Calico is a plain-woven textile made from unbleached and not processed cotton. It may contain unseparated husk parts, for example; the fabric is far less fine than muslin, but less coarse and thick than canvas or denim, but it is still cheap owing to its unfinished and undyed appearance. The fabric was from the city of Calicut in southwestern India, it was made by the traditional weavers called cāliyans. The raw fabric was dyed and printed in bright hues, calico prints became popular in Europe. Calico originated in southwestern India during the 11th century; the cloth was known as "cāliyan" to the natives. It was mentioned in Indian literature by the 12th century when the writer Hēmacandra described calico fabric prints with a lotus design. By the 15th century calico from Gujǎrāt made its appearance in Egypt. Trade with Europe followed from the 17th century onwards. Calico was woven using Sūrat cotton for both the weft. In the 18th century, England was famous for its worsted cloth; that industry, centred in the east and south in towns such as Norwich, jealously protected their product.
Cotton processing was tiny: in 1701 only 1,985,868 pounds of cottonwool was imported into England, by 1730 this had fallen to 1,545,472 pounds. This was due to commercial legislation to protect the woollen industry. Cheap calico prints, imported by the East India Company from Hindustān, had become popular. In 1700 an Act of Parliament passed to prevent the importation of dyed or printed calicoes from India, China or Persia; this caused demand to switch to imported grey cloth instead—calico that had not been finished—dyed or printed. These were printed with popular patterns in southern England. Lancashire businessmen produced grey cloth with linen warp and cotton weft, known as fustian, which they sent to London for finishing. Cottonwool imports recovered though, by 1720 were back to their 1701 levels. Again the woollen manufacturers, in true protectionist fashion, claimed that the imports were taking jobs away from workers in Coventry. A new law passed, enacting fines against anyone caught wearing stained calico muslins.
Neckcloths and fustians were exempted. The Lancashire manufacturers exploited this exemption. There now was an artificial demand for woven cloth. In 1764, 3,870,392 pounds of cotton-wool were imported; this change in consumption patterns, as a result of the restriction on imported finished goods, was a key part of the process that reduced the Indian economy from sophisticated textile production to the mere supply of raw materials. These events occurred under colonial rule, which started after 1757, were described by Nehru and some more recent scholars as "de-industrialization." Early Indian chintz, that is, glazed calico with a large floral pattern. Were produced by painting techniques; the hues were applied by wooden blocks, the cloth manufacturers in Britain printing calico used wooden block printing. Calico printers at work are depicted in one of the stained glass windows made by Stephen Adam for the Maryhill Burgh Halls, Glasgow. Confusingly and silk printed this way were known as linen calicoes and silk calicoes.
Early European calicoes would be cheap plain-weave white cotton fabric with equal weft and warp plain weave cotton fabric in, or cream or unbleached cotton, with a design block-printed using a single alizarin dye fixed with two mordants, giving a red and black pattern. Polychromatic prints were possible, using two sets of an additional blue dye; the Indian taste was for dark printed backgrounds while the European market preferred a pattern on a cream base. As the century progressed the European preference moved from the large chintz patterns to smaller, tighter patterns. Thomas Bell patented a printing technique in 1783 that used copper rollers, Livesey and Company put the first machine that used it into operation near Preston, Lancashire in 1785; the production volume for printed cloth in Lancashire in 1750 was estimated at 50,000 pieces of 30 yards In 1850 it was 20,000,000 pieces. After 1888, block printing was only used for short-run specialized jobs. After 1880, profits from printing fell due to overcapacity and the firms started to form combines.
In the first, three Scottish firms formed the United Turkey Red Co. Ltd in 1897, the second, in 1899, was the much larger Calico Printers' Association 46 printing concerns and 13 merchants combined, representing 85% of the British printing capacity; some of this capacity was removed and in 1901 Calico had 48% of the printing trade. In 1916, they and the other printers formed and joined a trade association, which set minimum prices for each'price section' of the industry; the trade association remained in operation until 1954, when the arrangement was challenged by the government Monopolies Commission. Over the intervening period much trade had been lost overseas. In the UK, Australia and New Zealand: Calico – simple, cheap equal weft and warp plain weave fabric in white, cream or unbleached cotton. Muslin – a fine, light plain weave cotton fabric. Muslin gauze – muslin. Gauze – soft and fine cotton fabric with a open plain weave. Cheesecloth – gauze. In the US: Calico – cotton fabric with a small, all-over floral print Muslin – simple, cheap equal weft and warp plain weave fabric in white, cream or unbleached cotton and/or a fine, light plain weave cotton fabric.
Muslin gauze – the lightest, most open weave of muslin. Gauze – any light fabric, genera
Denim is a sturdy cotton warp-faced textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. This twill weaving produces a diagonal ribbing. While a denim predecessor known as dungaree has been produced in India for hundreds of years, denim itself was first produced in the French city of Nîmes under the name “serge de Nîmes”; the most common denim is indigo denim, in which the warp thread is dyed, while the weft thread is left white. As a result of the warp-faced twill weaving, one side of the textile is dominated by the blue warp threads and the other side is dominated by the white weft threads; this causes blue jeans to be white on the inside. The indigo dyeing process, in which the core of the warp threads remains white, creates denim's signature fading characteristics; the name "denim" derives from French serge de Nîmes, meaning'serge from Nîmes'. Denim was traditionally colored blue with indigo dye to make blue jeans, although "jean" denoted a different, cotton fabric; the contemporary use of the word "jeans" comes from the French word for Italy: Gênes.
Denim has been used in the United States since the mid-19th century. Denim gained popularity in 1873 when Jacob W. Davis, a tailor from Nevada, manufactured the first pair of rivet-reinforced denim pants. At this time, clothes for Western labourers, such as teamsters and miners, were not durable, his concept for making reinforced jeans was inspired when a female customer requested a pair of durable and strong pants for her husband to chop wood. When Davis was about to finish making the denim jeans, he saw some copper rivets lying on a table and used the rivets to fasten the pockets. Soon, the popularity of denim jeans began to spread and Davis was overwhelmed with requests, he soon sold 200 pairs to workers in need of heavy work clothing. Because of the production capacity in his small shop, Davis was struggling to keep up with the demand, he wrote a proposal to dry goods wholesaler Levi Strauss & Co., supplying Davis with bolts of denim fabric. Davis's proposal was to patent the design of the rivet-reinforced denim pant, with Davis listed as inventor, in exchange for certain rights of manufacture.
Levi Strauss & Co. was so impressed by the possibilities for profit in the manufacture of the garment that they hired Davis to be in charge of the mass production in San Francisco. Throughout the 20th century denim was used for cheap durable uniforms like those issued to staff of the French national railways. In the postwar years, Royal Air Force overalls for dirty work were named "denims." These were a one-piece garment, with long legs and sleeves, buttoned from throat to crotch, in an olive drab denim fabric. All denim goes through the same process to creation. Cotton is harvested by machine. A cotton gin separates the cotton fiber from the seeds; the fiber is put into bales. A bale can make around 400 pairs of jeans; the cotton fiber is spun into yarn. The yarn is dyed giving it color such as the classic denim blue; the yarn is woven in a shuttle loom or projectile loom into denim. The denim is sent to manufacturer for use. Dry or raw denim is denim, not washed after having been dyed during production.
Over time dry denim will fade, considered fashionable in some circumstances. During the process of wear, fading will occur on those parts of the article that receive the most stress. On a pair of jeans, this includes the upper thighs, the ankles, the areas behind the knees. After being made into an article of clothing, most denim articles are washed to make them softer and to reduce or eliminate shrinkage; this process is known as sanforization. In addition to being sanforized, "washed denim" is sometimes artificially distressed to produce a "worn" look. Much of the appeal of artificially distressed denim is. In jeans made from dry denim, such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears them and by the activities of their daily life; this process creates what many enthusiasts feel to be a look more "natural" than artificially distressed denim. To facilitate the natural distressing process, some wearers of dry denim will abstain from washing their jeans for more than six months. Most dry denim comes from several different countries.
In particular, the United States and Japan are popular sources of cotton for making raw denim. Dry denim varies in weight measured by the weight of a yard of denim in ounces. 12 oz. or less is considered light denim, 12 oz. to 16 oz. is considered mid-weight, over 16 oz. is considered heavyweight. Heavier denim is much more rigid and resistant to wear, but can take a larger number of wears to break in and feel comfortable. Patterns of fading in jeans caused by prolonged periods of wearing them without washing are a way of "personalizing" the garment; these patterns have specific names: combs or honeycombs – meshes of faded line-segments that form behind the knees whiskers – faded streaks that form radially from the crotch area stacks – irregular bands of fading above the ankle caused by according of the fabric due to contact with the foot or shoe train tracks – fading along the out-seams due to abrasion Selvedge is the edge of a fabric as it comes from the loom. Selvedges are woven or knit so that they will not ravel, or curl.
Selvedge denim refers to a unique type of selvedge, made by passing one continuous cross-yarn back and forth through the vertical warp beams. This is traditionally finished at both edges with a contrasting war
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Hessian, burlap in the US and Canada, or crocus in Jamaica, is a woven fabric made from skin of the jute plant or sisal fibres, which may be combined with other vegetable fibres to make rope and similar products. Gunny is similar in construction. Hessian, a dense woven fabric, has been produced as a coarse fabric, but more it is being used in a refined state known as jute as an eco-friendly material for bags and other products; the name "hessian" is attributed to the historic use of the fabric as part of the uniform of soldiers from the former Landgraviate of Hesse and its successors, including the current German state of Hesse, who were called "Hessians". The origin of the word burlap is unknown, though its earliest known appearance is in the late 17th century, its etymology is speculated to derive from the Middle English borel, the Old French burel and/or the Dutch boeren, in the latter case interfused with boer; the second element is the English word lap, "piece of cloth". Hessian was first exported from India in the early 19th century.
It was traditionally used as backing for linoleum and carpet. In Jamaica and certain parts of the Caribbean, many labourers who used to work on the plantations were not given pleasant materials with which to make clothes; some had access to cotton, spun, woven and sewn into serviceable clothing whilst others had to make do with clothing fashioned from hewn sacking. Labourers used their resourcefulness to recycle discarded sacking and fashion them into garments that although uncomfortable by all accounts provided protection from the heat and dust. A traditional costume of Jamaican Maroons uses fabric similar to this material as a way of drawing an affinity and pay homage to the resourcefulness and creativity of their labourers who gained freedom. For the rest of the population, it was used to make bags for carrying loads of coffee and other items, edible or not. Hessian is used to make gunny sacks, to ship goods like coffee beans and rooibos tea, it is associated spoilage of contents. It is durable enough to withstand rough handling in transit.
Hessian is commonly used to make effective sandbags. Hessian is often used for the transportation of unprocessed dry tobacco; this material is used for much the same reasons. Hessian sacks in the tobacco industry hold up to 200 kg of tobacco, due to hessian's toughness, a hessian sack can have a useful life of up to three years. Hessian is used to wrap the exposed roots of trees and shrubs when transplanting and for erosion control on steep slopes. One major advantage of hessian jute fabric is that, because it is made from natural vegetable fibers, it is biodegradable; this property makes it useful in landscaping and agricultural uses that require incorporating fabric support into outdoor projects. Landscape designs that include tree transplantation rely on hessian jute to ensure that young trees arrive at the planting venue intact and unharmed; this is achieved by wrapping hessian jute fabric around the roots and soil of a tree shortly after digging it from its original location. The breathability of the fabric allows sufficient aeration of the soil, the hessian's moisture-resistant properties prevent excess water from accumulating and allowing the growth of mold, mildew, or other types of rot.
Once planted, young trees may require protection from hessian jute to ward off mice and other rodents that might otherwise eat their bark and compromise their structure. To keep rodents at bay, landscapers wrap swathes of hessian jute around the trunks of young trees of all varieties. In addition to protecting from animals, hessian jute has the capacity to protect trees from excessive sun and wind. By building windbreaks from hessian jute, landscapers can exert some control over the environment in which young trees grow, thus maximizing their chances of growing to maturity so that they can withstand more intense weather conditions. For planting grass, on areas that have steep slopes or high levels of soil erosion, a layer of hessian jute tacked on over grass seeds can prevent seeds from being moved by rain, runoff, or wind. Landscapers can use this fabric for many uses due to its strength, moisture resistance, protective properties; the transportation of agricultural products involves bags made from hessian jute fabric.
Hessian jute bags are used to ship wool and cotton, as well as foodstuffs such as coffee, flour and grains. Hessian jute's ability to allow the contents of bags to breathe makes it excellent for preventing or minimizing rotting due to trapped moisture. In some cases, hessian can be specially treated to avoid specific kinds of rot and decay. Due to its coarse texture, it is not used in modern apparel. However, this roughness gave it a use in a religious context for mortification of the flesh, where individuals may wear an abrasive shirt called a cilice or "hair shirt" and in the wearing of "sackcloth" on Ash Wednesday. Owing to its durability, open weave non-shiny refraction and fuzzy texture, ghillie suits for 3D camouflage are made of hessian, it was a popular material for camouflage scrim on co
Broadcloth is a dense, plain woven cloth made of wool. The defining characteristic of Broadcloth is not its finished width, but the fact that it was woven much wider and heavily milled in order to shrink it to the required width; the effect of the milling process is to draw the yarns much closer together than could be achieved in the loom and allow the individual fibres of the wool to bind together in a felting process. This results in a dense, blind face cloth with a stiff drape, weather-resistant, hard wearing and capable of taking a cut edge without the need for being hemmed, it was made in several parts of England at the end of the medieval period. The raw material was short staple wool and spun into yarn and woven on a broad loom to produce cloth 1.75 yards wide. It was fulled in a fulling mill; when fulled, the fibres of the cloth would felt together. In the United States, broadcloth can be an alternative name for a specific type of cotton or cotton-blend poplin, first introduced to the States from Britain in the early 1920s, renamed broadcloth for the American market.
Broadcloth was first produced in Flanders throughout the medieval period. After 1400 Leiden in Holland became the most important place for broadcloth industry in Europe. There for the first time the production became industrialised; this means that the production process didn't take place in one single factory anymore but according to a precise task allocation, where in several stages intermediate goods were produced. The entire process was supervised, resulting in a high quality, making Leiden broadcloth popular. In 1417 the Hanseatic League decided. From 1500 competition from other parts of Europe England and Leiden lost its leading role. In Italy Florence was an important center of broadcloth industry. Around 1500, broadcloth was made in a number of districts of England, including Essex and Suffolk in southern East Anglia, the West Country Clothing District, at Worcester, Cranbrook in Kent and some other places; this was the best English cloth, large quantities were exported by the merchants of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London, principally to Antwerp as white cloth.
It was finished and dyed in Flanders, marketed throughout northern Europe. The cloths might be long; the raw material for broadcloth from Worcester was wool from the Welsh border counties of Herefordshire and Shropshire, known as Lemster wool. That for the West Country came from the Cotswolds. In both cases, the high quality was the result of the comparatively poor pasture, which led the sheep to grow wool with the desired qualities. English exports of broadcloth reached their highest level in the mid 16th century, after which some regions began producing other kinds of cloth. Difficulties were encountered in export markets in the mid-1610s due to currency difficulties in eastern Europe, to the ill-conceived Cockayne Project. Broadcloth production thus declined in the 17th century. Worcester remained a centre for the production of white broadcloth. Other areas, such as Ludlow and parts of the Cotswolds started to produce similar cloth, known as'Worcesters'; the market suffered major setback in the 18th century, when the trade of the Levant Company with Turkey was obstructed by French competition.
From this time, the production of broadcloth lost its importance. Banat Wool broadcloth made in India. Bridgwater - A lighter weight broadcloth made in England and Wales. Castor - Overcoat-weight woolen broadcloth. Cealtar - thick grey broadcloth dunster - broadcloth made in Somerset Georgian cloth haberjet - A coarse wool broadcloth, made in England during the Medieval period, associated with monks. Habit cloth - British-made fine wool broadcloth used for women's riding habits. Lady's cloth - lighter weight broadcloth made in light shades. Poole cloth - A broadcloth with a clear finish, named after the tailoring establishment Henry Poole & Co. suclat - A European-made cotton broadcloth popular in the East Indian market. Superfine - merino broadcloth used for men's tailoring. Tami - Chinese-made broadcloth. Taunton - Originally made in Taunton, available in medium or coarse grade, with a weight of 11oz. Per yard, fixed by law. Tavestock western dozen - Alternative name for tavestock. Since the early 1920s, the American market has used the term broadcloth to describe a plain-woven mercerised fabric woven with a rib and a heavier filling yarn, used for shirt-making, made from cotton or a polyester-and-cotton blend.
This fabric was introduced in the early 1920s as an import from the United Kingdom, where it was called poplin, but it was arbitrarily renamed broadcloth as it was thought that the British name had connotations of heaviness. Another version of this fabric, woven in rayon or polyester-and-rayon, is called fuji. Wool broadcloth with its felted, velvet-like feel, has been a popular material for many years in furniture and luxury car interiors. Ponting, Kenneth G.. The Woollen Industry of South-West England. Bath: A. M. Kelley. ISBN 0-678-07
Crêpe spelt crepe or crape, is a silk, wool, or synthetic fiber fabric with a distinctively crisp, crimped appearance. The term crape refers to a form of the fabric associated with mourning. Crêpe is historically called crespe or crisp. Aerophane:Crimped silk gauze with a crêpe texture. A historic 19th century lightweight crêpe, introduced in 1820, and, as crepe aerophane in 1861. Albert crêpe:A superior-quality black silk mourning crêpe used since 1862. Plain-weave crêpe. An English-made silk and cotton blend crêpe. Alicienne: A furnishing fabric with alternating plain weave and crêpe stripes. Alpaca crêpe: Rayon and acetate blend crêpe with a woollen texture, not made of alpaca yarn. Altesse: A British plain-weave silk fabric with crêpe filling. Arabian:A British-made plain-weave cloth with figured crêpe designs Piece-dyed silk crêpe embroidered with dots. Armure See Georgian crêpe. Balanced crêpe: Crêpe woven with alternating S and Z twist yarns in both directions. Balmoral crape: An 1895 English crape.
Balzerine: An 1889 narrow-striped silk grenadine overlaid with wider crêpe stripes. An earlier 1830s cotton/worsted fabric, spelled balzarine, is not crêpe. Bark crêpe: A broad term describing rough crêpes with a bark texture. Bauté satin: Warp-woven satin with a plain crêpe reverse. Borada crape: A cheaper, economical version of mourning crape advertised in c.1887. Bologna crêpe: Silk crêpe used for mourning known as valle cypre. Canton crêpe: A soft silk crêpe with a pebbly surface associated with Canton in China, with bias ribs. Made in Britain, but exported to China, hence its name. Caustic soda crêpe: Cotton treated with chemicals to create a crêpe-like texture in patterns. Chiffon crêpe: Chiffon-weight crêpe. Chijimi: Japanese crêpe. Chirimen: Japanese raw silk crêpe used for kimonos; when woven with a dot it is mon-chirimen. Courtauld crape: 1890s mourning crape made by Courtaulds. An 1894 variation, called Courtauld's new silk crêpe, was exceptionally soft. Courtaulds monopolised the export market for English crapes and crêpes, meaning that the textiles known as crape anglaise were always manufactured by Courtaulds up until 1940.
Crêpe Algerian: A trade name for a printed pongee with a rough crêpe texture. Crêpe anglaise: A French term for English mourning crapes in black and white; the only true'crape anglais' was considered that made by Courtaulds, last made in 1940. Crêpe Beatrice: Trade name for crêpe with a light warp stripe. Crêpe berber: Trade name for a piece-dyed crepe-textured pongee. Crêpe charmeuse: Lightweight silk satin with a grenadine warp and crêpe reverse. Crêpe chenette: A tradename for a strong crêpe with a pebble texture. Crêpe crêpe: Made with extra twists in the warp to create an extra-deep texture. Crêpe de chine: A fine, lightweight silk, cotton, or worsted, with a plain weave and crêpe-twist filling. Crêpe de chine travers: A ribbed crêpe de chine with heavier filling yarns introduced to the weave at regular intervals. Crêpe de dante: Crêpe with silk and wool filling. Crêpe de lahor: Cotton crêpe made in France. Crêpe de laine: A sheer wool fabric plain-woven with hard twist for a slight crêpe effect.
Crêpe de santé: An undyed woven, rough-textured wool-blend crêpe mixed with silk, linen or cotton called "health crepe" Crêpe de Suisse: 1860 dress fabric. Crêpe d'espagne: Open-weave fabric with a silk warp and wool filling. Crêpe diana: Trade name for a cotton and silk blend crêpe. Crêpe Elizabeth: English term for a mottled or pebbled georgette. Crêpe faille sublime: Silk grosgrain with a hard-twist filling. Crêpe flannel: Plain-woven worsted with a crêpe finish. Crêpe imperial Late 19th century woollen crape. Crêpe jacquard: Crepe with designs produced by jacquard weaving. Crêpe janigor: Trade name for a heavy rib textile with alternating rayon and dull acetate warp threads, cross-dyed for varied shades. Crêpe jersey: Vertically ribbed silk crêpe resembling the knit fabric. Crêpe lissé: A lightweight, lustrous stiffened open-weave silk or cotton crêpe, with fewer twists than a crêpe crêpe. Crêpela: French term for a crêpe effect. Crepeline: Very sheer plain-woven silk used in textile conservation.
Introduced in the 1870s as a cheap alternative to crepe de chine. Crêpella: Plain-woven worsted using hard-spun yarn. Crêpe maretz An 1862 fabric. Crêpe marocain: Heavy, cross-ribbed crêpe where the filling yarn is coarser than the warp, resembling a canton crêpe. Crêpe meteor: Soft silk crêpe, twill weave reversing to satin. Crêpe mohair: Silk and mohair blend crêpe. Crêpe morette: Trade name. Lightweight worsted crêpe with looser filling. Crêpe mosseux: A type of opaque voile which resists shrinkage. Crêpe myosotis A mourning crêpe made in the 1930s, in crimped silk with a soft finish. Courtaulds launched this textile in the early 1930s as an alternative to the unpopular traditional stiff mourning crapes. Crepenette: Crêpe-effect pongee. Crêpe ondese: Rough textured rayon-acetate blend crêpe. Crêpe poplin: A late 19th century silk-wool rib fabric with crêpe effect. Crêpe rachel: French print cotton-worsted blend crêpe. Crêpe radio: British raw silk crêpe with a ribbed effect, using alternate double rows of S-twist and Z-twist.
Crêpe royal: Sheer crêpe-de-chine introduced in 1889. Crêpe suzette: A variation on crepon georgette. Crepine: Silk with crêpe dots; the name describes a type of fringe. Crepoline: A class of transparent fabrics with a warp-wise crêpe effect. Crepon: A heavier crêpe with an exaggerated warp-directional texture produced by several weaving techniques. A soft silky version was introduced in 1866, the second, much heavier version in 1882. In the 1890s crepon described a woollen
Barkcloth or bark cloth is a versatile material, once common in Asia and the Pacific. Barkcloth comes from trees of the Moraceae family, including Broussonetia papyrifera, Artocarpus altilis, Ficus natalensis, it is made by beating sodden strips of the fibrous inner bark of these trees into sheets, which are finished into a variety of items. Many texts that mention "paper" clothing are referring to barkcloth; some modern cotton-based fabrics are named "barkcloth" for their resemblance to these traditional fabrics. Barkcloth has been manufactured in Uganda for centuries and is Uganda's sole representative on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Tapa cloth was used traditionally used for clothing throughout the Pacific, in many places remains important culturally; some communities are reviving this practice. At Monbang traditional village on Alor Island, tourists can see members of the Kabola ethnic group wear barkcloth and dance traditional dances. Today, what is called barkcloth is a soft, thick textured fabric, so named because it has a rough surface like that of tree bark.
This barkcloth is made of densely woven cotton fibers. The fabric has been used in home furnishings, such as curtains, drapery and slipcovers, it is associated with 1940s through 1960s home fashions in tropical, abstract, "atomic" and "boomerang" prints, the last two themes being expressed by images of atoms with electrons whirling, by the boomerang shape, popular in mid-century cocktail tables and fabrics and influenced by the Las Vegas "Atomic City" era. Waverly, a famed design house for textiles and wall coverings between 1923 and 2007, called their version of this fabric rhino cloth for the rough, nubbly surface. American barkcloth shot through with gold Lurex threads was called Las Vegas cloth, contained as much as 65% rayon as well, making it a softer, more flowing fabric than the stiffer all-cotton rhino cloth or standard barkcloth. Cedar bark textile Lacebark Osnaburg Tapa cloth Bark Cloth − Then and Now: Amazing Discoveries, Patricia L. Quilters' Muse Virtual Museum Tapa: Situating Pacific Barkcloth in Time and Place A three-year AHRC funded research project at the Centre for Textile Conservation that aims to transform our understanding of Pacific barkcloth manufacture using a multidisciplinary approach