Departments of Burkina Faso
The provinces of Burkina Faso are divided into 351 departments, whose urbanized areas are grouped into the same commune with the same name as the department. The 351 communes created in those departments have three kinds of status: 49 urban communes, are grouping their main city/town and all other administrative villages in their department. 302 rural communes are grouping all administrative villages in their department. Departments have the same name as their capital city or town, with a few exceptions. For the local elections in 2012, communes were created in each department that still did not have one; the departments are listed below, by province: Bagassi Department Bana Department Boromo Department Fara Department Oury Department Pâ Department Pompoï Department Poura Department Siby Department Yaho Department Balavé Department Kouka Department Sami Department Sanaba Department Solenzo Department Tansila Department Barani Department Bomborokui Department Djibasso Department Dokuy Department Doumbala Department Kombori Department Madouba Department Nouna Department Bourasso Department Sono Department Bondokuy Department Dédougou Department Douroula Department Kona Department Ouarkoye Department Safané Department Tchériba Department Gassam Department Gossina Department Kougny Department Toma Department Yaba Department Yé Department Di Department Gomboro Department Kassoum Department Kiembara Department Lanfièra Department Lankoué Department Toéni Department Tougan Department Banfora Department Bérégadougou Department Mangodara Department Moussodougou Department Niangoloko Department Ouo Department Sidéradougou Department Soubakaniédougou Department Tiéfora Department Dakoro Department Douna Department Kankalaba Department Loumana Department Niankorodougou Department Ouéléni Department Sindou Department Wolonkoto Department Komki-Ipala Department Komsliga Department Koubri Department Ouagadougou Department Pabré Department Saaba Department Tanghin-Dassouri Department Bagré Department Bané Department Béguédo Department Bittou Department Boussouma Department Garango Department Komtoèga Department Niaogho Department Tenkodogo Department Zabré Department Zoaga Department Zonsé Department Bissiga Department Comin-Yanga Department Dourtenga Department Lalgaye Department Ouargaye Department Sangha Department Soudougui Department Yargatenga Department Yondé Department Andemtenga Department Baskouré Department Dialgaye Department Gounghin Department Kando Department Koupéla Department Pouytenga Department Tensobtenga Department Yargo Department Bourzanga Department Guibaré Department Kongoussi Department Nasséré Department Rollo Department Rouko Department Sabcé Department Tikaré Department Zimtenga Department Boulsa Department Bouroum Department Dargo Department Tougouri Department Yalgo Department Zéguédéguin Department Nagbingou Department Barsalogho Department Boussouma Department Dablo Department Kaya Department Korsimoro Department Mané Department Namissiguima Department Pensa Department Pibaore Department Pissila Department Ziga Department Bingo Department Imasgo Department Kindi Department Kokologho Department Koudougou Department Nanoro Department Pella Department Poa Department Ramongo Department Sabou Department Siglé Department Sourgou Department Thyou Department Nandiala Department Soaw Department Dassa Department Didyr Department Godyr Department Kordié Department Kyon Department Pouni Department Réo Department Ténado Department Zawara Department Zamo Department Biéha Department Boura Department Léo Department Nébiélianayou Department Niabouri Department Silly Department Tô Department Bakata Department Bougnounou Department Cassou Department Dalo Department Gao Department Sapouy Department Doulougou Department Ipelcé Department Kayao Department Kombissiri Department Saponé Department Toécé Department Gaongo Department Guiaro Department Pô Department Tiébélé Department Zecco Department Ziou Department Béré Department Bindé Department Gogo Department Gomboussougou Department Guiba Department Manga Department Nobére Department Bilanga Department Bogandé Department Coalla Department Liptougou Department Manni Department Piéla Department Thion Department Diabo Department Diapangou Department Fada N'gourma Department Matiacoali Department Tibga Department Yamba Department Bartiébougou Department Foutouri Department Gayéri Department Ko
Dourtenga is a department or commune of Koulpélogo Province in eastern Burkina Faso. Its capital lies at the town of Dourtenga. According to the 1996 census the department has a total population of 8,693. Dourtenga Gogo Gorin Kangretenga Kanle Katoulbere Niondin Sougoudin Tangoko Yambili Youmtenga Zergoama
Lalgaye is a department or commune of Koulpélogo Province in eastern Burkina Faso. Its capital lies at the town of Lalgaye. According to the 1996 census the department has a total population of 18,691. Lalgaye Dibli Gouli Guini Kieblin Kimzim Lalgaye Lalgaye Yarce Nassiega Pihitenga Paore Pissiongo Sablogo Tensobentenga Tiguetin Yalgo
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Centre-Est is one of Burkina Faso's 13 administrative regions. The population of Centre-Est was 1,132,023 in 2006; the region's capital is Tenkodogo. Three provinces—Boulgou, Koulpélogo, Kouritenga, make up the region; as of 2010, the population of the region was 2,043,943 with 49.78 per cent females. The population in the region was 12.99 per cent of the total population of the country. The child mortality rate was 39, infant mortality rate was 56 and the mortality of children under five was 93; as of 2007, the literacy rate in the region was 16.6 per cent, compared with a national average of 28.3 per cent. Most of Burkino Faso is a wide plateau is called falaise de Banfora. There are three major rivers, the Red Volta, Black Volta and White Volta, which cuts through different valleys; the climate is hot, with unreliable rains across different seasons. Gold and quartz are common minerals found across the country, while manganese deposits are common; the dry season is from October to May and rains are common during the wet season from June to September.
The soil texture is porous and hence the yield is poor. The average elevation is around 200 m to 300 m above mean sea level. Among West African countries, Burkino Faso has the largest elephant population and the country is replete with game reserves; the northern regions are arid and have scrub land and semi-deserts. The principal river is the Red Volta, that drains into Ghana; the areas near the rivers have flies like tsetse and similium, which are carriers of sleep sickness and river blindness. The average rainfall in the region is around 25 cm compared with southern regions that receive only 100 cm rainfall; as of 2010, the population of the region was 2,043,943 with 49.78 per cent females. The population in the region was 12.99 per cent of the total population of the country. The child mortality rate was 39, infant mortality rate was 56 and the mortality of children under five was 93; as of 2007, among the working population, there were 68.90 per cent employees, 11.90 per cent under employed, 18.20 per cent inactive people, 19.20 per cent not working and 1.00 unemployed people in the region.
As of 2007, there were 583.9 km of highways, 142.7 km of regional roads and 214.2 km of county roads. The first set of car traffic was 28, first set of two-wheeler traffic was 2,258 and the total classified road network was 941; the total corn produced during 2015 was 78,512 tonnes, cotton was 43,308 tonnes, cowpea was 45,678 tonnes, ground nut was 42,492 tonnes, millet was 42,342 tonnes, rice was 66,104 tonnes and sorghum was 118,227 tonnes. The coverage of cereal need compared with the total production of the region was 158.00 per cent. As of 2007, the literacy rate in the region was 16.6 per cent, compared with a national average of 28.3 per cent. The gross primary enrolment was 64.8 per cent, pos-primary was 18 per cent and gross secondary school enrolment was 4.4. There were 118 boys and 112 girls enroled in the primary and post-secondary level. There were 17 teachers in primary & post-secondary level, while there were 500 teachers in post-primary and post-secondary level. Burkina Faso gained independence from France in 1960.
It was called Upper Volta. There have been military coups until 1983 when Captain Thomas Sankara took control and implemented radical left wing policies, he was outsed by Blaise Compaore, who continued for 27 years until 2014, when a popular uprising ended his rule. As per Law No.40/98/AN in 1998, Burkina Faso adhered to decentralization to provide administrative and financial autonomy to local communities. There are each governed by a Governor; the regions are subdivided into 45 provinces. The communes are interchangeable. There are other administrative entities like village. An urban commune has 10,000 people under it. If any commune is not able to get 75 per cent of its planned budget in revenues for 3 years, the autonomy is taken off; the communes are administered by elected Mayors. The communes are stipulated to develop economic and cultural values of its citizens. A commune has financial autonomy and can interact with other communes, government agencies or international entities
Ouargaye is a city located in the province of Koulpélogo in Burkina Faso. It is the capital of Koulpélogo Province. Ouargaye is twinned with Fougères in Brittany, France
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa. It covers an area of around 274,200 square kilometres and is surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; the July 2018 population estimate by the United Nations was 19,751,651. Burkina Faso is a francophone country, with French as the official language of government and business. 40% of the population speaks the Mossi language. Called the Republic of Upper Volta, the country was renamed "Burkina Faso" on 4 August 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara, its citizens are known as Burkinabé. Its capital is Ouagadougou; the Republic of Upper Volta was established on 11 December 1958 as a self-governing colony within the French Community, on 5 August 1960 it gained full independence, with Maurice Yaméogo as President. After protests by students and labour unions, Yaméogo was deposed in the 1966 coup d'état, led by Sangoulé Lamizana, who became President, his rule coincided with the Sahel drought and famine, facing problems from the country's traditionally powerful trade unions he was deposed in the 1980 coup d'état, led by Saye Zerbo.
Encountering resistance from trade unions again, Zerbo's government was overthrown in the 1982 coup d'état, led by Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo. The leader of the leftist faction of Ouédraogo's government, Thomas Sankara, became Prime Minister but was imprisoned. Efforts to free him led to the popularly-supported 1983 coup d'état. Sankara renamed the country Burkina Faso and launched an ambitious socioeconomic programme which included a nationwide literacy campaign, land redistribution to peasants and road construction and the outlawing of female genital mutilation, forced marriages and polygamy. Sankara was overthrown and killed in the 1987 coup d'état led by Blaise Compaoré – deteriorating relations with former coloniser France and its ally the Ivory Coast were the reason given for the coup. In 1987, Blaise Compaoré became President and, after an alleged 1989 coup attempt, was elected in 1991 and 1998, elections which were boycotted by the opposition and received a low turnout, as well as in 2005.
He remained head of state until he was ousted from power by the popular youth upheaval of 31 October 2014, after which he was exiled to the Ivory Coast. Michel Kafando subsequently became the transitional President of the country. On 16 September 2015, a military coup d'état against the Kafando government was carried out by the Regiment of Presidential Security, the former presidential guard of Compaoré. On 24 September 2015, after pressure from the African Union, ECOWAS and the armed forces, the military junta agreed to step down, Michel Kafando was reinstated as Acting President. In the general election held on 29 November 2015, Roch Marc Christian Kaboré won in the first round with 53.5% of the vote and was sworn in as President on 29 December 2015. The 2018 CIA World Factbook provides this summary of the issues facing Burkina Faso. "The country experienced terrorist attacks in its capital in 2016, 2017 and 2018, continues to mobilize resources to counter terrorist threats". In 2018, several governments were warning their citizens not to travel into the northern part of the country and into several provinces in the East Region.
The CIA report states that "Burkina Faso's high population growth, recurring drought and perennial food insecurity, limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens". The report is optimistic in some aspects concerning activities being done with assistance by the International Monetary Fund. "A new three-year IMF program, approved in 2018, will allow the government to reduce the budget deficit and preserve critical spending on social services and priority public investments". Called the Republic of Upper Volta, the country was renamed "Burkina Faso" on 4 August 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara; the words "Burkina" and "Faso" both stem from different languages spoken in the country: "Burkina" comes from Mossi and means "upright", showing how the people are proud of their integrity, while "Faso" comes from the Dyula language and means "fatherland". The "bè" suffix added onto "Burkina" to form the demonym "Burkinabè" comes from the Fula language and means "men or women".
The CIA summarizes the etymology as "name translates as "Land of the Honest Men". The French colony of Upper Volta was named for its location on the upper courses of the Volta River; the northwestern part of present-day Burkina Faso was populated by hunter-gatherers from 14000 BC to 5000 BC. Their tools, including scrapers and arrowheads, were discovered in 1973 through archaeological excavations. Agricultural settlements were established between 3600 and 2600 BC; the Bura culture was an Iron-Age civilization centred in the southwest portion of modern-day Niger and in the southeast part of contemporary Burkina Faso. Iron industry, in smelting and forging for tools and weapons, had developed in Sub-Saharan Africa by 1200 BC. From the 3rd to the 13th centuries AD, the Iron Age Bura culture existed in the territory of present-day southeastern Burkina Faso and southwestern Niger. Various ethnic groups of present-day Burkina Faso, such as the Mossi and Dyula, arrived in successive waves between the 8th and 15th centuries.
From the 11th century, the Mossi people established several separate kingdoms. In the 1890s, during the European Scramble for Africa, the territory of Burkina Faso was invaded by France, colonial control was established following a wa