United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Downers Grove, Illinois
Downers Grove is a village in DuPage County, United States. It was founded in 1832 by Pierce Downer, it is a south-western suburb of Chicago in the I-55 Corridor Downers Grove was founded in 1832 by Pierce Downer, a farmer who traveled to Illinois from Rutland, New York, but was from Vermont. Its other early settlers included the Blodgett, Blanchard, Stanley and Carpenter families; the original settlers were migrants from the Northeastern United States and Northern Europe. The first schoolhouse was built in 1844; the Chicago and Quincy Railroad was extended from Aurora to Chicago through Downers Grove in 1864, boosting its population. The town was incorporated in March 1873, its somewhat unusual spelling remains a minor historical mystery. In April 1947 the wreck of a Burlington Railroad Twin Cities Zephyr passenger train killed three people, including the engineer; the streamliner struck a large tractor which had fallen from a freight train and two passenger cars crashed through a wall of the Main Street Station.
The construction of two major toll roads along the village's northern and western boundaries, I-355 in 1989 and what is now referred to as I-88 in 1958, facilitated its access to the rest of Chicago metropolitan area. Downers Grove has developed into a bustling Chicago suburb with many diverse businesses, including the headquarters for Devry University, FTD, Ambitech Engineering Corp, Heartland Food Corporation, HAVI Global Solutions. Downers Grove's 50-minute connection to the Loop via three BNSF Railway stations provides many working residents with a convenient commute to the city. Downers Grove itself serves as headquarters for a multitude of locally and nationally renowned businesses. Respective examples include Every Day's a Sundae,The Savory Gourmet, Advocate Health Care, Fortune 500 member Dover Corporation; the village is home to regional satellite offices of numerous national corporations, including Microsoft, MetLife, State Farm. Downers Grove's retail economy is supported by the local section of Ogden Avenue.
Part of U. S. Route 66, the stretch of Ogden Avenue that weaves through Chicago's western suburbs is known for its extensive range of automobile dealerships, classic car dealerships, service centers. Brands represented by Downers Grove auto groups include Aston Martin, Chrysler-Dodge-Jeep-Ram, Lamborghini, Mitsubishi and Volkswagen. Ogden—a colloquial shortening of the road's name—is framed by a variety of grocery and convenience stores such as CVS, Fresh Thyme Farmers Market, Trader Joe's, Walgreens. While the road serves as a route to destinations and corporate parks that host the aforementioned headquarters can be found on Ogden's tributaries adjacent to major tollways such as I-355 or I-88. According to the Village's 2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Downers Grove is located at 41.7948036°N 88.0169400°W / 41.7948036. According to the 2010 census, Downers Grove has a total area of 14.457 square miles, of which 14.31 square miles is land and 0.147 square miles is water.
Only the DuPage County communities of Bartlett, Aurora and Bolingbrook have larger land areas. Within the town are two forest preserves: Lyman Woods and Maple Grove Forest Preserve. A small creek runs through Maple Grove forest preserve. Downers Grove has been designated a Tree City USA 28 times by the National Arbor Day Foundation. Downers Grove borders the communities of Oak Brook, Darien, Lombard and Lisle. Downers Grove is in a humid continental climate zone. On average, January is the coldest month. August has the most precipitation, February the least; the record high for Downers Grove was 105 °F in July 2005, the record low of −26 °F was set in January 1985. The housing stock in Downers Grove comprises a mixture. Downers Grove has witnessed one of the highest teardown rates in the Chicago area. Teardowns have been the source of much controversy within the village. Since they occupy much more land than the original houses, rainwater, absorbed by their yards is directed into neighboring yards and streets, resulting in flooding.
Concerns have been expressed. Downers Grove prides itself on the presence of about 25 Sears-Roebuck Catalog Homes, built using purchased kits between 1908 and 1940. During 2006 and 2007, a movement arose to establish the 1846 Blodgett House as a museum of the Underground Railroad; the house has now been moved onto the Downers Grove Museum Campus. In 2012, the mean value of all owner-occupied housing units was $150,050 and the median value was $100,000. In 2018, the median sales price of a single-family home in Downers Grove was $382,500; this is a 1% increase from 2017 and the highest median sales price for Downers Grove since 2008. The main line of the BNSF Railway Line, the line is used by Metra commuter rail. Metra's BNSF Railway Line has three stops in Downers Grove at Belmont Road, Main Street, Fairview Avenue. Interstate Highways 355 and 88 pass through the community, as well as the major surface street US 34-Ogden Avenue. Downers Grove is served by a system of suburban public transportation.
Hinsdale is a village in Cook and DuPage counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. Hinsdale is a western suburb of Chicago; the population was 16,816 at the 2010 census. The town's ZIP code is 60521, it is listed in the top 1% of wealthiest towns in Illinois, it is known locally for its beautiful residences and teardown culture, of which new rebuilds have taken 30% of homes in the village. The town has a rolling, wooded topography, with a quaint downtown, is a 22-minute express train ride to downtown Chicago on the Burlington Northern line. Hinsdale is located 20 miles west of Chicago and is bordered by Western Springs to the east, Clarendon Hills and Westmont to the west, Oak Brook to the north, Burr Ridge and Willowbrook to the south, it can be reached by highway from Interstate 294 or Interstate 55. The eastern boundary of Hinsdale is I-294, the western boundary is Route 83. According to the 2010 census, Hinsdale has a total area of 4.633 square miles, of which 4.6 square miles is land and 0.033 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, 16,816 people lived in Hinsdale. The racial makeup of the village was 90.0% White, 1.3% African American, 0.0% Native American, 6.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.5% some other race, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.5% of the population. The census recorded 5,488 households in the village, out of which 48.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.2% were headed by married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.0% were non-families. 16.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.5% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03, the average family size was 3.43. According to the 2010 census, Hinsdale's age distribution amounted to 33.5% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 17.4% from 25 to 44, 32.3% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $165,598, the median income for a family was $170,433. Males had a median income of $161,579 versus $77,292 for females; the per capita income for the city was $78,902. About 2.2% of the population was below the poverty line, including 3.8% of those under age 18 and 0.4% of those age 65 or over. Hinsdale's downtown area is a National Register Historic District; the downtown area is located in the center of town and is remarkably little changed considering the many teardowns that have occurred in town. The village has restaurants, different types of shops, various services, as well as the train station; the Robbins Park district just east of downtown between Garfield Street and County Line Road, as well as between Hinsdale Avenue and 9th Street, is a National Register Historic District as well. The district includes two of Hinsdale's seven buildings individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places, as well as seven of seventeen Hinsdale Historic Landmarks.
The six individual Hinsdale buildings on the National Register of Historic Places are the Orland P. Bassett House at 329 E. Sixth St. the Robert A. and Mary Childs House at 318 S. Garfield Ave. Immanuel Evangelical Church at 302 S. Grant St. the Francis Stuyvesant Peabody House at 8 E. Third St. and the William Whitney House at 142 E. First St. Another significant architectural landmark is the R. Harold Zook Home and Studio, located at 327 S. Oak Street and was saved from demolition in 2005 by relocation to the Katherine Legge Memorial Park, 5941 S. County Line Road. To address Hinsdale's legacy of important architectural landmarks, the Hinsdale Historical Society runs the Roger & Ruth Anderson Architecture Center, which advocates for the preservation of Hinsdale's historical architecture and serves as an archive and resource; the village was incorporated on April 1, 1873. Law enforcement is provided by the Hinsdale Police Department; the Hinsdale Fire Department was established in 1893. The community is served by the United States Postal Service Hinsdale Post Office.
As of December 2014, the village president is Jr.. The village trustees are J. Kimberley Angelo, Christopher J. Elder, William N. Haarlow, Gerald J. Hughes, Laura LaPlaca and Bob Saigh. Hinsdale is served by Metra's BNSF Railway Line at three stations: West Hinsdale and Highlands. Additionally, Pace operates connecting bus services. Pace bus lines 663 and 668 serve Hinsdale. Community Consolidated School District 181 and the Hinsdale Township High School District 86 serve Hinsdale's youth; the high school district has its headquarters in Hinsdale. The School District 181 elementary schools within Hinsdale include The Lane School, Madison School, Monroe School, Oak School. Elementary schools in District 181 that are not in Hinsdale include Prospect School, Elm School, Walker School. Hinsdale Middle School, operated by the elementary school district, is in Hinsdale. Clarendon Hills Middle School, in District 181, is in Clarendon Hills. St Isaac Jogues is a K-8 Catholic Grade School School located in Hinsdale.
Hinsdale Central High School is located in Hinsdale. The Hinsdale Public Library is located in the west wing of the Memorial Building; the library opened in August 1893. The Memorial Building, the library's first permanent residence, was completed in 1929. D. K. Pearson, a director of the library association, donated his house and a portion of his estate to the library system. In 1988 the Memorial Building received an addition on the west side, th
Darien is a city in DuPage County, Illinois, USA. The population was 22,086 at the 2010 census. A south-western suburb of Chicago, Darien was named after a town in Connecticut; the first people to settle in Darien came from New England via the Erie Great Lakes. Among the first to arrive was the Andres Neiman family, they settled along an old stagecoach line in 1835. Andres served as Justice of the Peace, Town Clerk, Dog Catcher, County Commissioner, he established the Andres Inn, near what is the intersection of Lemont Road and I-55. Andres named the area "Cass."Andres and Father Beggs built the First Cass Church, a log cabin design. The church's cemetery, located west of where the church stood, can still be seen today; the church was used as a school house. Elisha and Eliza Smart settled in Darien in 1838 with their 10 children. Elisha joined the Gold Rush and left for California, returning seven years as a rich man, he bought more land and donated it, on which a new Cass Church was built in 1870.
John and Hannah Oldfield came to Cass in 1850. Mr. Oldfield increased his land holdings to 2,000 acres. In 1881, a man named; the factory was moved or closed. Martin Madden was an Irish immigrant, he became a member of the Chicago City Council and was elected to the House of Representatives and served in the United States Congress. In 1903, Mr. Madden built a home to look like the White House in Washington D. C. he called it Castle Eden. Today Castle Eden is part of the Aylesford Retreat Center of the Carmelite Fathers. A group of German Lutherans from Europe came to the area near 67th and Clarendon Hills Road in 1859, they laid out the cemetery behind the church. Today the cemetery is still located at Clarendon Hills Road. In 1899, a new church was built on the northeast corner of 75th Street; the Church was located where the Taco Buona Beef Restaurant now stand. In 1969, the second church was torn down and the present St. John's Lutheran Church was built west of Cass and north of 75th Street. A school was built on the northwest corner of Cass and 75th street in 1860.
It was the first Lace School. It burned down in 1924, was replaced with the present building, it is now a museum, open on the first Sunday of each month from 2:00pm to 4:00pm. By 1890, the Village of Lace was established; the important location at that time was the triangle bordered by Cass Avenue, Plainfield Road and 75th Street. It was called "The Point"; the Point included General Store, Blacksmith Shop and the office of Dr. Roe. A Post Office had been established at The Point in 1884; the future city of Darien was part of the Lace and Cass communities. Residents of the Marion Hills, Brookhaven and Hinsbrook subdivisions wanted to incorporate as a single city; when the incorporation committee reached an impasse on an acceptable name for the new city, acting mayor Sam Kelly suggested the name "Darien". He had visited Darien and found it to be a pleasant and attractive community. Today, Darien is known as "A Nice Place to Live". Darien in Illinois is pronounced with the accent on the first syllable.
According to the 2010 census, Darien has a total area of 6.303 square miles, of which 6.18 square miles is land and 0.123 square miles is water. Darien's City Hall used to be underground until 1994, when it was lifted up. Now only 75% is underground. Darien's City Hall is surrounded on three sides by the village of Downers Grove. Darien is bordered by the cities of Downers Grove, Woodridge and Willowbrook, it has easy access to the three major thoroughfares crossing Chicago's southwest suburbs: Interstate 55, Interstate 355, Interstate 294; as of the census of 2000, there were 22,860 people, 8,735 households, 6,455 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,782.7 people per square mile. There were 8,929 housing units at an average density of 1,477.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.10% White, 0.97% African American, 0.11% Native American, 9.53% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.97% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.64% of the population.
There were 8,735 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.1% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 30.0% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $78,122, the median income for a family was $95,332. Males had a median income of $70,580 versus $46,352 for females; the per capita income for the city was $39,795. About 1.6% of families and 2.2% of the po
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Illinois's 11th congressional district
The 11th Congressional District of Illinois is represented by Democrat Bill Foster. From 1865 to 1867 the district included Bureau, LaSalle and Woodford counties. From 1901 until 1947 the 11th congressional district included Kane, DuPage, McHenry and Will Counties. Following the Congressional Apportionment Act of 1947, the district covered a portion of Cook County and the far northwest side of Chicago centered on Norwood Park; the district was not changed by 1951's redistricting. In 1961, the district was widened westward to the Des Plaines River and east into parts of Lincoln Square; the district covered the northwest side of Chicago until the early 1990s when it moved closer to its current area, encompassing most of LaSalle and Grundy Counties, the southern part of Will County, the northern part of Kankakee County and a small portion of southwestern Cook County. The Illinois Congressional Reapportionment Act of 2001 defined its boundaries following the U. S. Census 2000. Following the U. S. Census 2010 the district includes Joliet in Will County, parts of Naperville in southern DuPage County, Aurora in Kane County.
It includes the Argonne National Laboratory. The congressional district covers parts of Cook, Du Page, Kane and Will counties, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census. All or parts of Aurora, Darien, Montgomery, Lisle, Downers Grove, New Lenox and Woodridge are included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2002 Census of Agriculture – 11th Congressional District Profile District map Congressional district profiles Washington Post page on the 11th District of Illinois U.
S. Census Bureau – 11th District Fact Sheet Maps Illinois Districts in 1903. Illinois Districts following the Congressional Apportionment Act of 1947. Illinois Districts following the Congressional Apportionment Act of 1951. Illinois Districts following the Congressional Apportionment Act of 1961; as of May 2015, three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 11th congressional district are alive