Down syndrome

Down syndrome known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is associated with physical growth delays, mild to moderate intellectual disability, characteristic facial features; the average IQ of a young adult with Down syndrome is 50, equivalent to the mental ability of an 8- or 9-year-old child, but this can vary widely. The parents of the affected individual are genetically normal; the probability increases from less than 0.1% in 20-year-old mothers to 3% in those of age 45. The extra chromosome is believed to occur by chance, with no known behavioral activity or environmental factor that changes the probability. Down syndrome can be identified during pregnancy by prenatal screening followed by diagnostic testing or after birth by direct observation and genetic testing. Since the introduction of screening, pregnancies with the diagnosis are terminated. Regular screening for health problems common in Down syndrome is recommended throughout the person's life.

There is no cure for Down syndrome. Education and proper care have been shown to improve quality of life; some children with Down syndrome are educated in typical school classes, while others require more specialized education. Some individuals with Down syndrome graduate from high school, a few attend post-secondary education. In adulthood, about 20% in the United States do paid work in some capacity, with many requiring a sheltered work environment. Support in financial and legal matters is needed. Life expectancy is around 50 to 60 years in the developed world with proper health care. Down syndrome is the most common chromosome abnormality in humans, it occurs in about one per 1,000 babies born each year. In 2015, Down syndrome was present in 5.4 million individuals globally and resulted in 27,000 deaths, down from 43,000 deaths in 1990. It is named after British doctor John Langdon Down, who described the syndrome in 1866; some aspects of the condition were described earlier by Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol in 1838 and Édouard Séguin in 1844.

The genetic cause of Down syndrome was discovered in 1959. Those with Down syndrome nearly always have intellectual disabilities; as adults, their mental abilities are similar to those of an 8- or 9-year-old. They typically have poor immune function and reach developmental milestones at a age, they have an increased risk of a number of other health problems, including congenital heart defect, leukemia, thyroid diseases, mental disorders. People with Down syndrome may have some or all of these physical characteristics: a small chin, slanted eyes, poor muscle tone, a flat nasal bridge, a single crease of the palm, a protruding tongue due to a small mouth and large tongue; these airway changes lead to obstructive sleep apnea in around half of those with Down syndrome. Other common features include: a flat and wide face, a short neck, excessive joint flexibility, extra space between big toe and second toe, abnormal patterns on the fingertips and short fingers. Instability of the atlantoaxial joint occurs in about 20% and may lead to spinal cord injury in 1–2%.

Hip dislocations may occur without trauma in up to a third of people with Down syndrome. Growth in height is slower, resulting in adults who tend to have short stature—the average height for men is 154 cm and for women is 142 cm. Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased risk for obesity as they age. Growth charts have been developed for children with Down syndrome; this syndrome causes about a third of cases of intellectual disability. Many developmental milestones are delayed with the ability to crawl occurring around 8 months rather than 5 months and the ability to walk independently occurring around 21 months rather than 14 months. Most individuals with Down syndrome have mild or moderate intellectual disability with some cases having severe difficulties; those with mosaic Down syndrome have IQ scores 10–30 points higher. As they age, people with Down syndrome perform worse than their same-age peers. Individuals with Down syndrome have better language understanding than ability to speak.

Between 10 and 45% have either a stutter or rapid and irregular speech, making it difficult to understand them. After reaching 30 years of age, some may lose their ability to speak, they do well with social skills. Behavior problems are not as great an issue as in other syndromes associated with intellectual disability. In children with Down syndrome, mental illness occurs in nearly 30% with autism occurring in 5–10%. People with Down syndrome experience a wide range of emotions. While people with Down syndrome are happy, symptoms of depression and anxiety may develop in early adulthood. Children and adults with Down syndrome are at increased risk of epileptic seizures, which occur in 5–10% of children and up to 50% of adults; this includes. Many who live 40 years or longer develop Alzheimer’s disease. In those who reach 60 years of age, 50–70% have the disease. Hearing and vision disorders occur in more than half of people with Down syndrome. Vision problems occur in 38 to 80%. Between 20 and 50 % have strabismus.

Cataracts occur in 15%, may be present at birth. Keratoconus and glaucoma are more common, as are refractive errors requiring glasses or contacts. Brushfield spots are present in 38 to 85% of individ

The Intergalactic Kitchen

The Intergalactic Kitchen is a 1990 book by Frank Rodgers. The book was released in 1990; the book, part of the Sci-Fi genre, is centered on a kitchen. The Intergalactic Kitchen was published in the UK by Viking Penguin. Before the story starts, Frank Rodgers introduces the reader to the Bird family; the page starts: The Bird family live in the grounds of BONC - the National Bureau of Clever Experts, where some odd experiments go on. The story starts with Mr Bird installing a protection system for the house. Mrs Bird presses the kitchen goes into orbit; when in orbit many events happen. These include: An Intergalactic Traffic Warden, A Gossiping Alien and Electric Readers A Salesman A Bulldozer! The book was made into a TV series that run in 2004, it was shown on BBC One. The show is about their mother and Fleur, a rival from Snoo and Jay's school, they are about to go camping, when Mrs. Bird accidentally activates a force field, are shot off into outer space, they attempt to try to get back to earth.

Everything goes wrong, when Mrs. Bird accidentally climbs into the alien's spaceship, Mr. and Mrs. Krryptyx accidentally activate the engines, thus separating Mrs. Bird's children and Mr. and Mrs. Krryptyx's children; this has, on a series of mad adventures. The Intergalactic Kitchen title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Pickabook Intergalactic Kitchen Summary, Retrieved 13 February 2008


Rhynchotechum is a genus of plants in the family Gesneriaceae and tribe Cyrtandreae. Species distribution records are from India, Sri Lanka, China through to southern Japan, Indo-China and Malesia through to New Guinea. Plants of the World Online lists: Rhynchotechum alternifolium C. B. Clarke Rhynchotechum angustifolium Ridl. Rhynchotechum brandisii C. B. Clarke Rhynchotechum brevipedunculatum J. C. Wang Rhynchotechum burmanicum B. M. Anderson Rhynchotechum calycinum C. B. Clarke Rhynchotechum discolor B. L. Burtt Rhynchotechum ellipticum A. DC. Rhynchotechum eximium Schltr. Rhynchotechum formosanum Hatus. Rhynchotechum gracile B. M. Anderson Rhynchotechum hispidum C. B. Clarke Rhynchotechum hookeri B. M. Anderson Rhynchotechum longipes W. T. Wang Rhynchotechum obovatum B. L. Burtt Rhynchotechum parviflorum Blume Rhynchotechum permolle B. L. Burtt Rhynchotechum polycarpum Schltr. Rhynchotechum vestitum Wall. Ex C. B. Clarke Rhynchotechum vietnamense B. M. Anderson Media related to Rhynchotechum at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Rhynchotechum at Wikispecies