Martinsburg, West Virginia
Martinsburg is a city in and the county seat of Berkeley County, West Virginia, United States, in the tip of the state's Eastern Panhandle region in the lower Shenandoah Valley. Its population was 17,687 in the 2016 census estimate, making it the largest city in the Eastern Panhandle and the ninth-largest municipality in the state. Martinsburg is part of MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Martinsburg was established by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, adopted in December 1778 during the American Revolutionary War. Founder Major General Adam Stephen named the gateway town to the Shenandoah Valley along Tuscarora Creek in honor of Colonel Thomas Bryan Martin, a nephew of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Aspen Hall is the oldest house in the city. Part was built in 1745 by Edward Beeson, Sr. Aspen Hall and its wealthy residents had key roles in the agricultural, religious and political history of the region. Significant events related to the French and Indian War. Three original buildings are still standing, including the rare blockhouse of Mendenhall's Fort.
The first United States post office in what is now West Virginia was established at Martinsburg in 1792. At that time and the larger territory were still part of Virginia; the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops were constructed in 1849 and rebuilt after the American Civil War. According to William Still, "The Father of the Underground Railroad" and its historian, Robert Brown, alias Thomas Jones, escaped from slavery in Martinsburg on Christmas night, 1856, he rode a horse and had it swim across the freezing Potomac River. After riding forty miles, he walked in cold wet clothes to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, he received assistance there from the Underground Railroad and traveled by train to Philadelphia, the office of William Still with the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. Brown's wife and four children had been sold, he had a likeness of his wife, locks of hair from each of them. In 1854, ten-year-old Isabelle Boyd, known as "Belle" and a noted spy for the Confederacy, moved to Martinsburg with her family.
After the Civil War began, Benjamin joined the Second Virginia Infantry, part of the Stonewall Brigade. His wife Mary was thus in charge of the Boyd home when Union forces under General Robert Patterson took Martinsburg; when a group of Patterson's men tried to raise a Union flag over the Boyd home, Mary refused. One of the soldiers, Frederick Martin, threatened Mary, Belle shot him, she was acquitted. She soon became involved in espionage, sending information to Confederate generals Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson and J. E. B. "Jeb" Stuart. She was helped by Eliza Corsey, a Boyd family slave whom Belle had taught to read and write. In 1863, Belle was imprisoned. Boyd's Greek Revival home, which he had built in 1853 and sold in 1855, had numerous owners over the decades. In 1992 it was purchased by the Berkeley County Historical Society; the historical society now operates it as the Berkeley County Museum. It is known as the Belle Boyd House. Most residents of West Virginia were yeomen farmers who supported the Union and, during the Civil War, they voted to separate from Virginia.
The new state was admitted to the Union during the war. The city of Martinsburg was incorporated by an act of the new West Virginia Legislature on March 30, 1868. Martinsburg became a center of its workers; the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began July 14, 1877 in this city at the B&O shops and spread nationwide. Telephone service was established in Martinsburg in 1883. In 1889, electricity began to be furnished to Martinsburg as part of a franchise granted to the United Edison Manufacturing Company of New York; the Interwoven mills began operations in Martinsburg in 1891. Construction of the "Apollo Civic Theatre" was completed in 1913. Over one thousand men from Berkeley County participated in World War I. Of these, forty-one were killed and twenty-one were wounded in battle. A monument to those who fell in battle was erected in Martinsburg in 1925. During World War II, the Newton D. Baker Hospital in Martinsburg treated thousands of soldiers wounded in the war. In 1946 this military hospital became a part of the Veterans Administration.
The VA Medical Center in Martinsburg still provides care to United States veterans. Due to restructuring beginning in the late 1940s and continuing through the 1970s, many of the mills and factories operating in Martinsburg shut down and went out of business, dealing a major blow to the local economy. Jobs were moved to the Deep South and offshore. Martinsburg is located at 39°27′33″N 77°58′4″W. Martinsburg is 24 miles southeast of Hagerstown, 89 miles west of Baltimore, 92 miles northwest of Washington, D. C. and 138 miles east of Morgantown. U. S. Route 11 runs through the center of town, Interstate 81 passes along the northern side of the town. Martinsburg is 212 miles distant from the state capital of Charleston. However, it is closer to no less than five other state capitals: Harrisburg PA - 80 miles, Annapolis MD - 85 miles, Dover DE - 132 miles, Richmond VA - 135 miles, Trenton NJ - 179 miles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.67 square miles, of which 6.65 square
National Register of Historic Places listings in Mingo County, West Virginia
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Mingo County, West Virginia. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Mingo County, West Virginia, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map. There are 8 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in West Virginia National Register of Historic Places listings in West Virginia
National Register of Historic Places listings in Jackson County, West Virginia
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Jackson County, West Virginia. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Jackson County, West Virginia, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map. There are 10 districts listed on the National Register in the county. Another property has been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in West Virginia National Register of Historic Places listings in West Virginia
National Register of Historic Places listings in McDowell County, West Virginia
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in McDowell County, West Virginia. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in McDowell County, West Virginia, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map. There are 17 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Most of these locations are the former company stores of coal companies; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in West Virginia National Register of Historic Places listings in West Virginia
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in