Derrington is a village west of the town of Stafford, in Staffordshire, England. For population details from the 2011 Census see under Seighford. Derrington has an 18th-century pub, The Red Lion. Derrington has a village hall; the Church of England parish church of Saint Matthew is a Gothic Revival building completed in 1847. The route of the abandoned Shropshire Union Railway between Stafford and Shrewsbury passes the village. Derrington Village
Stafford is the county town of Staffordshire, in the West Midlands of England. It lies 16 miles north of Wolverhampton, 18 miles south of Stoke-on-Trent and 24 miles north-west of Birmingham; the population in 2001 was 63,681 and that of the wider borough of Stafford 122,000, the fourth largest in the county after Stoke-on-Trent and Newcastle-under-Lyme. Stafford means'ford' by a'staithe'; the original settlement was on dry sand and gravel peninsula that provided a strategic crossing point in the marshy valley of the River Sow, a tributary of the River Trent. There is still a large area of marshland northwest of the town, which has always been subject to flooding, such as in 1947, 2000 and 2007, it is thought Stafford was founded about 700 AD by a Mercian prince called Bertelin who, according to the legend, established a hermitage on the peninsula named Betheney. Until it was thought that the remains of a wooden preaching cross from this time had been found under the remains of St Bertelin's chapel, next to the collegiate Church of St Mary in the centre of the town.
Recent re-examination of the evidence shows this was a misinterpretation – it was a tree-trunk coffin placed centrally in the first, chapel at around the time Æthelflæd founded the burh, in 913 AD. The tree-trunk coffin may have been placed there as an object of commemoration or veneration of St Bertelin. A centre for the delivery of grain tribute during the Early Middle Ages, Stafford was commandeered in July 913 AD by Æthelflæd, Lady of Mercia, in order to construct a burh there; this new burh was fortified and provided with an industrial area for the centralised production of Roman-style pottery, supplied to the chain of West Midlands burhs. Æthelflæd and her younger brother, King Edward the Elder of Wessex, were attempting to complete their father King Alfred the Great's programme of unifying England into a single kingdom. Æthelflæd was a formidable military leader and tactician, she sought to protect and extend the northern and western frontiers of her overlordship of Mercia against the Danish Vikings, by fortifying burhs, including Tamworth and Stafford in 913, Runcorn on the River Mersey in 915 among others, while King Edward the Elder concentrated on the east, wresting East Anglia and Essex from the Danes.
Anglo-Saxon women could play powerful roles in society. Edward the Elder of Wessex took over her fortress at Tamworth and accepted the submission of all who were living in Mercia, both Danish and English. In late 918 Aelfwynn, Æthelflæd's daughter, was deprived of her authority over Mercia and taken to Wessex; the project for the unification of England took another step forward. Stafford was one of Æthelflæd's military campaign bases and extensive archaeological investigations, recent re-examination and interpretation of that evidence now shows her new burh was producing, in addition to the Stafford Ware pottery, food for her army and weaponry, but no other crafts and there were few imports; the Lady of Mercia, Æthelflæd, ruled Mercia for five years after the death of her father and husband, dying in Tamworth in 918. At around this time the county of Staffordshire was formed. Stafford lay within the Pirehill hundred. In 1069, a rebellion by Eadric the Wild against the Norman conquest culminated in the Battle of Stafford.
Two years another rebellion, this time led by Edwin, Earl of Mercia, culminated in Edwin's assassination. This meant. Robert de Tonei was granted one third of the king's rents in Stafford; the Norman conquest in Stafford was therefore brutal, resulted not only in the imposition of a castle, but in the destruction and suppression of every other activity except the intermittent minting of coins for about a hundred years. Stafford Castle was built by the Normans on the nearby hilltop to the west about 1090, it was first made of wood, rebuilt of stone. It has been rebuilt twice since, the ruins of the 19th century gothic revival castle on the earthworks incorporate much of the original stonework. Redevelopment began in the late 12th century, while the church, the main north-to-south street and routes through the late Saxon industrial quarter to the east remained, in other ways the town plan changed. A motte was constructed on the western side of the peninsula, overlooking a ford, facing the site of the main castle of Stafford, on the hill at Castle Church, west of the town.
Tenements were laid out over the whole peninsula and trade and crafts flourished until the early 14th century, when there was another upset associated with the plague of Black Death, followed in the mid 16th century by another revival. In 1206 King John granted a Royal Charter. In the Middle Ages Stafford was a market town dealing in cloth and wool. In spite of being the shire town, Stafford required successive surges of external investment from the time of Æthelflæd to that of Queen Elizabeth I. King Richard II was paraded through the town's streets as a prisoner in 1399, by troops loyal to Henry Bolingbroke; when James I visited Stafford, he was said to be so impressed by the town's Shire Hall and other buildings that he called it'Little London'. Charles I visited Stafford shortly after the out-break of the English Civil War, he stayed for three days at the Ancient High House. The town was captured by the Parliamentarians, while a small-scale battle was fought at nearby Hopton. Stafford fell to the Parliamentarians, as did
The River Sow is a tributary of the River Trent in Staffordshire, is the river that flows through Stafford. The river rises to the south of Loggerheads, near to Broughton and flows south-east beside the small settlements of Fairoak, Bishop’s Offley and Walk Mill until it reaches Cop Mere. To the east of the Mere the river is joined by the Brockton Brook before it flows past Eccleshall and its castle where it is crossed by the A519; the Sow continues in a south-easterly direction, passing Chebsey, it is joined by the Meece Brook before it reaches the mill at Worston and Little and Great Bridgeford. The river flows through the nature reserve of Doxey Marshes until it reaches Stafford, where it flows through Victoria park. Beyond the town at Baswich the Sow is joined by its largest tributary the River Penk, it continues beneath the bridge between Milford and Tixall until it flows through the grounds of Shugborough Hall to meet the Trent near Essex Bridge. Between 1816 and the 1920s, the section between Stafford and Baswich was navigable, was known as the River Sow Navigation.
There are plans to restore it, which are being spearheaded by a community interest company called Stafford Riverway Link. The river was tested in 2009 and had pH levels of 7.6. Oxygen saturation levels at the source of the river are 68%. Fish species found in the river include Chub, Roach and Bream
Wikivoyage is a free web-based travel guide for travel destinations and travel topics written by volunteer authors. It is a sister project of Wikipedia and supported and hosted by the same non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Wikivoyage has been called the "Wikipedia of travel guides"; the project began when editors at the German and Italian versions of Wikitravel decided in September 2006 to move their editing activities and current content to a new site, in accordance with the site copyright license, a procedure known as "forking". The resulting site went live as "Wikivoyage" on December 10, 2006 and was owned and operated by a German association set up for that purpose, Wikivoyage e. V.. Content was published under the copyleft license Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike. In 2012, after a long history of dissatisfaction with their existing host, the English-language version community of Wikitravel decided as a community to fork their project. In a two-way move, the English Wikitravel community re-merged with Wikivoyage under the Wikivoyage brand, all Wikivoyage language versions moved their operations to be hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization hosting several of the world's largest wiki-based communities such as Wikipedia.
Following agreements by the various communities involved and the Wikimedia Foundation, the site was moved to the WMF servers in December 2012 and the whole of Wikivoyage was re-launched as a Wikimedia project on January 15, 2013, the day of the 12th anniversary of Wikipedia's launch. Using a wiki model, Wikivoyage is built through collaboration of Wikivoyagers from around the globe. Articles can cover different levels of geographic specificity, from continents to districts of a city; these are logically connected in a hierarchy, by specifying that the location covered in one article "is within" the larger location described by another. The project includes articles on travel-related topics, phrasebooks for travelers, suggested itineraries. Wikivoyage is a multilingual project available in nine languages, with each language-specific project developed independently. While now a Wikimedia project, it was begun independently. Wikivoyage content is broadly categorized as: destinations, itineraries and travel topics.
Geographical units within the geographical hierarchy may be described in articles, based on the criterion, "can you sleep there?" The hierarchy includes: Continents Continental sections Countries Regions within countries Cities of any size, including small villages if they are tourist destinations Districts within large cities National parks provided they have accommodation for the travellerAttractions such as hotels, bars, nightclubs, tour operators, statues or other works of art, city parks, town squares or streets, festivals or events, transport systems or stations, bodies of water, uninhabited islands are listed in the article for the place within which they are located. An itinerary describes a group of destinations according to a temporal division rather than a spatial one and will list destinations and attractions to visit during a given amount of time, with recommended durations of stay and routes to follow. Itineraries may cross geographical regions, but have a well-defined path.
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This is intended to facilitate the production of printed guides from a legal point of view. Media files are intended to be published either in the public domain or licensed under multiple licenses; the information is built up in a more structured way than usual for encyclopaedias. Articles belonging to a topic are grouped by the categories known from the Mediawiki software as well as through the so-called bread crumb trails which show the geographical connection between the articles. In the German-language version, different name spaces are used to separate different topics; the main name space contains travel destinations within their geographical hierarchy. Two other important name spaces are reserved for travel topics and travel news, with the intent to allow a tight interconnection between travel destinations and topics; the content design is decided by consensus of the community of authors. At the time of transfer to WMF, the content of Wikivoyage was available in German, English
Birmingham New Street railway station
Birmingham New Street is the largest and busiest of the three main railway stations in the Birmingham City Centre, England. It is a central hub of the British railway system, it is a major destination for Virgin Trains services from London Euston, Glasgow Central and Edinburgh Waverley via the West Coast Main Line, the national hub of the CrossCountry network – the most extensive in Britain, with long-distance trains serving destinations from Aberdeen to Penzance. It is a major hub for local and suburban services within the West Midlands, including those on the Cross City Line between Lichfield Trent Valley and Bromsgrove, the Chase Line to Walsall and Rugeley Trent Valley; the station is named after New Street, which runs parallel to the station, although the station has never had a direct entrance to New Street except via the Grand Central shopping centre. The main entrance to the station was on Stephenson Street, just off New Street. Today the station has entrances on Stephenson Street, Smallbrook Queensway, Hill Street and Navigation Street.
New Street is the sixth busiest railway station in the UK and the busiest outside London, with 43.7 million passenger entries and exits between April 2017 and March 2018. It is the busiest interchange station outside London, with nearly 6.8 million passengers changing trains at the station annually. In 2018 New Street had a passenger satisfaction rating of 92%, the third highest in the UK; the original New Street station opened in 1854. At the time of its construction, the station had the largest single-span arched roof in the world, In the 1960s, the station was rebuilt. An enclosed station, with buildings over most of its span and passenger numbers more than twice those it was designed for, the replacement was not popular with its users. A £550m redevelopment of the station named Gateway Plus opened in September 2015, it includes a new concourse, a new exterior facade, a new entrance on Stephenson Street. Around 80% of train services to Birmingham go through New Street; the other major city-centre stations in Birmingham are Birmingham Moor Street and Birmingham Snow Hill.
Outside Birmingham, in Solihull, is Birmingham International, which serves Birmingham Airport and the National Exhibition Centre. Since 30 May 2016, New Street has been served by the West Midlands Metro tram line, when the adjacent Grand Central tram stop opened outside the station's main entrance on Stephenson Street as the new terminus of Line 1, following the opening of the city-centre extension from Birmingham Snow Hill. New Street station was built by the London and North Western Railway between 1846 and 1854. Samuel Carter, solicitor to both LNWR and the Midland Railway, managed the conveyancing, it was built in the centre of Birmingham, replacing several earlier rail termini on the outskirts of the centre, most notably Curzon Street, which had opened in 1838, was no longer adequate for the level of traffic. Until 1885 the LNWR shared the station with the Midland. However, in 1885 the Midland Railway opened its own extension alongside the original station for the exclusive use of its trains creating two stations side-by-side.
The two companies stations were separated by a central roadway. Traffic grew and by 1900 New Street had an average of 40 trains an hour departing and arriving, rising to 53 trains in the peak hours; the London and North Western Railway had obtained an Act of Parliament in 1846, to extend their line into the centre of Birmingham, which involved the acquisition of some 1.2 hectares of land, the demolition of 70 or so houses in Peck Lane, The Froggery, Queen Street, Colmore Street. The Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion chapel, on the corner of Peck Lane and Dudley Street, which had only been built six years before, was demolished; the station was formally opened on 1 June 1854, although the uncompleted station had been in use for two years as a terminus for trains from the Stour Valley Line, which entered the station from the Wolverhampton direction. On the formal opening day, the LNWR's Curzon Street station was closed to regular passenger services, trains from the London direction started using New Street.
The station was constructed by Messrs. Fox, Henderson & Co. and designed by Edward Alfred Cowper of that firm, who had worked on the design of The Crystal Palace. When completed, it had the largest arched single-span iron and glass roof in the world, spanning a width of 211 feet and being 840 ft long, it held this title for 14 years until St Pancras station opened in 1868. It was intended to have three spans, supported by columns, however it was soon realised that the supporting columns would restrict the workings of the railway. Cowper's single-span design, was therefore adopted though it was some 62 feet wider than the widest roof span at that time. George Gilbert Scott praised Cowper's roof at New Street, stating “An iron roof in its most normal condition is too spider-like a structure to be handsome, but with a little attention this defect is obviated; the most wonderful specimen is that at the great Birmingham Station... ” When first opened, New Street was described as the "Grand Central Station at Birmingham".
The internal layout of tracks and platforms was designed by Robert Stephenson and his assistants. The main entrance building on Stephenson Street incorporated Queen's Hotel, designed by John William Livock, opened on the same day; the Queen's Hotel was built in an Italianate style and was provided with 60 rooms. The hotel was expanded several times over the years, reached its final form in 1917 with t
Stafford railway station
Stafford railway station is the only railway station in Stafford, England, is the second busiest railway station in Staffordshire, after Stoke-on-Trent. The station serves the county town, as well as surrounding villages; the station lies on the junction of the Rugby-Birmingham-Stafford Line. Stafford station formerly served the now defunct Stafford to Uttoxeter and Stafford to Shrewsbury Lines; the current station building was built in 1962, is the fourth station to have existed on this site. The interior of the station was refurbished in 2015, which allowed the station to have a new WH Smiths store, an improved ticket office; the first station was built by the Grand Junction Railway and opened in July 1837. It soon became inadequate and was replaced by a second station in 1844. A third station was built in 1862, replaced by the current concrete Brutalist building in 1962, built as part of the modernisation programme which saw the electrification of the West Coast Main Line. Lines built by the Stafford and Uttoxeter Railway and the Shropshire Union Railways and Canal Company used the station.
The Stafford to Uttoxeter line closed to passenger traffic in 1939, with the Shrewsbury line closing as part of the Beeching Axe in 1964. Following the rebuilding of the station between 1961 and 1962 by the architect William Robert Headley, Isabel, a narrow gauge engine built by local firm W. G. Bagnall stood on a plinth on the opposite side of Station Road at the junction of Railway Street, until it was removed in the mid-1980s and is now on the Amerton Railway. Two accidents have happened at Stafford since 1990: On 4 August 1990, an out-of-service train heading to a depot in Birmingham crashed into the back of an express train bound for Penzance on Platform 4 at Stafford station; the driver was killed and 36 people were injured. On 8 March 1996, a mail train collided with a freight train carrying liquid carbon dioxide just south of Stafford. A mail sorter was killed and another 22 people were injured; the mail train locomotive came to rest against a house. There are five platforms in use at the station, all of which are accessible from either of the main lines that converge from the south.
Platform 1 is used for services to London Euston, platform 3 is used for services from London Euston towards Liverpool and Crewe. Platform 4 is used for trains towards Birmingham New Street, the West of England. Platform 5 is used for services from towards Manchester, Wales. Platform 6 is used for trains starting/terminating towards/from London Euston, Birmingham New Street, Stoke-on-Trent and Liverpool Lime Street; the Stafford Area Improvements programme meant that trains are no longer bound to a platform based upon direction of travel, trains can now use any platform, regardless of direction. Platform 6 used to be the terminus of the Chase Line, however it now terminates in Rugeley; the platform is sometimes used for Railtours hence why the platform is split into "a" and "b" sections. The former bay platform 2 is no longer used by passenger trains. While Virgin Trains operated the British Rail Class 57 Platform 2 used to operate as a'stable' for these trains, but since their retirement, this job is now redundant.
The bay platform'stables' other locomotives from freight operators. The westernmost platform was used by Royal Mail, to load mail from the sorting office next-door to the platform; this practice has since ended, now the westernmost Platform has been converted into a Single Goods Line, with bi-directional operation. This was completed during the bank holiday weekend of the 29–31 August 2015. In October 2012 Network Rail began refurbishment works at the station, due to the poor condition of some of the structures; the work included resurfacing the platforms, improving surface and roof drainage, renewing the opaque glazing on the footbridge, installing new canopy roof covers on the platforms and some structural work on the platform supports. In June 2015 Virgin Trains unveiled £1 million plans to refurbish the entrance, ticket hall and foyer; the worked was anticipated to be completed within 20 weeks. These were completed March 2016; the changes saw the ticket machines at the station double, WHSmith relocate to the former travel centre, the travel centre added onto the current ticket purchasing area and Starbucks take the place of Pumpkin Café Shop.
The Cafe was shortened to allow an increased size of the waiting area. The station has many facilities which are typical of those across the Virgin Trains Network, such as a ticket office, car park, coffee shop, newsagent; the Stafford Area Improvements Programme by Network Rail aims to allow more trains to run and aims to reduce journey times by removing key bottlenecks in the area around Stafford. The programme included large scale building works, north of Stafford station in Norton Bridge, where a flyover was implemented to allow faster train services, removed the need to slow down before entering the junction. Other benefits of the programme, were the introduction of bi-directional signals at Stafford Station, which meant that trains can now use any platform, regardless of direction of travel; the resignalling aspect of the programme was completed over the bank holiday weekend of 29–31 August 2015. All platforms now have bi-directional signalling, the goods loop is now operational; the resignalling programme meant that Stafford signal boxes would be closed, trains would be controlled from the Rugby R