Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the King of Rock and Roll. Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis and his music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a popularizer of rockabilly. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys first RCA single, Heartbreak Hotel, was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances. In November 1956, Presley made his debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service, in 1973, Presley featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of drug abuse severely damaged his health. Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century and he won three Grammys, also receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley was born on January 8,1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love and Vernon Elvis Presley, Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before his own birth. Thus, as a child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother. The family attended an Assembly of God, where he found his musical inspiration. Although he was in conflict with the Pentecostal church in his later years, rev. Rex Humbard officiated at his funeral, as Presley had been an admirer of Humbards ministry. Presleys ancestry was primarily a Western European mix, including Scots-Irish, Scottish, German, gladyss great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was possibly a Cherokee Native American. Gladys was regarded by relatives and friends as the dominant member of the small family, Vernon moved from one odd job to the next, evincing little ambition. The family often relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance, the Presleys survived the F5 tornado in the 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of kiting a check written by the landowner, Orville S. Bean and he was jailed for eight months, and Gladys and Elvis moved in with relatives
Nashville is the capital of the U. S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in the central part of the state. The city is a center for the music, healthcare, publishing, banking and transportation industries and it is known as a center of the country music industry, earning it the nickname Music City, U. S. A. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government which includes six municipalities in a two-tier system. Nashville is governed by a mayor, vice-mayor, and 40-member Metropolitan Council, thirty-five of the members are elected from single-member districts, five are elected at-large. Reflecting the citys position in government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Courts courthouse for Middle Tennessee. According to 2015 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the balance population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Nashville, was 654,610. The 2015 population of the entire 13-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,830,345, the 2015 population of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 1,951,644. The town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, and it was named for Francis Nash, the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville quickly grew because of its location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 African American slaves and 14 free blacks, in 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee, by 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city. The citys significance as a port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river. In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops, the state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war. Within a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton, meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base. The post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and these healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, which can still be seen around the downtown area. Circa 1950 the state approved a new city charter that provided for the election of city council members from single-member districts. This change was supported because at-large voting diluted the minority populations political power in the city and they could seldom gain a majority of the population to support a candidate of their choice
Cultural impact of Elvis Presley
Since the beginning of his career, Elvis Presley has had an extensive cultural impact. According to Rolling Stone, it was Elvis who made rock n roll the international language of pop, Rolling Stone encyclopedia of Rock and Roll describes Presley as an American music giant of the 20th century who single-handedly changed the course of music and culture in the mid-1950s. His recordings, dance moves, attitude and clothing came to be seen as embodiments of rock and his music was heavily influenced by African-American blues, Christian gospel, and Southern country. In a list of the greatest English language singers, as compiled by Q Magazine, Presley was ranked first, Presley sang both hard driving rockabilly, rock and roll dance songs and ballads, laying a commercial foundation upon which other rock musicians would build their careers. African-American performers like Big Joe Turner, Wynonie Harris and Fats Domino came to prominence after Presleys acceptance among mass audiences of White American adults. Singers like Jerry Lee Lewis, the Everly Brothers, Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Little Richard, Buddy Holly, Johnny Cash, Roy Orbison, john Lennon later observed, Before Elvis, there was nothing. During the 1940s bobby soxers had idolized Frank Sinatra, but the buyers of his records were mostly between the ages of eighteen and twenty-two, Presley triggered a lot of demand for his records by near-teens and early teens aged ten and up. Meanwhile, American teenagers began buying newly available transistor radios. Teens were asserting more independence and Presley became a symbol of their parents consternation. Half a century later, historian Ian Brailsford commented, The phenomenal success of Elvis Presley in 1956 convinced many doubters of the financial opportunities existing in the youth market, Presley would nevertheless publicly cite his debt to African American music, pointing to artists such as B. B. King, Arthur Big Boy Crudup, Ivory Joe Hunter, the reporter who conducted Presleys first interview in New York City in 1956 noted that he named blues singers who obviously meant a lot to him. Was very surprised to hear him talk about the black performers down there and about how he tried to carry on their music. Later that year in Charlotte, North Carolina, Presley was quoted as saying, The colored folks been singing it and playing it just like I’m doin now, man, for more years than I know. They played it like that in their shanties and in their juke joints, Little Richard said of Presley, He was an integrator. They wouldnt let black music through and he opened the door for black music. Up to the black artists had sold minuscule amounts of their recorded music relative to the national market potential. Black songwriters had mostly limited horizons and could only eke out a living, but after Presley purchased the music of African American Otis Blackwell and had his Gladys Music company hire talented black songwriter Claude Demetrius, the industry underwent a dramatic change. In the spring of 1957 Presley invited African American performer Ivory Joe Hunter to visit Graceland, of Presley, Hunter commented, He showed me every courtesy, and I think hes one of the greatest
In music, a single or record single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record, an album or an EP record. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats, in most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular, in other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album. As digital downloading and audio streaming have become prevalent, it is often possible for every track on an album to also be available separately. Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a heavily promoted or more popular song within an album collection. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks on them. The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as well as popular music player Spotify also following in this trend. Any more than three tracks on a release or longer than thirty minutes in total running time is either an Extended Play or if over six tracks long. The basic specifications of the single were made in the late 19th century. Gramophone discs were manufactured with a range of speeds and in several sizes. By about 1910, however, the 10-inch,78 rpm shellac disc had become the most commonly used format, the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format, songwriters and performers increasingly tailored their output to fit the new medium, the breakthrough came with Bob Dylans Like a Rolling Stone. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, other, less common, formats include singles on digital compact cassette, DVD, and LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc. Some artist release singles on records, a more common in musical subcultures. The most common form of the single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its speed,45 rpm. The 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable, the first 45 rpm records were monaural, with recordings on both sides of the disc. As stereo recordings became popular in the 1960s, almost all 45 rpm records were produced in stereo by the early 1970s
The Clovers are an American rhythm and blues/doo-wop vocal group who became one of the biggest selling acts of the 1950s. They had a top thirty US hit in 1959 with the Leiber and Stoller song Love Potion No.9, the group was formed at Armstrong High School, Washington, D. C. in 1946 by Harold Lucas, Billy Shelton and Thomas Woods. Initially a trio, they expanded to a quartet with the addition of John Buddy Bailey, Billy Shelton was replaced by Matthew McQuater in 1948. As The Four Clovers, the group started to appear at local music shows including the WWDC amateur hour show hosted by Jack Lowe Endler at the Republic Theatre. This brought them to the attention of an audience including Harold Winley who, after hearing them on WWDC. By the end of 1948 Woods had been replaced by Winley, by the end of 1950 Bill Harris had joined as their guitarist, his blues- and jazz-inflected playing would become an integral part of their sound. Krefetz then brought them to the attention of Atlantic Records, which signed them in February 1951, the Clovers were immediately booked by the Shaw Artists agency to perform at the Apollo Theater in Harlem starting on February 15. Their second recording session resulted in the release of Fool, Fool, Fool in August 1951, the Clovers lead vocalist, Buddy Bailey, was drafted into the army at the end of August 1951 and John Phillip was brought in to replace him. Philip was soon replaced by Charlie White, who had been in the vocal groups The Dominoes, the tracks One Mint Julep and the Ertegun composition Middle of the Night were both top ten hits on the R&B chart of May 1952. Their next release, Ting-A-Ling, peaked at #2 on the Billboard R&B chart and they followed up this early success with a string of R&B hits, including Hey Miss Fannie / I Played The Fool, Good Lovin and Little Mama / Lovey Dovey. By the end of 1953 White had been replaced by Billy Mitchell, Buddy Bailey was discharged from the army in May 1954 and rejoined the group. The Clovers continued to record with Bailey and Mitchell now sharing lead vocal duties, the single Blue Velvet / If You Love Me was released in February 1955. In April the groupl recorded four tracks, two from that session, Nip Sip / If I Could Be Loved By You, were released in August, Devil or Angel was released in January 1956 and entered the top five of the R&B chart in February. Their next release, Love, Love, Love, charted in the R&B top ten of June, Krefetz left Atlantic and formed Poplar Records in June 1957. The Clovers Atlantic contract expired in July 1957 and Krefetz signed Mitchell in September as a solo artist to his Poplar label, in February 1958 Krefetz confirmed that Mitchell would continue recording with The Clovers as well as pursuing his solo career on Poplar. Krefetz signed The Clovers to Poplar Records in May 1958, Poplar was purchased by United Artists Records in 1959. Love Potion No.9 became the biggest hit of their career, in 1961 their United Artists contract expired and they moved to Winley Records. The label was started in 1956 by Paul Winley, brother of The Clovers bass Harold Winley, Paul Winley had written songs for the group, Big Joe Turner and Ruth Brown
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78,45, and 33 1/3 rpm phonograph records, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. Creedence Clearwater Revival had hits with both A-side and B-side releases, others took the opposite approach, producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side, the earliest 10-inch,78 rpm, shellac records were single sided. Double-sided recordings, with one song on side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records. There were no record charts until the 1930s, and radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s, in this time, A-sides and B-sides existed, but neither side was considered more important, the side did not convey anything about the content of the record. The term single came into use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side, under this random system, many artists had so-called double-sided hits, where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, however, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the company wanted radio stations to play. It was not until 1968, for instance, that the production of albums on a unit basis finally surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s. The majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, by the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, and B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, with the advent of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. With the decline of cassette singles in the 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became virtually extinct, as the dominant medium. However, the term B-side is still used to refer to the tracks or coupling tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other media have declined. B-side songs may be released on the record as a single to provide extra value for money. There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record
RCA Studio B
RCA Studio B is a recording studio in Nashville, Tennessee. Originally known simply as RCA Studios, it became famous in the 1960s for being a part of what many refer to as the Nashville Sound, the National Park Service listed it on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012. Built by Dan Maddox in 1956, it was constructed at the request of Chet Atkins and Steve Sholes to facilitate the needs of RCA Victor Records and other record labels. According to Chet Atkins, the plans for the studio were drawn up on a napkin by Bill Miltenburg, RCAs chief engineer, construction took four months, and the studio was opened at the cost of $37,515. The recording studio is a building with offices occupying the front but the area of the studio. The studio itself measures 42.5 by 27 by 13, in 1960 and 1961 an addition was built to provide office space and rooms for tape mastering and a lacquer mastering lab. A larger studio was built on 17th avenue in 1964 that became known as Studio A, the first chief engineer was Bob Ferris, a man with a prickly personality who managed to make Atkins angry enough to have him moved elsewhere. Bill Porter replaced him at the end of March,1959, Porter considered the studios acoustics problematic, with resonant room modes creating an uneven frequency response. Porter also marked Xes on the floor where he discovered, by careful experimentation, Porter positioned lead vocalists, background vocalists and acoustic guitarists at microphones placed directly over his marks. After these improvements, Don Gibson recorded his album Girls, Guitars, Porter later told an interviewer, Everybody said, God, what a different sound. She noted that the spot where her car impacted the building is still visible, in 1977 the studio was made available to the Country Music Hall of Fame for tours, and in 1992 it was donated to the Country Music Hall of Fame by the late Dan Maddox. Until 2001, it was operated as an attraction when the new home for the Hall of Fame was built in downtown Nashville, now the studio is co-operated by the Country Music Hall of Fame and Belmont Universitys Mike Curb College of Entertainment and Music Business program. Students use the facilities for learning the basic techniques of analog recording. Nashville painter and singer/songwriter, Gil Veda, introduced to the Grand Ole Opry crowd as The Spanish Hank Williams in 1962, was the first Hispanic singer to record at RCA’s Studio B, daily tours of the studio are offered by the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum. Following is a list of notable artists who recorded songs at Studio B
Elvis' Christmas Album
It has been reissued in numerous different formats since its first release. The publication Music Vendor listed Elvis Christmas Album on their singles charts for two weeks in December 1957 – January 1958, with a position of #49. According to the latest certifications by the Recording Industry Association of America and it is the first Presley title to attain Diamond certification by the RIAA, and is also the best-selling Christmas/holiday album of all time in the United States. The album has sold 15 million copies worldwide, the two album sides divided into a program of secular Christmas songs on side one, with two traditional Christmas carols and the gospel numbers on side two. Those included two spirituals by innovator Thomas A. Dorsey, Peace in the Valley and Take My Hand, coincidentally, A Jolly Christmas from Frank Sinatra released the previous month by that other 1950s singing icon, also divided into a secular and a traditional side. While most of the songs selected were traditional Christmas fare, such as White Christmas and Silent Night, two new songs by regular suppliers of material for Presley were commissioned. One was Santa Bring My Baby Back and the other, was a rock and roll number, Santa Claus Is Back in Town, written by Jerry Leiber. Elvis had asked the pair to come up with another Christmas song during sessions for the album, within a few minutes, they had the song written, Silent Night and O Little Town of Bethlehem were arranged by Elvis Presley. While most US radio stations ignored Berlins request, at least one disc jockey was fired for playing a song from the album, unlike Elvis recording, however, their version attracted virtually no adverse reaction, and certainly no reported opposition from Irving Berlin. Part of the reason that The Drifters version of White Christmas was less controversial was because that version was played only on radio stations. Elvis Presleys version brought greater attention to The Drifters version which gained prominence with its inclusion in the 1990 movie Home Alone, original 1957 copies of Elvis Christmas Album were issued with a red booklet-like album cover featuring promotional photos from Elvis third movie Jailhouse Rock. Original copies with the gold sticker intact on the shrink wrap have proven to be among the most valuable of Elvis albums, adding to its already high value are limited red vinyl albums and album covers with gold print down the spine. Record labels for all original 1957 pressings are black with all-silver print, the famous His Masters Voice dog logo at the top of label, and LONG 33 1⁄3 PLAY at the bottom. The other new composition on the album, Santa, Bring My Baby Back to Me was paired with Santa Claus Is Back In Town, the single reached number seven on the UK Singles Chart in November 1957. Santa Claus Is Back In Town/Blue Christmas was a 1965 single release for the US market, Blue Christmas would re-enter the Christmas or Holiday Singles chart many times in the years that follow. Two different EPs, Elvis Sings Christmas Songs, EPA4108 in December 1957, the former topped the newly established Billboard EP Chart, while the latter failed to chart. Elvis Christmas Album was reissued two years after its first release, replacing the cover of the original with a close-up of Elvis as he posed against an outdoor. The album continued to reach the charts each year until 1962
Elvis Is Back!
Elvis Is Back. is the tenth studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley. It was released on RCA Victor Records in mono and stereo in April 1960, recorded over two sessions in March and April, the album marked Presleys return to recording after his discharge from the U. S. Army. In 1957, as Presleys fame was soaring, he received a notice from the Memphis Draft Board. During Presleys two-year military service in Germany, RCA Victor and Paramount Pictures progressively released material he had completed prior to enlistment, during his last months in the Army, Presley experimented with new sounds and worked on further improving his performance. He also prepared material for his first session in Nashville, which was scheduled to take place upon his return, Presley returned to the United States on March 2,1960. The singer reunited with his original band The Blue Moon Boys, the first session was held on March 20–21 and the second session was held on April 3–4, completing the album. Topped the UK Albums Chart and reached two in Billboards Top LPs. Initially, the release received mixed reviews, but over subsequent years its critical reception became more positive. The album was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America in 1999, following his third and last appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show, Presley received a notice from the Memphis draft board on January 8,1957. The board announced his 1A classification and his draft before the end of the year. During the first half of 1957, Presley had three number one hits with Too Much, All Shook Up, and Teddy Bear and his second film, Loving You, opened on July 30 to box office success. His Christmas album was released on October 15 and his film, Jailhouse Rock. On December 20, Presley received his draft notice and he was granted a deferment so he could finish the forthcoming film King Creole, which had already received an investment of $350,000 from Paramount Pictures and producer Hal Wallis. At the beginning of 1958, Presleys single Dont topped the charts, Presley was inducted into the Army on March 24,1958. Soon after starting basic training at Fort Hood, Texas, he received a visit from Eddie Fadal, according to Fadal, Presley firmly believed his career was finished. After completing training, he joined the 3rd Armored Division in Friedberg, Germany, media reports echoed Presleys concerns about his career, but RCA producer Steve Sholes and Freddy Bienstock of Hill and Range had carefully prepared for his two-year absence. Prepared with unreleased material, they kept up a stream of regular, RCA also released four albums compiling old material during this period, most successfully Elvis Golden Records and 50,000,000 Elvis Fans Cant Be Wrong. During his final months in the Army, Presley started to experiment with new material and thinking ahead to his anticipated return to recording
Elvis for Everyone!
Is the twenty-third album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, issued by RCA Victor in mono and stereo, LPM/LSP3450, in August 1965. Recording sessions took place over a span at Sun Studio in Memphis, RCA Studio B in Nashville, Tennessee. It peaked at number 10 on the Top Pop Albums chart, sessions in late May 1963 failed to coalesce into his fifth studio album of the 1960s, and by 1965 Presleys musical output had been focused exclusively on his movie career and soundtrack output. He had not released a studio album since Pot Luck in June 1962. RCA Victor invented the concept of an Anniversary Album to celebrate Presleys tenth year with the label, the albums cover depicting Presley standing next to the RCA Victor trademark Nipper the dog, sitting atop a cash register. Since May 1963, Presley had only made one non-movie session in January 1964 that yielded a mere three tracks, two of which had already been issued as sides for singles. Bereft of new material, RCA Victor assembled this album from unused tracks going all the way back to the Sun Records years, from sessions for both soundtracks and regular commercial releases. Possibly owing to its assembly from scraps and rejects, although it made the top ten on the LP chart, several tracks had appeared on film, but had not been issued on record before. In My Way had appeared in the 1961 film Wild in the Country, Sound Advice in the 1962 film Follow That Dream, the remaining eight tracks had been unissued in any form. RCA had intended to include the unreleased Sun Records track Tennessee Saturday Night, in 2014 Elvis for Everyone was reissued on the Follow That Dream label in a special 2-disc edition that contained the original album tracks along with numerous alternate takes