The Alentejo is a geographical and cultural region of south central and southern Portugal. In Portuguese, its name means "beyond" the Tagus river. Alentejo includes the regions of Baixo Alentejo, it corresponds to the districts of Beja, Évora and the Alentejo Litoral. The main cities are: Évora, Serpa, Estremoz and Portalegre, it has borders with Beira Baixa in the North, with Spain (Andalucia and Extremadura in the east, with the Algarve in the South and with the Atlantic Ocean and Estremadura in the West. The Alentejo is a region known for its traditional polyphonic singing groups, similar to those found in Tuscany and elsewhere; the comarca of the Alentejo became the Alentejo Province, divided into lower designations. The modern region of the Alentejo was expropriated from the medieval provinces and historical territories of Estremadura Province; the term "Entre-Tejo-e-Guadiana" has become obsolete. Alentejo's area extends to 27,272 square kilometres and has a population of 537,556. Excluding Ponte de Sor, its area is 26,432 km2 and its population 520,834.
The population density of Alentejo is 19.1/km². Topographically, the countryside varies from the open rolling plains of the south of the Alentejo to the granite hills that border Spain in the northeast. To feed the water needs of this considerable area a number of public dams have been constructed, most notably the Alqueva Dam; the landscape is one of soft rolling hills and plains, with conspicuous shrubs and the native cork oaks and holly/holm oaks, the established olive trees and grapevines, plus some large-scale toilet roll production of eucalyptus trees and some native trees. In the north, traditional economic activity may be more livestock-based as typified by cow and pig farming. To the south agriculture may be more predominant. Parque Natural da Serra de São Mamede, a Nature Park Area located to the east of Portalegre, includes medieval villages. In the south near Mértola there is another Nature Park Area named; this is more scarcely inhabited than the former. To the west, the coastal strip that runs from the port of Sines down to Cape St. Vincent comprises the Southwest Alentejo and Vicentine Coast Natural Park.
The climate of the region is warm and dry for a large part of the year, with summer temperatures reaching up to 40 °C, while winters are mild and wet. The climate is not uniform throughout the region, though: mid-summer temperatures in coastal areas are much lower than inland ones; this much resembles the contrast between Casablanca and the Moroccan interior, where the presence of the nearby Atlantic Ocean gives rise to marked temperature differences between coastal and nearby inland zones. The warmest temperatures can be found in the southernmost inland parts of the region, along the Guadiana valley between Mertola and Juromenha in the areas close to Moura. However, the hottest days tend to deviate from the usual pattern and will arise when the winds are east or southeast and hot air with temperature reaching 25 °C or more at 850 hPA level enter Iberia from Africa. If the winds are strong enough another deep and low lying valley, the one of the river Sado, becomes warm by European standards.
Places like Alvalade do Sado and Alcacer do Sal, but the whole Sado valley below 75 metres can reach 45 °C under extreme circumstances and 40 °C in the summer is reached each year despite the fact that they are close to the coast. The highest temperature recorded in Portugal and in fact Europe was measured on 1 August 2003 in Amareleja and reached 47.4 °C. Since the meteorological station is about 100 metres above the nearby valley near Moura it is likely that about 48.5 °C was reached there but no measurements were taken. What is most impressive and unique in Europe was a stretch of no less than 17 consecutive days at Amareleja with a maximum temperature of 40 °C or more; this was only equaled over the same period in Cordoba Spain, the average over there however was 42.4 °C so less hot over the same period. The average daytime maximum temperatures reach 35 to 36 °C in July and August near Moura, 33 to 34 °C in the Sado Valley. Many parts, are above 200 or 300 m which leads to lower average temperatures in summer.
It is likely that the Guadiana river valley away from the coast is the second-hottest on average in Europe after the inland part of the Spanish Guadalquivir region near Cordoba. The extremes in this valley, are somewhat lower. Portugal including the Alentejo region are not escaping global warming and the average temperatures are on the rise; some climate models indicate daytime average maximum temperatures nearing 45 °C in the Guadiana valley by 2100, the current average in the hottest places of the Sahara. By the acceptable standards of a developed country, the illiteracy rate in the region may still be surprisingly
Vila Nova de Gaia
Vila Nova de Gaia, or Gaia, is a city and a municipality in Porto District in Norte Region, Portugal. It is located south of the city of Porto on the other side of the Douro River; the city proper had a population of 178,255 in 2001. The municipality has an area of 168.46 km². and a total population of 302,295 inhabitants, making it the most populous municipality in Norte Region. Gaia together with Porto and 12 other municipalities makes up the designated Porto Metropolitan Area; the city contains many cellars where port wine is aged. These cellars have become a major tourist attraction. Vila Nova de Gaia existed under the Roman Empire as the city of Cale, it developed most from a preexistent Celtic Castro, or Neolithic settlement. The origin of the name Cale is Celtic, from the root "Gall-" with which Celts referred to themselves to Galicia, Gaul or Galway; the river itself has Douro after Celtic "dwr", deep water, water or river. In Roman times the bulk of the population lived south of the river Douro, on the north side, there was a smaller settlement around the deep water port which now is the Ribeira neighbourhood of Porto.
The name of Porto, in high medieval times Portus Cale, thus stood for the harbour of the city of Cale. With the important trade of the river Douro, navigable up to the Régua deep inland, the Porto part of the city came to overgrow Cale, became the most important part of town, where the Bishopric and the merchants were established. With the Moorish invasions in the eighth century, the de facto frontier between the Islamic state and the Christian one came to rest for a considerable period of time on the river Douro. With the constant raids and counter-raids, the town of Cale, or Gaia, was deserted and most of its inhabitants took refuge in Porto in the North side of the river, it is in the tenth century, that the late medieval Lenda de Gaia is set. After the conquest and pacification of the southern side of the Douro river after 1035, with the exodus or expulsion of the Muslim populations, leaving behind semi-abandoned fertile lands, colonists from the north settled in exchange for better feudal contracts with the newly appointed lords.
These migrants refounded the old city of Cale or Gaia under the name of Vila Nova de Gaia around the old castle and ruins of "old Gaia". The name of the double city of Porto and Gaia was referred to in contemporary documents as "villa de Portucale", the county of the Kingdom of León, centered on it was named Condado Portucalense; this county was expanded and after gaining its independence, became the Kingdom of Portugal. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 15 civil parishes: The parish Santa Marinha e São Pedro da Afurada contains the city centre of Vila Nova de Gaia; the coat of arms consists of a grey crest with two golden-yellow bunches of grapes on the bottom with a black castle over the water, with a person blowing the horn. The grapes intend to represent the city's connection with the wine industry Port wine, whose cellars are in the lower part of the city; the flag is colored dark yellow to black in four each. Vila Nova de Gaia is the Portuguese municipality with the biggest number of Blue Flag beaches in 2009 and in 2010: 17 beaches along 17 km of seaside.
Some popular beaches are: Miramar, Aguda, Francelos and Canidelo. Praia da Granja is a FEE Blue Flag beach in the parish of São Félix da Marinha; this area was a farm in the 18th century belong to the Grijó Monastery and used as a rest place of monks and priests. Gaia Biological Park is largest park in the city on an area of 35 hectares; the Park established in 1983 as an environmental education center, features a 3 km walkway along with hundreds of species of animals and plants. Opened in August 2005, the Lavandeira Park is a place for leisure activities with a lake, pedestrian walks, picnic areas and theme gardens, it has an area of 11 hectares located in Oliveira do Douro. Jardim do Morro is a garden located in the parish of Santa Marinha, near the Sera do Pilar Monastery, it was established in 1927. There is a number of plant species including Tilias; the Littoral Station of Aguda is a show aquarium opened in 1999 on the beach of Aguda in Arcozelo. The building designed by the architect João Paulo Peixoto includes 3 main sections: Fisheries Museum displaying fishery equipment.
Local Nature Reserve of the Douro Estuary is a small nature reserve established in 2007 with the aim of the protection of birds and landscape. There can be seen cormorants, white egrets, sea turtles, red knots, various species of seagulls, kingfishers among many other birds throughout a year. São Paio Bay is a popular spot for bird watchers. There are Dunes Park, Botanical Park of Castelo, Camelias Garden, Streams of Gaia, Maria Pia Bridge Park in Vila Nova de Gaia; the city attracts a great number o
Matosinhos is a city and a municipality in the northern Porto district of Portugal, bordered in the south by the city of Porto. The population in 2011 was 175,478, covered an area of 62.42 square kilometres. The urban centre, the city proper, had a population of 45,703 in 2001; the oldest vestige of human settlement in this territory extend back thousands of years and include instruments and Paleolithic artefacts, collected along the old beaches. The settlement of the land began sometime 5000 years ago, during the Neolithic, as evidenced from various funeral monuments and dolmens sporadically situated in Lavra, Perafita, Leça do Balio, Santa Cruz do Bispo, Guifões and São Gens. At the end of the Bronze Age, much like most of the northwest peninsula, settlements expanded into proto-urban agglomerations at high altitudes, associated with a culture with specific characteristics that predominated until the 1st century; until today there still exist vestiges of castros dotting the landscapes, such as the assets collected from the Castro of Monte Castelo in Guifões.
The natural conditions and navigability of the Leça River estuary assisted maritime transport, that depended on the transport of a diverse flow of merchandise from throughout Imperial Roman. Here, the products were redistributed to other sites within the region, its position within the Roman Empire provoked profound changes to the territory's structure and settlement. The opening of new links and the construction of bridges resulted from a general policy of development and commerce, associated with Pax Romana; the estuary of Leça and the area of Lavra, became the most Romanized localities, as seen by the establishment of a villa and the constitution of production structures associated with sal production. When Portugal was established in the 12th century, a settlement in the territory had existed for a time, Vila de Matesinum. One of the first official records referring to Matusiny dates from 1258, the result of Inquiries of Afonso III. At that time Matosinhos was part of the parish of Sandim.
During the late Middle Ages, the territory was marked by the foundation of monasteries and convents, such as the Monastery of Bouças. This monastery, which had its origin in the 10th century, supported the growth of the settlement, became the administrative centre of the Julgado de Bouças in the 13th century: the basis of the municipality of Matosinhos. Meanwhile, another medieval monument, the Monastery of Leça do Balio, whose origin extended back to the 10th century became the primitive seat of the Ordem Militar dos Cavaleiros Hospitalários; the Order of Malt maintained several other properties, that included monasteries of Lavra and Aldoar. By the end of the 14th century, the small community of Franciscan friars installed themselves along the beach of Boa Nova, founding the Oratory of São Clement das Penhas; this small convent would give rise to the Convent of Conceição de Leça, founded in the 15th century, where today the municipal park of Quinta da Conceição exists. In the 16th century, Matosinhos received a foral attributed to King D. Manuel I in 1514, which made it assume an important position as an agro-producer and seat of many property-owners.
Matosinhos, became a principal poles and suppliers of Porto, at a time when the parishes of Ramalde and Aldoar were part of the territory. During this time the actual Church of Matosinhos was built, where the image of the Bom Jesus was deposited at the Monastery of Bouças; the growing importance of the cult resulted in a profound remodelling of the temple, under the direction of Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni, who had worked in estates of Chantre and Bispo, as well as the Chapel of São Francisco. The growth of the cult, the devotion to the Senhor de Bouças in Brazil, expropriation of gold from the New World, was a determinant of the ambitious project to remodel the Monastery; as a port city, the settlement ideally placed to take advantage of the traffic during the Age of Discoveries, when many emigrants were looking to purchase land in the territory of Brazil. Many emigrants from Matosinhos, during the 17th century, founded the Confraria do São Salvador de Bouças and organized the cult of Bom Jesus, whose devotion grew with its invocation by emigrants travelling the ocean.
In 1832, the army under the command of D. Pedro disembarked in Arnosa-Pampelido, definitively implanted the flag of Liberalism in Portugal. At the same time, a fishing community had begun to turn the coast of Matosinhos into an important centre for conserve industry, establishing a principal motor for development in the municipality, that would drive the economy until the late 20th century. In 1833, during the administrative reforms, the municipality of Bouças was created, with its seat in the locality of Senhora da Hora, elevated to the category of Vila de Bouças, it remained the seat until 1853, when the town of Matosinhos was established, which included the civil parishes of Matosinhos and Leça da Palmeira, which became the municipal seat. The reorganization resulted in the reorganization of Bouças, which began to incorporate parishes of Lavra and Perafita, part of Maia, as well as the parishes of Leça do Balio, Custóias and São Mamede de Infesta. In 1895, when they constructed the circulation roadway, the parishes of Aldoar, Ram
Amarante is a municipality and municipal seat in the northern Portuguese district of Porto. The population in 2011 was 56,264, in an area of 301.33 square kilometres. The city itself had a population of 11,261 in 2001; the city has been part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network under the category of City of Music since 2017. Amarante's origin dates to the primitive peoples that hunted and gathered in the Serra da Aboboreira, sometime during the Stone Age, extended during the Bronze Age and the Romanization of the Iberian peninsula; the first prominent building erected during the area of Amarante was the Albergaria do Covelo do Tâmega sometime in the 12th century, by order of Queen D. Mafalda, wife of D. Afonso Henriques; these types of shelter were constructed in small settlements and were used by travellers the poor who transited the territory. Permanent settles fixed themselves around the local churches, such as the Church of São Veríssimo and Church of Lufrei, resulting in growth during the intervening years.
The urban agglomeration of Amarante became important and gained visibility with the arrival of Gonçalo a Dominican friar, born in Tagilde, who settled in the area following a pilgrimage to Rome and Jerusalém. He was instrumental in the development of the region, with many local structures attributed to his efforts, including the construction of the stone bridge across the Tâmega River. Following his death, Amarante grew substantially. In the 16th century, King D. John III expanded the local church and resulting in its conversion into a large Dominican monastery; the bridge was rebuilt. In the second French invasion, during the Peninsular War, French forces commanded by Marshall Soult, found themselves at the bridge over the Tâmega, needed to secure their connection to Spain, while advancing from Porto to Marco de Canaveses through Amarante. Soult, realizing that Beresford's Portuguese and English forces were advancing on him, sent a column to the Tâmega valley, in order to prepare the way for a new column.
Under the column, commanded by Loison, through looting and unsuccessful attempts to cross the river, entered in Amarante on 18 April 1809, having looted and burned down the villages of Vila Meã, Manhufe and Pidre. In the village they continue to loot and burn down buildings, except for larger family residences, which were left intact and destined to function as the French headquarters and field hospitals. There are still vestiges of these events, including those in the Estate of Magalhães, the facade of the Church of São Gonçalo, the perforated tiles in the sacristy and the damaged pyramids on the bridge; the bridge was significant to the resistance in the northern campaign. Loison did not count on the entrenched conflict between his forces and the Anglo-Portuguese forces, commanded by Brigadier Silveira; these forces, which included badly-equipped, inexperienced citizens and clergy, were able to resist for the next 14 days, impeding the passage of Napoleonic forces known as the heroic defense of the bridge of Amarante.
The circlement of the bridge ended on 2 May, around 3:00, following a diversionary manoeuvre by French forces that diverted a small pocket of Portuguese stationed at Eira do Paço, who believed the French would attempt to across by Morleiros. Taking advantage of the fog, the French placed gunpowder near the Portuguese trenches along the bridge detonated the explosives; these caused death and injury in their ranks. Loison continued his journey, until he was forced to withdrew in the upper Douro by Brigadier Silveira's forces, who he had reorganized, during Napoleon's northern march to the city of Lisbon. For his efforts, Silveira was given a cavalry command, owing to his defense of the bridge, attributed the title of Count of Amarante and elevated to the status of General; the town was awarded the Order of the Tower and Sword, which it displays on its coats-of-arms. The municipality of Amarante, was part of the Minho Province, abutted the municipalities of Celorico de Basto, Gestaço, Gouveia and Santa Cruz de Riba Tâmega.
With administrative reforms during the 19th century, the municipalities of Gouveia, Gestaço and Santa Cruz de Ribatâmega were extinguished, many of the local parishes were absorbed into the Amarante. Amarante is situated in the agricultural lands of the Minho region, belongs to the Porto district, region Norte and sub-region Támega; the Tâmega River runs through the town and is crossed by a large arched bridge, the Ponte São Gonçalo. It is reputed to have helped local forces fend off a French attack in the early 19th century. Nowadays the older centre of town is dominated by a multitude of cafés and restaurants dotted along the steep banks of the southern side of the Tâmega River. Amarante is associated with the tale of Saint Gonzalo/Gonçalo de Amarante. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 26 civil parishes: Horta is twinned with: Wiesloch, Germany Châteauneuf-sur-Loire, France Achères, France On the abandoned Tâmega railway line between Amarante and Chapa Stations, the Council of Amarante built the ˝Ecopista˝ pathway for bicycles and pedestrians.
The Tâmega Line Ecotrack is 9.3 km long and 3.5 m wide, running close to the Támega River. The Amarante Golf Course, designed by Portuguese architect Jorge Santana da Silva, lies in Quinta da Deveza and was founded in 1997, it is an par 68 course with a total length of 5.030 metres. It is located in the Fregim parish, around 6 km from the town of Amarante. Amarante
Beira was one of the six traditional provinces or comarcas of Portugal. The territorial extension is different from that of the area called "The Beiras", which refers to three provinces of 1936, Beira Alta Province, Beira Baixa Province and Beira Litoral Province. There is a wine region, called Beira VR; the most important cities within the borders of the traditional province are: Coimbra, Leiria, Castelo Branco, Figueira da Foz, Covilhã and Pinhel. The main river is the Mondego; the largest mountain range is Serra da Estrela – Portugal's highest – other ranges being the Caramulo, Marofa and Bussaco. After the 15th Century, the new Kingdom of Portugal was divided into six great administrative units, referred to as comarcas. Since the Middle Ages there existed the Beira Province. In 1832 this province was divided into Beira Alta Province Beira Baixa Province In 1936 these were divided among three provinces, one of which contained area, not included in Beira Province: Beira Alta Province - "natural" regions of Beira Alta and Beira Transmontana Beira Baixa Province Beira Litoral ProvinceSometimes collectively referred to as "the Beiras".
Some Portuguese geographers referred to the part of Trás-os-Montes that lies south of the Douro River as "Beira Transmontana", but that name was never used officially. In 1976 the provinces were abolished leaving only the 18 districts. Beira Alta Province: Guarda District Viseu District Beira Baixa Province: Coimbra District Castelo Branco District Beira Litoral Province: Aveiro District Coimbra District North of Leiria District1976 postal code areas divide the area in Beira Interior Beira Litoral Law 19/98, proposed in 1998 divided the area into Beira Litoral Beira Interior The current Centro Region of Portugal covers the same area. Oeste Subregion, part of Estremadura, is the major exception. Among its twelve subregions three contain the name "Beira": Beira Interior Norte, Beira Interior Sul and Cova da BeiraThe name is contained in the name of many small towns and villages in the area, e.g. Moimenta da Beira, Celorico da Beira, Aguiar da Beira, Mondim da Beira etc. Centro, Portugal Beira, Mozambique Prince of Beira, a former royal title Beiras VR, a wine region Administrative divisions of Portugal
Beira Litoral Province
Beira Litoral is a former province of Portugal, formally instituted in an administrative reform of 1936. The territory corresponds to the Douro Province from the 19th century, it was abolished with the 1976 Constitution of Portugal. The province was bordered on the north by Douro Litoral Province, on the east by Beira Alta Province and Beira Baixa Province, on the southeast by Ribatejo Province, on the southwest by Estremadura Province and on the West by the Atlantic Ocean. Beira Litoral was made up of 33 concelhos, integrated for the most part into Aveiro District and Coimbra District, half of Leiria District, one concelho of Santarém District, its capital was the city of Coimbra. The included concelhos by district were: Aveiro District: Águeda, Albergaria-a-Velha, Aveiro, Estarreja, Ílhavo, Murtosa, Oliveira de Azeméis, Oliveira do Bairro, Ovar, São João da Madeira, Sever do Vouga, Vale de Cambra. Coimbra District: Arganil, Coimbra, Condeixa-a-Nova, Figueira da Foz, Góis, Lousã, Miranda do Corvo, Montemor-o-Velho, Penela, Soure.
Leiria District: Alvaiázere, Ansião, Castanheira de Pêra, Figueiró dos Vinhos, Pedrógão Grande, Pombal. Santarém District: Ourém. Today, nearly all of the former province is located in the Centro Region, only three municipalities are situated in the Norte Region, subregion of Entre Douro e Vouga; the municipalities in the Centro Region are divided among the subregions Baixo Vouga, Baixo Mondego, nearly all of Pinhal Interior Norte, part of Pinhal Litoral, plus the concelho Médio Tejo
Póvoa de Varzim
Póvoa de Varzim spelled Povoa de Varzim, is a Portuguese city in Northern Portugal and sub-region of Greater Porto. It sits in a cuspate foreland, halfway between the Minho and Douro rivers. In 2001, there were 63,470 inhabitants, with 42,396 living in the city proper; the city expanded, southwards, to Vila do Conde, there are about 100,000 inhabitants in the urban area alone. It is the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in Portugal and the third largest in Northern Portugal. Permanent settlement in Póvoa de Varzim dates back to around four to six thousand years ago. Modern Póvoa de Varzim emerged after the conquest by the Roman Republic of the city by 138 BC. By the 11th century, the fishing industry and fertile farmlands were the economic base of a feudal lordship and Varzim was fiercely disputed between the local overlords and the early Portuguese kings, which resulted in the establishment of the present day's municipality in 1308 and being subjugated to monastic power some years later. Póvoa de Varzim's importance reemerged with the Age of Discovery due to its shipbuilders and merchants proficiency and wealth, who traded around the globe in complex trade routes.
By the 17th century, the fish processing industry rebounded and, some time Póvoa became the dominant fishing port in northern Portugal. Póvoa de Varzim has been a well-known beach resort for over three centuries, the most popular in Northern Portugal, which unfolded an influential literary culture and historical artistic patronage in music and theater. Casino da Póvoa is one of the prominent gambling venues in Portugal. Leisure and health benefits provided in large sandy beaches attracts national and international visitors. Póvoa de Varzim holds other landmarks the traditional Junqueira shopping street, Garrett Theatre, the Ethnography and History Museum, Cividade de Terroso, the Medieval Rates Monastery, Baroque Matriz Church, city Hall and Portuguese vernacular architecture in Praça do Almada, numerous Portuguese cuisine restaurants that make Póvoa de Varzim popular in all Northern Portugal, which started to attract an international following. Farol da Lapa, Farol de Regufe, the main breakwater of the Port of Póvoa de Varzim, Carvalhido and São Félix Hill are preferred for sightseeing.
The city has significant food industries. The town has retained a distinct cultural identity and ancient Norse customs such as the writing system of siglas poveiras, the masseira farming technique and festivals. Discoveries of Acheulean stone tools suggest Póvoa de Varzim has been inhabited since the Lower Palaeolithic, around 200,000 BC; the first groups of shepherds settled on the coast where Póvoa de Varzim is now located between the 4th millennium and early 2nd millennium BC. A Neolithic-Calcolithic necropolis, with seven known burial mounds, can still be seen around São Félix Hill and Cividade Hill. Widespread pillaging by rival and migrant tribes led the resident populations of the coastal plain of Póvoa de Varzim to raise a town atop the hill that stood next to the sea; the acropolis protection was reinforced by successive rings of walls and a trench at the base of the hill. Established by the 9th or 8th century B. C. the city area had several hundred inhabitants. Its location near waterways helped it to maintain commercial relations with the Mediterranean civilizations noticeable during the Carthaginian dominion of the southern Iberian Peninsula.
During the Punic Wars, the Romans became aware of the Castro region's rich deposits of tin. Viriathus, leading Lusitanian troops, hindered the expansion of the Roman Republic north of the river Douro, his murder in 138 BC opened the way for the Roman legions. Over the following two years, Decimus Junius Brutus advanced into the Castro region from south of the Douro, crushed the Castro armies, left Cividade de Terroso, in ruins; the region was pacified during the reign of Caesar Augustus and the Castro people returned to the coastal plain, where Villa Euracini and Roman fish factories were built. With the annexation by the Roman Republic, trading supported regional economic development, with Roman merchants organized in true commercial companies who looked for monopoly in commercial relations. With the fall of the Roman Empire, Suebi populations established themselves in the countryside, it was first mentioned on March 953 during the rule of Mumadona Dias, Countess of Portugal. The region was attacked by the Vikings in the 960s, by the Moors in 997 and again by Norman pirates in 1015–1016.
Hints indicate a Norse settlement in Villa Euracini after those invasions. During the Middle Ages, the name Euracini evolved to Uracini, Veracini, Verazim and Varzim. In 1033, Guterre Pelayo, a leading captain of the Reconquista for the County of Portugal, was recognized by Bermudo, Emperor in Gallaecia, as the Lord of Varzim, during the cahotic epoch following Almanzor's attack on the Christian realms. Henry, the Portuguese count, recognized his rule over the port of Varzim amongst several other possessions. Varzim overlords gained significant power and, when Portugal was a stable kingdom, Sancho I of Portugal attacked the fief and seized the port, destroyed most of the properties and expelled the farmers; the northern area became known as Varzim dos Cavaleiros and belonged to the military order of the Knights Hospitaller, who inherited the wealth of