London Outer Orbital Path
The London Outer Orbital Path — more the "London LOOP" — is a 150-mile signed walk along public footpaths, through parks and fields around the edge of Outer London, described as "the M25 for walkers". The walk begins at Erith on the south bank of the River Thames and passes clockwise through Crayford, Petts Wood, Banstead, Kingston upon Thames, Elstree, Chingford, Grange Hill and Upminster Bridge before ending at Purfleet directly across the Thames from its starting point. Between these settlements the route passes through green buffers and some of the highest points in Greater London; the walk was first proposed at a meeting between The Ramblers and the Countryside Commission in 1990. It was given an official launch at the House of Lords in 1993; the first section was opened on 3 May 1996, with a ceremony on Coulsdon. Other sections followed at the rate of two or three per year as signs were installed and leaflets for individual sections published, the route becoming walkable in 2001. Following the election of Ken Livingstone as Mayor of London, the London Loop became one of his key routes, along with its sister route, the Capital Ring.
The route is divided into 24 sections in three groups: the "blue" group in South London, the "green" group in north-west London, the "yellow" group in north-east London. Each of the 24 sections links public transport nodes, though they vary in length, from 3.8 miles section 14 to 10 miles section 16. The guidebook by David Sharp adds together some of the shorter walks among the 24 to give 15 equal stages, designed to be day walks; the table below shows the correspondence between the official sections and Sharp's sometimes longer walks. Signposts and information boards direct the walker along the route. In countryside locations the waymarks consist of a simple white disc mounted on a wooden post, with a directional arrow and flying kestrel logo in blue and text in green. However, local authorities are responsible for funding these signs, so the quality varies from one borough to the next, with some sections not signed at all; the 54-mile blue route from Erith to Kingston is maintained by the Downlands Countryside Management Project, a joint initiative by several councils, is complete with signs and information boards, in addition to maps available from Tourist Information Centres.
There is no way to cross the river between Purfleet and Erith to complete the loop, although there was once a ferry to Erith, used by pilgrims on their way to Canterbury. In 2011 a proposal for a ferry to link the ends, to link to riverbuses upstream at Woolwich, was shortlisted in the RIBA Forgotten Spaces competition. Sharp, David; the London Loop. Aurum Press. ISBN 978-1-84513-787-8. John Barber, ed.. LOOP Walks: South London. Downlands Countryside Management Project. ISBN 0-9535991-0-8. Route of the LOOP on Waymarked trails
London Borough of Sutton
The London Borough of Sutton is a London borough in South London and forms part of Outer London. It is the 80th largest local authority in England by population, it is one of the southernmost boroughs of London. It is south of the London Borough of Merton, west of the London Borough of Croydon and east of the Royal Borough of Kingston Upon Thames; the local authority is Sutton London Borough Council. Its principal town is the eponymous Sutton; the Borough has some of the schools with the best results in the country. A Trust for London and New Policy Institute report noted that Sutton had the highest rate in London of pupils achieving 5 A* – C GCSEs. In December 2014 Sutton was described by a senior Government official as the most "normal place in Britain". In connection with this, the leader of Sutton Council described the borough as "quietly brilliant", noted that 91% of residents say it is "a great place to live". Low levels of recorded crime are a feature of the borough. An Ipsos MORI poll in 2014 found that 97% of residents felt safe in the borough during the day, 71% felt safe at night, a higher figure than in 2011.
The 2014 Family Hotspots Report, on the best places in England and Wales for families to live, placed three areas within the borough among the top 10 places in London. The areas were identified as postcodes SM1, SM2 and SM3. A Rightmove study in 2015 found that Sutton was the fourth happiest borough in which to live out of 33 in London, it achieved the same placing in the 2016 survey. In 2014, a survey by eMoov found Sutton to be the easiest place in the country in which to sell a property, it was shown in a national detailed Land Use Survey by the Office for National Statistics in 2005 that the London Borough of Sutton had the highest proportion of land taken up by gardens, 35.1%, of any district in England. The London Borough of Sutton was one of the four "vanguard areas" selected in 2010 for the Big Society initiative; the borough was formed in 1965 by the merger of the Municipal Borough of Sutton and Cheam with the Municipal Borough of Beddington and Wallington and Carshalton Urban District, part of Surrey.
The borough includes the areas: The London Borough of Sutton was once made up of rural villages, associated with feudal and royal estates. The "village feel" persists, places in the borough such as Carshalton and Belmont continue to be referred to as villages; the historic development of the borough is reflected in the number of heritage areas designated as conservation areas and as areas of special local character. Descriptions of a selection of the borough's cultural institutions and attractions are set out below; the Charles Cryer Studio Theatre is situated on the High Street in Carshalton Village. It was opened by His Royal Highness Prince Edward in 1991; as well as drama and musicals, productions included dance. With material ranging from Shakespeare to Chekov to panto and children's favourites, the theatre's aim was to balance popularity with quality; the theatre served as a concert venue for local bands and played host to the popular local Rockshot festival. The theatre is named after the man who led the campaign to open the Secombe Theatre, listed below.
In August 2016 Sutton Theatres Trust, which owned the theatre, went into administration and it closed. However, at a meeting in October 2018, the local council confirmed that the theatre would be brought back into use, following a successful bid to run the venue by Cryer Arts Ltd; the company plans a range of events, including music and theatre. The Secombe Theatre is in Cheam Road, adjacent to the Holiday Inn Hotel; the theatre was opened by Sir Harry. The theatre was created out of a former Christian Scientist church building dating from 1937; the main auditorium seats 396, there is a large multi-purpose function room attached. The Secombe Theatre is operated in conjunction with the Charles Cryer Studio Theatre, named after the man who led the campaign to open the Secombe Theatre.. Productions at the Secombe have ranged in content from modern productions to new twists on older, more established plays; some productions have been produced locally. From time to time comedians and musicians have appeared at the theatre.
In 2014, because of local council budget cuts, the venue was, along with its sister theatre, the Charles Cryer Theatre in Carshalton, identified by the Theatre Trust as one of 33 theatres in the country for inclusion on its "At Risk" register. The risk of closure spurred celebrity intervention in favour of the two theatres: writer, comedian and BBC presenter Tim Vine, called on Sutton Council to reconsider its proposals. On 10 November 2014 the local council announced that four organisations submitting outline bids to take over the two theatres had been invited to submit full business cases by 12 December; the council worked with the Theatres Trust and Sutton Centre for Voluntary Services to help bidders through the bidding process. On 15 January 2015 the bid by the new "Sutton Theatres Trust" was given approval by the council's environment and neighbourhood committee to take over the theatres, thus saving them from closure. In August 2016 the Trust went into administration and the theatre closed permanently.
Beddington Park is the location of Carew Manor, the home of the Beddington branch of the Carew family. The Grade I listed great hall, whi
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government occupies the second or third tier of government with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions; the question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public governance. The institutions of local government vary between countries, where similar arrangements exist, the terminology varies. Common names for local government entities include state, region, county, district, township, borough, municipality, shire and local service district.
Local government traditionally had limited power in Egypt's centralized state. Under the central government were twenty-six governorates; these were subdivided into villages or towns. At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, mayors, respectively. Governors were appointed by the president, they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers; the coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman. Before the revolution, state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables, but under Nasser, land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to government; the extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village.
The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union, fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables—in particular the village headmen—and checked their independence from the regime. State penetration did not retreat under Mubarak; the earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact. The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state; the district police station balanced the notables, the system of local government integrated them into the regime. Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces; the elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget.
In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. But local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, local policies reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers. In recent years, Mali has undertaken an ambitious decentralization program, which involves the capital district of Bamako, seven regions subdivided into 46 cercles, 682 rural community districts; the state retains an advisory role in administrative and fiscal matters, it provides technical support and legal recourse to these levels.
Opportunities for direct political participation, increased local responsibility for development have been improved. In August–September 1998, elections were held for urban council members, who subsequently elected their mayors. In May/June 1999, citizens of the communes elected their communal council members for the first time. Female voter turnout was about 70% of the total, observers considered the process open and transparent. With mayors and boards in place at the local level, newly elected officials, civil society organizations, decentralized technical services, private sector interests, other communes, donor groups began partnering to further development; the cercles will be reinstituted with a legal and financial basis of their own. Their councils will be chosen from members of the communal councils; the regions, at the highest decentralized level, will have a similar legal and financial autonomy, will comprise a number of cercles within their geographical boundaries. Mali needs to build capacity at these levels to mobilize and manage financial resources.
South Africa has a two tiered local government system comprising local munici
London Borough of Croydon
The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in south London, England and is part of Outer London. It is the largest London borough by population, it is the southernmost borough of London. At its centre is the historic town of Croydon from which the borough takes its name. Croydon is mentioned in Domesday Book, from a small market town has expanded into one of the most populous areas on the fringe of London. Croydon is the civic centre of the borough; the borough is now one of London's leading business and cultural centres, its influence in entertainment and the arts contribute to its status as a major metropolitan centre. Formed in 1965 from the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and the County Borough of Croydon, the local authority Croydon London Borough Council, is now part of the local government association for Greater London, London Councils; the economic strength of Croydon dates back to Croydon Airport, a major factor in the development of Croydon as a business centre. Once London's main airport for all international flights to and from the capital, it was closed on 30 September 1959 due to the lack of expansion space needed for an airport to serve the growing city.
It is now a Grade II listed tourist attraction. Croydon Council and its predecessor Croydon Corporation unsuccessfully applied for city status in 1954, 2000, 2002 and 2012; the area is going through a large regeneration project called Croydon Vision 2020, predicted to attract more businesses and tourists to the area as well as backing Croydon's bid to become London's Third City. Croydon is urban, though there are large suburban and rural uplands towards the south of the borough. Since 2003, Croydon has been certified as a Fairtrade borough by the Fairtrade Foundation, it was the first London borough to have Fairtrade status, awarded on certain criteria. The area is one of the hearts of the South East of England. Institutions such as the major arts and entertainment centre Fairfield Halls add to the vibrancy of the borough. However, its famous fringe theatre, the Warehouse Theatre, went into administration in 2012 when the council withdrew funding, the building itself was demolished in 2013; the Croydon Clocktower was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 as an arts venue featuring a library, the independent David Lean Cinema and museum.
From 2000 to 2010, Croydon staged an annual summer festival celebrating the area's black and Indian cultural diversity, with audiences reaching over 50,000 people. An internet radio station, Croydon Radio, is run by local people for the area; the borough is home to its own local TV station, Croydon TV. Premier League football club Crystal Palace F. C. play at Selhurst Park in Selhurst, a stadium they have been based in since 1924. Other landmarks in the borough include Addington Palace, an eighteenth-century mansion which became the official second residence of six Archbishops of Canterbury, Shirley Windmill, one of the few surviving large windmills in Greater London built in the 1850s, the BRIT School, a creative arts institute run by the BRIT Trust which has produced artists such as Adele, Amy Winehouse and Leona Lewis. For the history of the original town see History of CroydonThe London Borough of Croydon was formed in 1965 from the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and the County Borough of Croydon.
The name Croydon comes from Crogdene or Croindone, named by the Saxons in the 8th century when they settled here, although the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times. It is thought to derive from the Anglo-Saxon croeas deanas, meaning "the valley of the crocuses", indicating that, like Saffron Walden in Essex, it was a centre for the collection of saffron. By the time of the Norman invasion Croydon had a church, a mill and around 365 inhabitants as recorded in the Domesday Book; the Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop Lanfranc lived at Croydon Palace. Visitors included Thomas Becket, royal figures such as Henry VIII of England and Elizabeth I. Croydon carried on through the ages as a prosperous market town, they produced charcoal, tanned leather, ventured into brewing. Croydon was served by the Surrey Iron Railway, the first public railway in the world, in 1803, by the London to Brighton rail link in the mid-19th century, helping it to become the largest town in what was Surrey. In the 20th century Croydon became known for industries such as metal working, car manufacture and its aerodrome, Croydon Airport.
Starting out during World War I as an airfield for protection against Zeppelins, an adjacent airfield was combined, the new aerodrome opened on 29 March 1920. It became the largest in London, was the main terminal for international air freight into the capital, it developed into one of the great airports of the world during the 1920s and 1930s, welcomed the world's pioneer aviators in its heyday. British Airways Ltd used the airport for a short period after redirecting from Northolt Aerodrome, Croydon was the operating base for Imperial Airways, it was due to the airport that Croydon suffered heavy bomb damage during World War II. As aviation technology progressed and aircraft became larger and more numerous, it was recognised in 1952 that the airport would be too small to cope with the ever-increasing volume of air traffic; the last scheduled flight departed on 30 September 1959. It was superseded as the main airport by both London London Gatwick Airport; the air terminal, now known as Airport House, has been r
A right-of-way is a right to make a way over a piece of land to and from another piece of land. A right of way is a type of easement granted or reserved over the land for transportation purposes, such as a highway, public footpath, rail transport, canal, as well as electrical transmission lines and gas pipelines. A right-of-way can be used to build a bike trail. A right-of-way is reserved for the purposes of maintenance or expansion of existing services with the right-of-way. In the case of an easement, it may revert to its original owners. In the United States, railroad rights-of-way are considered private property by the respective railroad owners and by applicable state laws. Most U. S. railroads employ their own police forces, who can arrest and prosecute trespassers found on their rights-of-way. Some railroad rights-of-way include recreational rail trails. In the United Kingdom, railway companies received the right to resume land for a right-of-way by a private Act of Parliament; the various designations of railroad right of way are as follows: Active track is any track, used or only once in a while.
Out of service means the right of way is preserved, the railroad retains the right to activate it. The line could be out of service for decades, thus track or crossings that have been removed need to be replaced. By an embargo the track is removed, but the right of way is preserved and is converted into a walking or cycling path or other such use. An abandonment is a lengthy formal process. In most cases the track is removed and sold for scrap and any grade crossings are redone; the line will never be active again. The right of way reverts to the adjoining property owners. Railroad rights-of-way need not be for railroad tracks and related equipment. Easements are given to permit the laying of communication cables or natural gas pipelines, or to run electric power transmission lines overhead, along a railroad