencies, several of which are housed next to the campus such as the Geological Survey of Canada; the main campus covers 200 hectares. The University of Calgary was established in 1966, but its roots date back more than half a century earlier to the establishment of the Normal School in Calgary in 1905; the Alberta Normal School was established in Calgary to train primary and secondary school teachers in the new province. The Calgary Normal School was absorbed by the University of Alberta's Faculty of Education in 1945, operated as a part of its Calgary branch campus, a satellite campus of the University of Alberta.
Operating from the west wing of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, the Calgary University Committee was formed 1946, in an effort to lobby for separate permanent facilities for the branch campus. In July 1957, the University of Alberta signed a one dollar lease with the City of Calgary, for 121.4 hectares of land. In 1958, the University of Alberta changed the name of the branch campus to the "University of Alberta in Calgary," and unveiled plans for new permanent facilities on the leased land; the new campus opened its first permanent facilities in October 1960, the Arts and Education Building, the Science and Engineering Building. In May 1965, the satellite campus was granted academic and financial autonomy from the University of Alberta. In the following year, in April 1966, the institution was formally made into an independent university, with the passage of the Universities Act by the Legislative Assembly of Alberta; the university was modelled on the American state university, with an emphasis on extension work and applied research.
The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was a link between the bodies to perform institutional leadership. In the early 20th century, professional education expanded beyond theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced; the university's first president, Herbert Stoker Armstrong, held a strong belief that "although the university is accountable to the society that supports it, the university must insist on playing a leadership role in intellectual matters if it is to be worthy of the name."During the late 1960s, the University of Calgary's campus expanded with new buildings for engineering and science, the opening of the new University Theatre in Calgary Hall and, in 1971, the launch of the program in architecture.
In addition, the Banff Centre affiliated with the University of Calgary in 1966. The University of Calgary played a central role in facilitating and hosting Canada's first winter olympic games, the XV Olympic Winter Games in 1988. In May 2001, the University of Calgary tartan was accredited in a ceremony presided over by the president of the Scottish Tartans Society, the director of the Register of All Publicly Known Tartans; the accreditation ceremony for the university's tartan was the first to take place in Canada. Use of the black and gold tartan is limited to formal ceremonies, a small number of items sold by the University; the tartan is used by the university's pipe band. On January 4, 2018, 21-year-old Connor Neurauter was sentenced to 90-days in jail, 2 years probation and had to register as a sex offender in Kamloops, B. C after obtaining and threatening to share photos of a minor under 16, it was revealed that Neurauter would not serve his sentence until May 2018, in order to allow him to finish his semester at the University of Calgary.
On January 6, the University of Calgary said that they were "reviewing the situation"
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with data collection, analysis and presentation. In applying statistics to, for example, a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. See glossary of probability and statistics; when census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole. An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements.
In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation. Two main statistical methods are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, which summarize data from a sample using indexes such as the mean or standard deviation, inferential statistics, which draw conclusions from data that are subject to random variation. Descriptive statistics are most concerned with two sets of properties of a distribution: central tendency seeks to characterize the distribution's central or typical value, while dispersion characterizes the extent to which members of the distribution depart from its center and each other. Inferences on mathematical statistics are made under the framework of probability theory, which deals with the analysis of random phenomena. A standard statistical procedure involves the test of the relationship between two statistical data sets, or a data set and synthetic data drawn from an idealized model. A hypothesis is proposed for the statistical relationship between the two data sets, this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets.
Rejecting or disproving the null hypothesis is done using statistical tests that quantify the sense in which the null can be proven false, given the data that are used in the test. Working from a null hypothesis, two basic forms of error are recognized: Type I errors and Type II errors. Multiple problems have come to be associated with this framework: ranging from obtaining a sufficient sample size to specifying an adequate null hypothesis. Measurement processes that generate statistical data are subject to error. Many of these errors are classified as random or systematic, but other types of errors can be important; the presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address these problems. Statistics can be said to have begun in ancient civilization, going back at least to the 5th century BC, but it was not until the 18th century that it started to draw more from calculus and probability theory. In more recent years statistics has relied more on statistical software to produce tests such as descriptive analysis.
Some definitions are: Merriam-Webster dictionary defines statistics as "a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis and presentation of masses of numerical data." Statistician Arthur Lyon Bowley defines statistics as "Numerical statements of facts in any department of inquiry placed in relation to each other."Statistics is a mathematical body of science that pertains to the collection, interpretation or explanation, presentation of data, or as a branch of mathematics. Some consider statistics to be a distinct mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty and decision making in the face of uncertainty. Mathematical statistics is the application of mathematics to statistics. Mathematical techniques used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, measure-theoretic probability theory.
In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population; this may be organized by governmental statistical institutes. Descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the population data. Numerical descriptors include mean and standard deviation for continuous data types, while frequency and percentage are more useful in terms of describing categorical data; when a census is not feasible, a chosen subset of the population called. Once a sample, representative of the population is determined, data is collected for the sample members in an observational or experimental setting. Again, descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the sample data. However, the drawing of the sample has been subject to an element of randomness, hence the established numerical descriptors from the sample are due to uncertainty.
To still draw meaningful conclusions about the entire population, in
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Daihachiro Sato was a Japanese mathematician, awarded the Lester R. Ford Award in 1976 for his work in number theory on his work in the Diophantine representation of prime numbers, his doctoral supervisor at the University of California, Los Angeles was Ernst G. Straus. Sato was an only child born in Fujinomiya, Japan on June 1, 1932. While still attending high school, Sato published his first mathematics research paper, which led to his acceptance at the Tokyo University of Education. There, Sato earned a B. S. in theoretical physics, a popular academic field at the time due to the recent Nobel Prize in Physics awarded in 1949 to Hideki Yukawa. In 1965, Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, one of Dr. Sato's professors at this university, was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics. Following his undergraduate degree in Japan, he switched his studies to mathematics, earning a M. Sc. and a Ph. D from UCLA, became tenured at the University of Saskatchewan, Regina campus in Regina, Canada. Following his retirement in 1997 he was granted the position Professor Emeritus at the University of Regina, what the Regina campus became in 1974.
Subsequently, he further taught at the Tokyo University of Social Welfare from 2000 until 2006, after which he returned to Canada. He died at Ladner, British Columbia on May 28, 2008. Sato's interests included integer valued entire functions, generalized interpolation by analytic functions, prime representing functions, function theory, it is in the field of prime representing functions that Sato co-authored a paper with James P. Jones, Hideo Wada, Douglas Wiens entitled "Diophantine Representation of the Set of Prime Numbers", which won them the Lester R. Ford Award in Mathematics in 1976. "Mondai to kaito". SUGAKU. 6: 190–192. 1954. Doi:10.11429/sugaku1947.6.190. "Mondai to kaito". SUGAKU. 13: 125–128. 1961. Doi:10.11429/sugaku1947.13.125. Integer valued entire functions. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles. 1961. OCLC 9432394. —Dissertation: Ph. D. "Mondai to kaito". SUGAKU. 14: 95–98. 1962. Doi:10.11429/sugaku1947.14.95. "Mondai to kaito". SUGAKU. 14: 99–108. 1962. Doi:10.11429/sugaku1947.14.99.
"Mondai to kaito". SUGAKU. 15: 101–105. 1963. Doi:10.11429/sugaku1947.15.101. "Mondai to kaito". SUGAKU. 24: 223–226. 1972. Doi:10.11429/sugaku1947.24.223. "Mondai to kaito". SUGAKU. 27: 7–11. 1975. Doi:10.11429/sugaku1947.27.7. Hitotumatu, Sin. "Simple proof that a $p$-adic Pascal's triangle is $120° $\ rotatable". Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society. 59: 406–407. Doi:10.1090/S0002-9939-1976-0409325-3. EISSN 1088-6826. OCLC 5581281229. Retrieved May 25, 2018. — MathSciNet review: 0409325 Sato, Daihachiro. "$x^x・y^y=z^z$の整数解について". 数理解析研究所講究録. Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University. Repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp: 106–116. ISSN 1880-2818. OCLC 996633781 – via JAIRO. "Utterly integer valued entire functions. I." Pacific Journal of Mathematics. 118: 523–530. 1985. Retrieved May 25, 2018 – via MathSciNet. Ando, Shiro. Howard, Fredric T, ed. On the Generalized Binomial Coefficients Defined by Strong Divisibility Sequences. Applications of Fibonacci Numbers: Volume 8. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure and change. Mathematicians use patterns to formulate new conjectures; when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back; the research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano, David Hilbert, others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics developed at a slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, medicine and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are discovered later; the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The first abstraction, shared by many animals, was that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges have something in common, namely quantity of their members; as evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, years. Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, for astronomy.
The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry, it is in Babylonian mathematics that elementary arithmetic first appear in the archaeological record. The Babylonians possessed a place-value system, used a sexagesimal numeral system, still in use today for measuring angles and time. Beginning in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics as a subject in its own right with Greek mathematics. Around 300 BC, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method still used in mathematics today, consisting of definition, axiom and proof, his textbook Elements is considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time. The greatest mathematician of antiquity is held to be Archimedes of Syracuse, he developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.
Other notable achievements of Greek mathematics are conic sections, trigonometry (Hipparchus of Nicaea, the beginnings of algebra. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics. Other notable developments of Indian mathematics include the modern definition of sine and cosine, an early form of infinite series. During the Golden Age of Islam during the 9th and 10th centuries, mathematics saw many important innovations building on Greek mathematics; the most notable achievement of Islamic mathematics was the development of algebra. Other notable achievements of the Islamic period are advances in spherical trigonometry and the addition of the decimal point to the Arabic numeral system. Many notable mathematicians from this period were Persian, such as Al-Khwarismi, Omar Khayyam and Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī. During the early modern period, mathematics began to develop at an accelerating pace in Western Europe.
The development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century revolutionized mathematics. Leonhard Euler was the most notable mathematician of the 18th century, contributing numerous theorems and discoveries; the foremost mathematician of the 19th century was the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, who made numerous contributions to fields such as algebra, differential geometry, matrix theory, number theory, statistics. In the early 20th century, Kurt Gödel transformed mathematics by publishing his incompleteness theorems, which show that any axiomatic system, consistent will contain unprovable propositions. Mathematics has since been extended, there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to