A magician's assistant is a performer in a magic act, not billed as the magician or principal name in the act. The role of an assistant can include holding the props that are used by a magician, shifting props onto and off the stage, serving as a living prop in illusions that involve manipulation of the human body. Other aspects of the role can include dancing or acting as visual ornamentation, sometimes for simple aesthetic purposes and sometimes to misdirect audience attention; the figure of the glamorous female assistant has become a stereotype or icon in art, popular media and fiction. Although magician's assistants appear to play a supporting role and receive a lesser billing than the magician who appears to be the source of illusions, the assistant is the one making the mechanics of the illusions work. In the words of Joanie Spina, who worked for 11 years as principal assistant and artistic consultant to illusionist David Copperfield:... I did find fault with the term "assistant" because it sounds like someone rolling props on and off stage when many of us were trained actors and dancers.
Assistants have been part of magic shows for most of the recorded history of magic as a performance art. Despite their crucial role in magic acts they, the work they do, have suffered from negative public perceptions; the assistant's role has been stereotyped as consisting of menial tasks and having the primary purpose of adding a visually aesthetic element to an act. This is associated with the perception that assistants are female and dressed in revealing costumes. Although there have been plenty of instances of male assistants throughout the history of magic, the glamorous female stereotype has made a particular impact because female assistants were a prominent feature of illusion shows during the 20th century, when magic began to reach huge new audiences, first through the burgeoning of live vaudeville and variety shows and through television; the glamorous female assistant has become an iconic image that continues in modern media and literature. A notable feature of the glamorous female assistant iconography is the frequency with which assistants play the role of "victim" in illusions where they are tied up cut with blades, penetrated with spikes or swords or otherwise tortured or imperilled.
Examples include Aztec Lady, Devil's Torture Chamber, Mismade Girl, Radium Girl, Zig Zag Girl, most famous of all, Sawing a woman in half. Noted illusion designer and historian Jim Steinmeyer has identified the advent of the sawing illusion as a turning point in magic history and a moment which, more than any other, marks the origin of the cliche of the female assistant as victim, it is agreed that a "sawing" type illusion was first performed publicly by P. T. Selbit in January 1921, his presentations of what he titled "Sawing through a woman" made an enormous impact and affected public expectations of stage magic for decades afterwards. Steinmeyer has explained: Before Selbit's illusion, it was not a cliche that pretty ladies were teased and tortured by magicians. Since the days of Robert-Houdin, both men and women were used as the subjects for magic illusions. Victorian gowns made it unrealistic for a lady to take part in an illusion or be pressed into a tight space. One female magician Dorothy Dietrich has turned the tables and used men as assistants, sawing them in half.
Changes in fashion and great social upheavals during the first decades of the 20th century made Selbit's choice of "victim" both practical and popular. Steinmeyer notes: "During the 1900s, as a shapely leg became not only acceptable on the stage but admired, it was fashionable to perform magic with a cast of attractive ladies"; that was only part of the story, however. The trauma of war had helped to desensitize the public to violence and the emancipation of women had changed attitudes to them. Audiences were tiring of the gentler forms of magic represented by the likes of John Nevil Maskelyne, it took something more shocking, such as the horrific productions of the Grand Guignol theatre, to cause a sensation in this age. Steinmeyer concludes that: "...beyond practical concerns, the image of the woman in peril became a specific fashion in entertainment". In contrast to the publicity given to Selbit, the names of the assistants who made this influential act work have received no publicity. There were two premieres of the illusion.
Selbit first presented it to an audience in December 1920. The public premiere occurred on 17 January 1921 at the Finsbury Park Empire music hall after Selbit was hired by the Moss Empire group. According to Steinmeyer, the assistant at the 1920 preview was Jan Glenrose, Selbit's main assistant at that time; the public performances featured principal assistant Betty Barker. Many of these illusions, together with others that involve appearances, disappearances or escapes, involve assistants being shut in boxes of one sort or another; this has led to the nickname "box jumper" which, although it could be applied to a male assistant, is inferred to be a female assistant. One reason, given for the predominance of women in this role is that the illusions sometimes require an assistant that can fit into cramped spaces and women have an advantage in that they tend to be smaller and more limber than men. Feminist critics have taken the above aspects of illusions and performances as evidence to support claims that magic is misogynistic, but this view has been contested by some magicians and assistants.
However, a few prominent assistants have stated that they deserve better recognition for their efforts and achievements (see
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; the chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames; the oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals; because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, studies continue.
Of aluminium isotopes, only 27Al is stable. This is consistent with aluminium having an odd atomic number, it is the only aluminium isotope that has existed on Earth in its current form since the creation of the planet. Nearly all the element on Earth is present as this isotope, which makes aluminium a mononuclidic element and means that its standard atomic weight equates to that of the isotope; the standard atomic weight of aluminium is low in comparison with many other metals, which has consequences for the element's properties. All other isotopes of aluminium are radioactive; the most stable of these is 26Al and therefore could not have survived since the formation of the planet. However, 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic ray protons; the ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used for radiodating of geological processes over 105 to 106 year time scales, in particular transport, sediment storage, burial times, erosion. Most meteorite scientists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.
The remaining isotopes of aluminium, with mass numbers ranging from 21 to 43, all have half-lives well under an hour. Three metastable states are known, all with half-lives under a minute. An aluminium atom has 13 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 3s23p1, with three electrons beyond a stable noble gas configuration. Accordingly, the combined first three ionization energies of aluminium are far lower than the fourth ionization energy alone. Aluminium can easily surrender its three outermost electrons in many chemical reactions; the electronegativity of aluminium is 1.61. A free aluminium atom has a radius of 143 pm. With the three outermost electrons removed, the radius shrinks to 39 pm for a 4-coordinated atom or 53.5 pm for a 6-coordinated atom. At standard temperature and pressure, aluminium atoms form a face-centered cubic crystal system bound by metallic bonding provided by atoms' outermost electrons; this crystal system is shared by some other metals, such as copper. Aluminium metal, when in quantity, is shiny and resembles silver because it preferentially absorbs far ultraviolet radiation while reflecting all visible light so it does not impart any color to reflected light, unlike the reflectance spectra of copper and gold.
Another important characteristic of aluminium is its low density, 2.70 g/cm3. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight and malleable with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness, it is nonmagnetic and does not ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation; the yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has stiffness of steel, it is machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.
Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits. Aluminium's corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the bare metal is exposed to air preventing further oxidation, in a process termed passivation; the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts in the presence of dissimilar metals. In acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, in alkaline ones to form aluminates—protective passivation under these conditions is negligible; because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium. However, because
A gimmick is a novel device or idea designed to attract attention or increase appeal with little intrinsic value. When applied to retail marketing, it is a unique or quirky feature designed to make a product or service "stand out" from its competitors. Product gimmicks are sometimes considered mere novelties, tangential to the product's functioning. Gimmicks are viewed negatively, but some trivial gimmicks of the past have evolved into useful, permanent features; the origin of the term, "gimmick", is uncertain. Etymologists suggest; the Oxford Dictionary suggests that it may have been a slang term for something that a con artist or magician manipulated to make appearances different from reality and changed its meaning to refer to any ‘piece of magicians' apparatus’. The word itself may be an approximate anagram of the word magic. Another possible origin is that it may have come into use among the gaming tables, where it came to refer to "a device used for making a fair game crooked"; the term first appeared in American newspapers in the 1920s.
In marketing, the use of gimmicks can be an important part of the sales promotions effort. However, finding a successful gimmick for an otherwise mundane product can be challenging as it requires some effort to match the promotional objectives with the gimmick and select items which will ideally contribute to enduring brand recall. Many different types of gimmicks are used in sales product design. For example, toothbrushes are given certain gimmicks, such as bright colors, easy-grip handles, or color-changing bristles so they appear more interesting to consumers; this is done in an attempt to appeal to children, who are more interested in the gimmick than the product. Musicians adopt visual gimmicks which do not affect their music, such as Slash's top hat, Angus Young's schoolboy uniform and Deadmau5's mouse helmet. Special Design Features, e.g. toothbrushes that change colour when they are about to wear out Novel packaging, e.g. packaging that has residual value once the original contents have been consumed such as a jam/ coffee jar that can be re-used as a drinking vessel or storage container Add-on gifts or give-aways, e.g. toys included in children's fast food meal packs, cover mounts on magazines, toy in cereal box Any novel or unexpected sales promotion Major product features which are poorly designed can be regarded as gimmicks by product users.
Plastic devices suffer from weak structural components or fragile construction, leading to deforming and cracking of the over-strained and poorly engineered mechanisms. This leaves the owner with the basic functions of the item and the gimmick disabled or, in the case of cheaply produced products, the gimmick broken from the main body of the item. In 1992, the British division of The Hoover Company launched a disastrous promotional campaign which promised free airline tickets to purchasers of its appliances; the division lost £50 million as a result and was sold. In Poland in 1997, certain tobacco companies were using young sales representatives, traveling around in flashy company branded vehicles, to work clubs and venues where they gave away free cigarettes to patrons as part of the promotional effort; the sales and marketing team at Phillip Morris decided to add another gimmick to the sampling by having the sales reps use trick matches which lit with a simple scratch on jeans. In one case, the stocks of matches carried in a vehicle caught fire killing two sales reps and injuring another.
The incident created public relations problems for the company. In 1999, a Casa Sanchez Foods restaurant in California offered free lunch for life to anyone with a tattoo of its logo, a boy in a sombrero riding an ear of corn. More than 40 fans turned up with the tattoo claiming their reward, the owners estimated that this could cost the business $5.8 million over 50 years. After running the numbers, the company decided to cap the number of people who could obtain the deal; the promotion returned in March 2010. Publicity stunt
Escapology is the practice of escaping from restraints or other traps. Escapologists escape from handcuffs, cages, steel boxes, bags, burning buildings, fish-tanks, other perils in combination; the art of escaping from restraints and confined spaces has been a skill employed by performers for a long time. It was not displayed as an overt act in itself but was instead used secretly to create illusions such as a disappearance or transmutation. In the 1860s, the Davenport Brothers, who were skilled at releasing themselves from rope ties, used the art to convey the impression they were restrained while they created spirit phenomena. Other illusionists, including John Nevil Maskelyne, worked out how the Davenports did their act and re-created the tricks to debunk the brothers' claims of psychic power. However, the re-creations did not involve overt escape a replication of tricks with the statement that they were accomplished by secret magicians' skills rather than spirits, it took another thirty years before the pure skill of escape began to be displayed as an act in itself.
The figure most responsible for making escapology a recognized entertainment was Harry Houdini, who built his career on demonstrating the ability to escape from a huge variety of restraints and difficult situations. Houdini made no secret of the fact that he was an expert on restraints and the skills needed to overcome them but he concealed the exact details of his escapes to maintain an air of mystery and suspense. Although many of his escapes relied on technical skills such as lock-picking and contortion, he performed tricks such as Metamorphosis and the Chinese Water Torture Cell, which are classic stage illusions reliant on cleverly designed props. Houdini's feats helped to define the basic repertoire of escapology, including escapes from handcuffs, straitjackets, mail bags, beer barrels, prison cells; the actual term'escapology' is reputed to have been coined by Australian escapologist and illusionist Murray, a Houdini contemporary. A succession of performers have added new ideas and created variations on old stunts, but it is common for the best contemporary escapologists to be dubbed modern day "Houdinis".
Because St. Nicholas Owen escaped the Tower of London and arranged the escape of two Jesuit inmates from the prison, the 16th-century Christian martyr is considered by Catholic escapologists as their patron saint. Along with St. John Don Bosco, the two are considered the primary patrons of Catholic Gospel Magicians; the United Kingdom Escape Artists was formed in 2004 and is the only organisation in the United Kingdom devoted to the promotion of UK escape artists and the preservation of escapology within the UK. Its members are made up of professional escapologists, restraint collectors, master locksmiths, historians; the UKEA meet once a year for their AGM. The International Escapologists Society is an online society with its own monthly newsletter, dedicated to the art of escape on an international level. Escape Masters was formed in 1985 by renowned escape artist Norman Bigelow and has been run by Thomas Blacke as International President of the organization and Editor/Publisher of the magazine since 2001.
Hidden is a style of escape performance popularised by the late Harry Houdini that involved much of the performance taking place behind some form of screen or inside a cabinet in order to protect the secrets of the performer. This style of escape performance was popular with the majority of escape artists until the end of the 20th Century and is still preferred by many performers today, its disadvantage is that audiences may wrongly believe a concealed assistant to have released the escapologist, whom they may not have seen struggle. Full View is a form of escape performance, popularised by Norman Bigelow Sr. during the 1970s. He presented his escapes as pure tests of human skill and endurance and the audience could see everything from start to finish, his signature escape, "The Doors Of Death," inspired many escape artists to adopt this style of performance in their own shows. One performer, Jonathon Bryce, took the full view approach to the Buried Alive escape and with the encouragement of Norman Bigelow Sr. made the world debut of Buried Alive in Full View at the Music is Art Festival in Buffalo, NY with the help of Goo Goo Dolls bassist, Robby Takac.
Mark Nelson, "The Great Markini" performed Full View with his Electrified Mummy Lid Torture Board Escape. Escape or Die, the form of escape performance originated by Houdini, is the standard for top-of-the-line escapologists. There are at least three possible ways for an escapologist's life to be at risk from the possible failure of this escape; these are death by drowning. UK escape artist Alan Alan took this further by hanging from a burning rope hundreds of feet in the air; this type of escapology does fail, its failures have resulted in escape artists getting hurt or losing their lives. Others who have done this type of escape include Dorothy Dietrich, Antony Britton, Jonathon Bryce, Mark Nelson "Markini The Worlds Youngest Professional Escape Artist" highlighted death by electrocution with his "Electrified Mummy Lid Torture Board". Escape was required in under 60 seconds or a fatal charge of electricity w
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, in proportions which can be varied to achieve varying mechanical and electrical properties. It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. Bronze is an alloy containing copper, but instead of zinc it has tin. Both bronze and brass may include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, phosphorus, aluminium and silicon; the distinction is historical. Modern practice in museums and archaeology avoids both terms for historical objects in favour of the all-embracing "copper alloy". Brass is used for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance, it is used in zippers. Brass is used in situations in which it is important that sparks not be struck, such as in fittings and tools used near flammable or explosive materials. Brass has higher malleability than zinc; the low melting point of brass and its flow characteristics make it a easy material to cast. By varying the proportions of copper and zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard and soft brasses.
The density of brass is 8.4 to 8.73 grams per cubic centimetre. Today 90% of all brass alloys are recycled; because brass is not ferromagnetic, it can be separated from ferrous scrap by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet. Brass scrap is transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Billets are extruded into the desired form and size; the general softness of brass means that it can be machined without the use of cutting fluid, though there are exceptions to this. Aluminium makes brass more corrosion-resistant. Aluminium causes a beneficial hard layer of aluminium oxide to be formed on the surface, thin and self-healing. Tin has a similar effect and finds its use in seawater applications. Combinations of iron, aluminium and manganese make brass wear and tear resistant. To enhance the machinability of brass, lead is added in concentrations of around 2%. Since lead has a lower melting point than the other constituents of the brass, it tends to migrate towards the grain boundaries in the form of globules as it cools from casting.
The pattern the globules form on the surface of the brass increases the available lead surface area which in turn affects the degree of leaching. In addition, cutting operations can smear the lead globules over the surface; these effects can lead to significant lead leaching from brasses of comparatively low lead content. In October 1999 the California State Attorney General sued 13 key manufacturers and distributors over lead content. In laboratory tests, state researchers found the average brass key, new or old, exceeded the California Proposition 65 limits by an average factor of 19, assuming handling twice a day. In April 2001 manufacturers agreed to reduce lead content to 1.5%, or face a requirement to warn consumers about lead content. Keys plated with other metals are not affected by the settlement, may continue to use brass alloys with higher percentage of lead content. In California, lead-free materials must be used for "each component that comes into contact with the wetted surface of pipes and pipe fittings, plumbing fittings and fixtures."
On January 1, 2010, the maximum amount of lead in "lead-free brass" in California was reduced from 4% to 0.25% lead. The so-called dezincification resistant brasses, sometimes referred to as CR brasses, are used where there is a large corrosion risk and where normal brasses do not meet the standards. Applications with high water temperatures, chlorides present, or deviating water qualities play a role. DZR-brass is excellent in water boiler systems; this brass alloy must be produced with great care, with special attention placed on a balanced composition and proper production temperatures and parameters to avoid long-term failures. The high malleability and workability good resistance to corrosion, traditionally attributed acoustic properties of brass, have made it the usual metal of choice for construction of musical instruments whose acoustic resonators consist of long narrow tubing folded or coiled for compactness. Collectively known as brass instruments, these include the trombone, trumpet, baritone horn, tenor horn, French horn, many other "horns", many in variously-sized families, such as the saxhorns.
Other wind instruments may be constructed of brass or other metals, indeed most modern student-model flutes and piccolos are made of some variety of brass a cupronickel alloy similar to nickel silver/German silver. Clarinets low clarinets such as the contrabass and subcontrabass, are sometimes made of metal because of limited supplies of the dense, fine-grained tropical hardwoods traditionally preferred for smaller woodwinds. For the same reason, some low clarinets and contrabassoons feature a hybrid construction, with long, straight sections of wood, curved joints, and/or bell of metal; the use of metal avoids the risks of exposing wooden instruments to changes in temperature or humid
Pepper's ghost is an illusion technique used in the theatre, amusement parks, museums and concerts. It is named after the English scientist John Henry Pepper who popularized the effect in a demonstration in 1862. Examples of the illusion are the Girl-to-Gorilla trick found in old carnival sideshows and the appearance of "Ghosts" at the Haunted Mansion and the "Blue Fairy" in Pinocchio's Daring Journey at the Disneyland park in California. Teleprompters are a modern implementation of Pepper's ghost; the technique was used by Digital Domain for the appearance of Tupac Shakur onstage with Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg at the 2012 Coachella Music and Arts Festival and Michael Jackson at the 2014 Billboard Music Awards. An audience views a room with various objects in it. On command, ghostly objects appear to fade in or out of existence in the room, or objects in the room magically transform into different objects; the basic trick involves a stage, specially arranged into two rooms, one that people can see into or the stage as a whole, a second, hidden to the side, the "blue room".
A plate of glass is placed somewhere in the main room at an angle that reflects the view of the blue room towards the audience. This is arranged with the blue room to one side of the stage, the plate on the stage rotated around its vertical axis at 45 degrees. Care must be taken to make the glass as invisible as possible hiding the lower edge in patterning on the floor and ensuring lights do not reflect off it; when the lights are bright in the main room and dark in the blue room, the reflected image cannot be seen. When the lighting in the blue room is increased with the main room lights dimming to make the effect more pronounced, the reflection becomes visible and the objects within the blue room seem to appear in thin air. A common variation uses two blue rooms, one behind the glass and one to the side, which can be switched visible or invisible by alternating the lighting; the hidden room may be an identical mirror-image of the main room, so that its reflected image matches the main room's.
This illusion can be used to make one object or person reflected in the mirror appear to morph into another behind the glass. This is the principle behind the Girl-to-Gorilla trick found in old carnival sideshows; the hidden room may instead be painted black, with only light-colored objects in it. In this case when light is cast on the room, only the light objects reflect the light and appear as ghostly translucent images superimposed in the visible room; this can be used to make. Giambattista della Porta was a 16th-century Neapolitan scientist and scholar, credited with a number of scientific innovations, his 1584 work Magia Naturalis includes a description of an illusion, titled "How we may see in a Chamber things that are not", the first known description of the Pepper's ghost effect. Porta's description, from the 1658 English language translation, is. Let there be a chamber wherein no other light comes, unless by the door or window where the spectator looks in. Let the whole window or part of it be of glass, as we use to do to keep out the cold.
But let one part be polished, that there may be a Looking-glass on bothe sides, whence the spectator must look in. For the rest do nothing. Let pictures be set over against this window, marble statues and suchlike. For what is without will seem to be within, what is behind the spectator's back, he will think to be in the middle of the house, as far from the glass inward, as they stand from it outwardly and that he will think he sees nothing but truth, but lest the skill should be known, let the part be made so where the ornament is, that the spectator may not see it, as above his head, that a pavement may come between above his head. And if an ingenious man do this, it is impossible; the Royal Polytechnic Institute London was a permanent science-related institution, first opened in 1838. With a degree in chemistry, John Henry Pepper joined the institution as a lecturer in 1848; the Polytechnic awarded him the title of Professor. In 1854, he became the director and sole lessee of the Royal Polytechnic.
In 1862, inventor Henry Dircks developed the Dircksian Phantasmagoria, his version of the long-established phantasmagoria performances. This technique was used to make a ghost appear on-stage, he tried unsuccessfully to sell his idea to theatres. It required that theaters be rebuilt to support the effect, which they found too costly to consider. In the year, Dircks set up a booth at the Royal Polytechnic, where it was seen by John Pepper. Pepper realized that the method could be modified to make it easy to incorporate into existing theatres. Pepper first showed the effect during a scene of Charles Dickens's The Haunted Man, to great success. Pepper's implementation of the effect tied his name to it permanently. Dircks signed over to Pepper all financial rights in their joint patent. Though Pepper tried many times to give credit to Dircks, the title "Pepper's ghost" endured; the relationship between Dircks and Pepper was summarised in an 1863 article from Spectator: This admirable ghost is the offspring of two fathers, of a learned member of the Society of Civil Engineers, Henry Dircks, Esq. and of Professor Pepper, of the Polytechnic.
To Mr. Dircks belongs the honour of having invented him, or as the disciples of Hegel would express it, evolved him from out of the depths of his own consciousness.
Or see magic. Modern Magic by Professor Hoffmann is a treatise in book form, first published in 1876, detailing the apparatus and tricks used by the magicians and conjurors of that era. Hoffmann was considered to be one of the greatest authorities on the theory and practice of magic, despite his own limited professional experience as a magician. Professor Hoffman imparted much of his wisdom and expertise in the art of magic through a series of four books: Modern Magic More Magic Later Magic Latest Magic Of the series, Modern Magic is best known; the book contains advice on the dress and the staging of a magician. It goes on to describe many tricks with playing cards, watches, handkerchiefs, dice and balls, hats, concludes with a long chapter of miscellaneous tricks, including magic with strings, eggs and some utility devices; the penultimate chapter describes large stage illusions, the final chapter contains advice on routining a magic show, more advice on staging. Its popularity is due in part to the scarcity of teaching materials available to would-be magicians in the late 19th Century.
Modern Magic was the first book in the English language to explain how to perform magical feats. Timeline of magic Professor Hoffmann at MagicPedia Books by Professor Hoffmann Modern Magic online at Google Books Modern Magic.