Dromod is a village in County Leitrim, Ireland. Dromod is a noted fishing village beside Boderg, which are threaded by the River Shannon. Built along the River Shannon, this is a Tidy Towns winner with a modern harbour frequented by cruiser traffic; the Bog Oak water feature in the centre of the village, entitled'The Weeping Tree', was made by a local craftsman from a piece of bog oak, found nearby. Between 2006 and 2011 the population of Dromod increased from 210 to 356, an increase of 69.5%. The village has a station on the Dublin-Sligo railway line connecting Sligo and Dublin Connolly long the mainline. Dromod railway station opened on 3 December 1862 and remains in operation, despite closing for goods services on 3 November 1975. Dromod had a railway station on the narrow gauge Cavan and Leitrim Railway, it opened on 24 October 1887 and closed on 1 April 1959. A short section of narrow gauge line has been reopened at the station as part of preservation efforts. In Gaelic Ireland the place was called "Dromode mac Shanley" in recognition of the dominant Mac Shanly sept of Muintir Eolais.
The town is mentioned once in the Irish Annals- "1473: A great war broke out in Muintir-Eolais. An attack was made by Mac Rannall on the town of Mac Shanly, the town was burned, Donough, the son of Donough Mac Shanly, many others, were slain by him". An Iron works was established at Dromod c. 1693 – c. 95. Pig iron brought to Dromod Finery forge was used to produce an malleable iron product, for transportation to Dublin and Limerick; the operation was closed down in the 1790s, due to an exhaustion of forests locally. Through at least the 19th and 20th century, an impressive seven annual fairs were held at Dromod- January 1, March 28, May 15, June 26, August 14, October 10, December 11; the 19th century poet John McDonald lived near Dromod in county Leitrim. List of towns and villages in Ireland Dromod railway station https://web.archive.org/web/20110201135748/http://godromod.com/
Lough Allen is a lake on the River Shannon in northeastern Connacht, Ireland. Most of the lake is with a smaller part in County Roscommon; the lake lies to the south of the River Shannon's source, near the Iron Mountains, is the uppermost of the three main lakes on the river. The other two, Lough Ree and Lough Derg are much further to the south. Lough Allen, out of which the Shannon takes its source, is nine miles long, three miles wide; the lake is shaped like an isosceles triangle. The Shannon enters the lake at the wider northern end and leaves the lake at the narrow southern end. Other rivers that feed the lake include the Yellow, the Stoney and the Arigna; the R280 regional road skirts the west side of the lake, while the R207 follows the east bank, from Ballinagleragh to Drumshanbo. The R200 road is on the north side of the lake, traveling west from Dowra to Drumkeeran. Slieve Anierin lie to the east of Lough Allen. In recent years, there has been speculation that notable reserves of oil and gas lie beneath the Allen basin.
Between c. 2001 – c. 2003, water quality was reported to be excellent with an oligotrophic rating. The pike population is the "native Irish strain" not the other European Pike strain; the ecology of Lough Allen, other Irish waterways, remain threatened by curly waterweed, zebra mussel, freshwater clam invasive species. Significant traces of Mesolithic inhabitation have been found around the lakeshore, with hundreds of stone tools collected. In total 1000 stone tools were collected during a set of surveys by Killian Driscoll, 95% were formed on silicified dolomite, which outcrops locally; the remaining 5% were formed from flint and quartz, along with the shale/mudstone and basalt ground/polished axes. The majority of the stone tools are characteristic of the Later Mesolithic, with possible evidence for the Early Mesolithic and limited evidence for Neolithic activity; the assemblage includes a number of stone axes and axe roughouts, the roughouts represent the first recorded, by the Irish Stone Axe Project, as found in a lakeside context in Ireland, with most provenanced examples coming from axe quarry sites.
Iron Ore has been extracted at Slieve Anierin for millennia. From the early 17th century a number of mines and works were conveniently contiguous to Lough Allen, allowing for the transportation of Iron Ore over water to the Iron works in boats of up to forty tons. During the Irish Rebellion of 1641 nearly all Iron-works were destroyed, but many were revived by the English after the Irish Confederate Wars. Extensive forests around Lough Allen before the 17th century were denuded to make Charcoal for Iron works, the industry collapsing in the 19th century. On the construction of the Shannon hydroelectric scheme in 1925-9, the lake became a storage reservoir for the power station nearly 100 miles away, with sluices to control the flow into the river; this helps to manage flooding at other times. It made the Lough Allen Canal, used by this time, unusable until restored in 1996. In the mid 19th Century, regattas were held by M. O'Conor at Lough Allen Island, known as O'Reilly's Island at the southern end of the lake.
The house is destroyed, only a ruin now exists. Regatta parties were held at Blackrock. E. K. Tenison of Kilronan Castle, the world famous photographer, Captain Tottenham, Captain Birchill and Francis la Touche attended the Regatta parties. Among the yachts competing in the regattas were'Corsair','Avenger','Querida','Meta' and'Shamrock'; the Water Wags from Dun Laoghaire, organised a regatta on Lough Allen, in September 2015, for their 14'-3" long historic open clinker dinghies. Competed in a regatta in 2014, including Penelope, Swift, Mollie, Marie Louise and Good Hope; this was the first regatta on the lake since the mid 19th century. List of loughs in Ireland Slieve Anierin
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group is bound to a carbon. The term alcohol referred to the primary alcohol ethanol, used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. An important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members, includes all compounds for which the general formula is CnH2n+1OH, it is these simple monoalcohols. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; when a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol. However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups have names which include neither the suffix -ol, nor the prefix hydroxy-. Alcohol distillation originated in India. During 2000 BCE, people of India used. Alcohol distillation was known to Islamic chemists as early as the eighth century.
The Arab chemist, al-Kindi, unambiguously described the distillation of wine in a treatise titled as "The Book of the chemistry of Perfume and Distillations". The Persian physician, alchemist and philosopher Rhazes is credited with the discovery of ethanol; the word "alcohol" is from a powder used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English. Alcohol was used for the fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb2S3, it was considered to be the essence or "spirit" of this mineral. It was used as an antiseptic and cosmetic; the meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, narrowed to ethanol, when "spirits" was a synonym for hard liquor. Bartholomew Traheron, in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo, introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" authors for "fine powder." Vigo wrote: "the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or alcofoll, for moost fine poudre."The 1657 Lexicon Chymicum, by William Johnson glosses the word as "antimonium sive stibium."
By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine," the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia refers to "vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum". Johnson glosses alcohol vini as "quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat." The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as "alcohols" in modern chemistry after 1850. The term ethanol was invented 1892, combining the word ethane with the "-ol" ending of "alcohol". IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important in cases where the relative complexity of the molecule does not make such a systematic name unwieldy. In naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds the suffix -ol, e.g. as in "ethanol" from the alkane chain name "ethane".
When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the -ol: propan-1-ol for CH3CH2CH2OH, propan-2-ol for CH3CHCH3. If a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy-is used, e.g. as in 1-hydroxy-2-propanone. In cases where the OH functional group is bonded to an sp2 carbon on an aromatic ring the molecule is known as a phenol, is named using the IUPAC rules for naming phenols. In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain; as described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix. Alcohols are classified into primary and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group.
The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH. The simplest primary alcohol is methanol, for which R=H, the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. Secondary alcohols are those of the form RR'CHOH, the simplest of, 2-propanol. For the tertiary alcohols the general form is RR'R"COH; the simplest example is tert-butanol, for which each of R, R', R" is CH3. In these shorthands, R, R', R" represent substituents, alkyl or other attached organic groups. In archaic nomenclature, alcohols can be named as derivatives of methanol using "-carbinol" as the ending. For instance, 3COH can be named trimethylcarbinol. Alcohols have a long history of myriad uses. For simple mono-alcohols, the focus on this article, the following are most important industrial alcohols: methanol for the production of formaldehyde and as a fuel additive ethanol for alcoholic beverages, fuel additive, solvent 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutyl alcohol for use as a solvent a
Fenagh, County Leitrim
Fenagh is a Village in County Leitrim in the west of Ireland. It is between Ballinamore and Mohill; the area was the site of the battle of Fidhnacha in 1094. Fenagh Abbey is one of the oldest monastic sites in Ireland, believed to date back to the earliest period of Celtic monasticism; the founder was St. Caillín, thought to have arrived in Fenagh from Dunmore in County Galway in the 5th century; the Abbey had a monastic school, was "celebrated for its divinity school, resorted to by students from every part of Europe". Magnus, son of Muirchertach Muimnech, wrote in 1244: Fedlimid mac Cathail Chrobdeirg made an immense hosting eastwards into Brefne against O Raigillig, to avenge his fosterson and kinsman, Tadc O Conchobair, they encamped for a night at Fenagh. At that time there was no roof on the church of Fenagh, the coarb was away that night, and as he was not present, the common soldiers of the host burned the huts and tents which were inside the church, without permission of their leaders, the coarb's foster-child, God's gift, was suffocated.
Now learned men relate that the coarb received this foster-child by finding him on a large stone which stood in that place, never knew of his having either mother or father. Next day he came to them in anger and indignation at the death of the boy, requiring O Conchobair to pay the blood-fine for his foster-child, O Conchobair said he could choose what fine he pleased. ‘I choose’ said he ‘the best man among you, as compensation for the child of God whom you have burnt.’ ‘That’ said O Conchobair ‘is Magnus, the son of Muirchertach Muimnech.’ ‘Nay, not so,’ said Magnus ‘but he, leader of the host.’ ‘I will not go from you so’ said the coarb ‘until I get the fine for my foster-child.’ After this the host departed from that place, the coarb followed them to Ath na Cuirre on the Yellow River, flowing over its banks, so that they could not cross it till they broke up the spital-house of John the Baptist, which stood beside the ford, used its materials to bridge the river for the host to pass across.
Magnus son of Muirchertach Muimnech and Conchobar son of Cormac Mac Diarmata went into the house, Magnus spoke to a man, above him, at work on the house-breaking. He was buried outside the doorway of the church of Fenagh, thrice the capacity of the Bell of the Kings of silver and thirty horses were given as an offering with him, thus did the coarb of St. Caillin at last recover compensation for his fosterling of God from them. A beautiful monument of carved stone with an excellently wrought stone cross was afterwards made over him, but after a while the Ui Ruairc in their enmity demolished it; the writer John McGahern lived and farmed in Fenagh for the last 30 years of his life. Much of his inspiration for Amongst Women, That they May Face the Rising Sun and Memoir comes from the area. John Ellis, politician Tadhg O Rodaighe, renowned antiquarian and scholar, one of the last erenagh of Fenagh Abbey; the Fenagh railway station opened on 24 October 1887 and closed on 1 April 1959. It was part of the narrow-gauge Cavan and Leitrim Railway from Belturbet to Dromod with a line to Arigna from Ballinamore.
At Fenagh, two church ruins stand on the site of an earlier monastery founded by St. Caillin in the 6th century; the main ruins of the Gothic church have an east window of unusual design and a relief-carved 17th-century penal cross. A number of standing stones in the vicinity represent the petrified bodies of druids who tried to expel St. Caillin from Fenagh. There are a number of other prehistoric remains located near the village. A portal tomb at the north of the village is said to be the burial place of King Conall Gulban. 19 Gaelic kings are said to be buried in the graveyard. There was a divinity school at Fenagh, it is believed. It was damaged by cannon fire during the Williamite wars in 1690, the last service was said in 1729; the site is on the northern shore of Fenagh Lough. The Book of Fenagh was completed at the monastery in 1516, a copy is now kept at the Royal Irish Academy, it was written in Irish, contains verse and prose of the "life" of St Caillin of Fenagh transcribed and translated from the, now lost, Old Book of St. Caillin.
The original Old Book of St. Caillin "only contained prose" but the Book of Fenagh / Leabar Chaillín / Leabar Fidhnacha of 1516, contained both prose and verse; some poems relevant to the politics of 11th-13th-century Tyrconnell, are thought to date from an earlier period than the rest of the manuscript. The Book of Fenagh, in Irish and English, is available to read for free. List of towns and villages in Ireland. Ó Donnabháin, Sean. Book of Fenagh and Copious Notes. Fenagh, Ireland: Maolmhordha Mac Dubhghoill Uí Raghailligh. Retrieved 20 August 2016. Costello, Michael A.. De annatis Hiberniae: a calendar of the first fruits' fees levied on papal appointments to benefices in Ireland A. D. 1400 to 1535. Dundalk: Printed and published by W. Tempest
County Cavan is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region, it is based on the historic Gaelic territory of East Breffny. Cavan County Council is the local authority for the county, which had a population of 76,176 at the 2016 census. Cavan borders six counties: Leitrim to the west and Monaghan to the north, Meath to the south-east, Longford to the south-west and Westmeath to the south. Cavan shares a 70 km border with County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. Cavan is the 19th largest of the 25th largest by population. There are eight historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes, their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units". Castlerahan see Virginia, County Cavan Clankee Clanmahon Loughtee Lower Loughtee Upper – whose chief town, Cavan, is the county town Tullygarvey Tullyhaw – the largest in the county at 89,852 acres Tullyhunco Townlands are the smallest defined geographical divisions in Ireland, there are 1979 townlands in the county.
Cavan - 10,914 Bailieborough - 2,683 Ballyjamesduff - 2,661 Virginia - 2,648 Kingscourt - 2,499 The county is characterised by drumlin countryside dotted with many lakes and hills. The north-western area of the county is sparsely mountainous; the Breifne Mountains contain Cuilcagh, at 665 metres. Cavan is the source of many rivers. Shannon Pot on the slopes of Cuilcagh is the source of the River Shannon, the longest river in Ireland at 386 km; the River Erne is a major river which rises from Beaghy Lough, two miles south of Stradone in Cavan and flows for 120 km to Lough Erne. Other rivers in the county include the Blackwater River, which rises near Bailieborough and flows through Lough Ramor, joining the River Boyne at Navan; the Glyde and the Owenroe source in Cavan. Cavan is reputed to contain 365 lakes. At 18.8 km2, Lough Sheelin is the county's largest lake. A large complex of lakes form in the north and west of Cavan into designated Specially Protected Areas. Other important wildlife protected lakes such as Lough Gowna and Lough Ramor are in the south and east of the county.
Cavan has a hilly landscape and contains just under 7,000 hectares of forested area, 3.6% of Cavan's total land area. The county contains forests such as Bellamont Forest near Cootehill, Killykeen Forest Park at Lough Oughter, Dún na Rí Forest Park and the Burren Forest. Met Éireann records the climate data for Cavan from their station at Ballyhaise. Under Köppen climate classification, Cavan experiences a maritime temperate oceanic climate with cold winters, mild humid summers, a lack of temperature extremes; the average maximum January temperature is 8.2 °C, while the average maximum July temperature is 19.8 °C. On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is October with 104.4 mm of rain, the driest months are May and June with 67.8 mm and 67.9 mm respectively. Humidity is high year round and rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with the annual precipitation at Ballyhaise being 1,006 mm On average, snow showers occur between November and March. In 2010, record low temperatures for November and January were recorded in Cavan.
In late December, the temperature at the station fell to − its lowest ever. On Tuesday 21 December 2010, a daily maximum of −9.4 °C was recorded at Ballyhaise, the lowest daily maximum recorded in Ireland. Summer daytime temperatures range between 15 °C and 22 °C, with temperatures going beyond 25 °C; the average annual sunshine hours range between 1,300 hours in the north to 1,500 hours in the south. In medieval times, the area of Cavan was part of the petty kingdom of East Bréifne or Brefney O'Reilly after its ruling Gaelic family; this in turn was a division of the 11th century Kingdom of Bréifne. For this reason the county is colloquially known as the Breffni County. A high degree of defence was achieved by using the natural landscape of drumlin loughs; the poorly drained heavy clay soils contributed as an obstacle against invasion. Cavan was part of the western province of Connacht, but was transferred to Ulster in 1584 following the composition of Breifne. In the south, the Lough Sheelin area was part of Leinster until the late 14th century.
Parts of Cavan were subjected to Norman influence from the twelfth century and the remains of several motte and bailie fortifications are still visible in the east of the county, as well as the remains of stronger works such as Castlerahan and Clogh Oughter castle. The influence of several monastic orders owes its origins to around this time with abbey remains existent in locations such as Drumlane and Trinity Island; the Plantation of Ulster from 1610 saw the settlement and origins of several new towns within the county
Shannon Pot or Legnashinna is a pool in the karst landscape in the townland of Derrylahan near Cuilcagh Mountain in County Cavan, Ireland. An aquifer-fed fluctuating pool, it is the traditional source of the River Shannon; the pool itself is about 16 m wide, has been dived to −14.6 metres. Towns and villages near the Shannon Pot include Dowra and Glangevlin. According to legend, the Shannon is named after Sionnan, the granddaughter of Manannán mac Lir, the god of the sea, she came to this spot to eat the forbidden fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, planted by the druids. As she began to eat it, the waters of the pool overwhelmed her, she was drawn down into the pool and its water began to flow over the land, forming the River Shannon. Shannon Pot was first explored by divers Roger Solari and John Elliot on multiple dives in 1971, to a depth of firstly 6 9 metres. At this point the water was found to emerge from up to 300 mm in height, their progress was hampered by submerged tree branches, equipment problems and poor visibility in the dark brown water.
The pot was explored by Martyn Farr, among others, but no further progress was made until the late 2000s. In December 2008 and January 2009 the pot was dived again by Alasdair Kennedy and Paul Doig, subsequently by Artur Kozłowski. After widening the slit and continuing downwards past a loose cobblestone slope, Kozłowski discovered an unstable chamber. A strong current was found to emerge from a unstable shaft in the floor. Doig and Kennedy surveyed the chamber to a depth of 14.6 metres. Surveys have defined a 12.8 km2 immediate catchment area covering the slopes of Cuilcagh. This area includes 2.2 km to the northeast of the pot. Water from Garvagh drains before emerging at Shannon Pot; the highest point in the catchment is a spring at Tiltinbane on the western end of the Cuilcagh mountain ridge. Further sinks that source the pot include Pollboy and, through Shannon Cave, Pollahune in County Cavan and Polltullyard and Tullyrrakeeragh in Fermanagh. Surveys suggest. In times of high flow it has been shown to be hydrologically linked to Badger Pot and Pigeon Pot located 10.6 km north of the Shannon Pot in the Cuilcagh Mountain near Florencecourt Forest Park, Fermanagh
Black Pig's Dyke
The Black Pig's Dyke or Worm's Ditch is a series of discontinuous linear earthworks in southwest Ulster and northeast Connacht, Ireland. Remnants can be found in north County Leitrim, north County Longford, County Cavan, County Monaghan and County Fermanagh. Sometimes, the Dorsey enclosure in County Armagh and the Dane's Cast in County Down are considered to be part of the dyke. Similar earthworks can be found throughout Ireland. A notable example is the Claidh Dubh, anglicised Cleeduff, in eastern County Cork, it has three sections, the longest of which runs north–south for 24 kilometres from the Ballyhoura Hills to the Nagle Mountains. In counties Leitrim and Cavan the earthworks are called the Black Pig's Dyke or Dike. In County Longford it is called the Black Pig's Race, while in the Cavan–Monaghan border area it is called Black Pig's Dyke or Worm Ditch; the ditches take their names from Gaelic folklore. One tale says. Another says; the earthworks consist of a bank with a ditch on either side.
The bank is about 9 metres wide and the ditches are about 6 metres deep. Excavation of a stretch in County Monaghan revealed that the original construction was of a substantial timber palisade with external ditch. Behind the palisade was a double bank with intervening ditch; the timber structure was radiocarbon-dated to 390–370 BCE, so all of the earthworks may date to that period. Such dates confound the once popular theory that the earthworks were made in imitation of the Roman frontier in northern Britain; some have put forward the idea. However, there is no evidence that they "collectively constitute one border for one people" – the earthworks may not be contemporary and there are large gaps between them. Others suggest that their sole purpose was to prevent cattle raiding, common in ancient Ireland. Two theories have been put forward to explain. One is that they were built across trackways that were used by cattle raiders, another is that the gaps between them were once wooded and thus no manmade defence was needed.
The remains of the earthworks can be found in the following places: North County Leitrim: running northwest-southeast, from Lough Melvin to Lough MacNean, near the villages of Rossinver and Kiltyclogher. Northeast County Longford: running northwest-southeast for 10 kilometres, from Lough Gowna to Lough Kinale, near the villages of Dring and Granard. County Cavan–County Monaghan border: running west–east from the Finn River to the townland of Corrinshigo. County Cavan: forming a wide semi-circle in the townland of Ardkill More, 3½ miles east of Bellananagh; this is one of the best surviving examples. Cavan Heritage Group have called for the cessation of operations on a nearby quarry which they maintain is damaging part of the dyke at Ardkill More. County Fermanagh: part of linear earthwork, in Lislea townland and in Mullynavannoge townland, – Scheduled Historic Monuments