Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, together with their Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and to the electorate; the office of Prime Minister is one of the Great Offices of State. The current holder of the office, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016; the office is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists only by long-established convention, which stipulates that the monarch must appoint as Prime Minister the person most to command the confidence of the House of Commons. The position of Prime Minister was not created; the office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament.
Although the Sovereign was not stripped of the ancient prerogative powers and remained the head of government, politically it became necessary for him or her to govern through a Prime Minister who could command a majority in Parliament. By the 1830s the Westminster system of government had emerged; the political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication, photography. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged. Prior to 1902, the Prime Minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons; however as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister's authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process.
The Prime Minister is ex officio First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury; the status of the position as Prime Minister means that the incumbent is ranked as one of the most powerful and influential people in the world. The Prime Minister is the head of the United Kingdom government; as such, the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition, the Prime Minister leads a major political party and commands a majority in the House of Commons; the incumbent wields both significant legislative and executive powers. Under the British system, there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. In an executive capacity, the Prime Minister appoints all other Cabinet members and ministers, co-ordinates the policies and activities of all government departments, the staff of the Civil Service.
The Prime Minister acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad. Upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the Sovereign exercises many statutory and prerogative powers, including high judicial, political and Church of England ecclesiastical appointments; the British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, meaning that it is not set out in any single document. The British constitution consists of many documents and most for the evolution of the Office of the Prime Minister, it is based on customs known as constitutional conventions that became accepted practice. In 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs:In this country we live... under an unwritten Constitution. It is true that we have on the Statute-book great instruments like Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the Bill of Rights which define and secure many of our rights and privileges, they rest on usage, convention of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, but which in the course of time received universal observance and respect.
The relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign and Cabinet are defined by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Minister's executive and legislative powers are royal prerogatives which are still formally vested in the Sovereign, who remains the head of state. Despite its growing
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into sections and shelves. It is larger and has a wider selection than earlier grocery stores, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market; the supermarket has aisles for meat, fresh produce and baked goods. Shelf space is reserved for canned and packaged goods and for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies; some supermarkets sell other household products that are consumed such as alcohol and clothes, some sell a much wider range of non-food products: DVDs, sporting equipment, board games, seasonal items. A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket. Other services may include those of banks, cafés, childcare centres/creches, Mobile Phone services, photo processing, video rentals, pharmacies or petrol stations. If the eatery in a supermarket is substantial enough, the facility may be called a "grocerant", a blend of "grocery" and "restaurant".
The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space on a single level. It is situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers; the basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and the convenience of shopping hours that extend into the evening or 24 hours of the day. Supermarkets allocate large budgets to advertising through newspapers, they present elaborate in-shop displays of products. Supermarkets are chain stores, supplied by the distribution centers of their parent companies thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale. Supermarkets offer products at low prices by using their buying power to buy goods from manufacturers at lower prices than smaller stores can, they minimise financing costs by paying for goods at least 30 days after receipt and some extract credit terms of 90 days or more from vendors. Certain products are occasionally sold as loss leaders so as to attract shoppers to their store.
Supermarkets make up for their low margins by a high volume of sales, with of higher-margin items bought by the attracted shoppers. Self-service with shopping carts or baskets reduces labor cost, many supermarket chains are attempting further reduction by shifting to self-service check-out. In the early days of retailing, products were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer; this offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers." These practices were by nature slow and labor-intensive and therefore quite expensive. The number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store.
Shopping for groceries often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, bakery and dry goods store. Milk and other items of short shelf life were delivered by a milkman; the concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, creating, in effect, an open-air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit and flowers; the expectation was that customers would come from great distances, but in the end attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores, his first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas; the stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, became common in North American cities in the 1920s.
Early self-service grocery stores did not produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. There has been debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims. Other contenders included Henke & Pillot. To end the debate, the Food Marketing Institute in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution and with funding from H. J. Heinz, researched the issue, they defined the attributes of a supermarket as "self-service, separate product departments, discount pricing and volume selling."They determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City; the store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventee
Farringdon is a suburb of Sunderland and Wear. Farringdon is a council-built housing estate, erected in the 1950s, it is 3 miles south of the city centre along the A690, close to Thorney Close, East Herrington, Gilley Law and Doxford Park. The origin of the name Farringdon derives from "Farnton Hall"- an estate on the land, owned by a family known as the Peppers from at least the 16th century; the estate was part of the parish of Bishopwearmouth. After World War II, the land was sold by Cuthbert Pepper to the Sunderland County Borough Council, whom proceeded to build a housing estate on it. Three schools were built in Farringdon: a comprehensive school, a junior school and an infants school. In 2002 the junior and infants schools were combined into a single primary school. Although all homes on the estate were council-owned, today many residents have bought their own homes. Farringdon contains a large secondary school, a primary school; the police have a station in Farringdon that covers the west division of the city, a fire station was built.
There is a large social club, two churches, two pubs and three shopping parades. In Farringdon is the Jubilee Centre, a community centre offering activities and learning opportunities for people in the area a McDonald's, two residential homes for the elderly. All street names in Farringdon begin with the letter A; the main street running through the centre of the estate is Allendale Road. Other streets include Archer Road, Avonmouth Road,Aldwych Road,Aldwych Square,Abercorn Road, Arbroath Road, Antwerp Road, Arckle Road,Aboyne Square, Archer Square Andrew Road
The A19 is a major road in England running parallel to and east of the A1 road, although the two roads meet at the northern end of the A19, the two roads met at the southern end of the A19 in Doncaster but the old route of the A1 was changed to the A638. From Sunderland northwards, the route was the A108. In the past the route was known as the East of Snaith-York-Thirsk-Stockton-on-Tees-Sunderland Trunk Road. Most traffic joins the A19, heading for Teesside, from the A168 at Dishforth Interchange; the southern end of the A19 starts at the St Mary's Roundabout with the A630 Church Way and A638 just to the north of Doncaster itself near to the parish church. It leaves the A638 at the next roundabout as Bentley Road, winds its way over the East Coast Main Line, which it follows through Selby and York, through the suburb of Bentley passing the Shell Bentley Service Station, St Peter's church and the Druid's Arms and out into the countryside to the north of the urban area, it passes the Pavilion exhibition centre.
Much of the course of the southern section of the A19 runs through the old Yorkshire coalfield, with evidence of old slag-heaps and colliery buildings. It passes through the primary school, it passes through a former mining village. It goes through Owston, passing the Owston Park Lodge. Here it passes the Askern Hotel, Red Lion Hotel and Askern Service Station and goes over a level crossing. There is a boating lake, St Peter's church and a greyhound stadium. There is a left turn for Norton. There are some long straights north of here, the surrounds are flat as the road heads towards the M62, it enters North Yorkshire and the district of Selby where it crosses the River Went near Walden Stubbs. There are some crossroads at Balne Moor, it passes through Whitley Thorpe and Whitley and the George & Dragon, it meets the M62 at junction 34. From the M62, the village of Eggborough has been bypassed in recent years, with the new road travelling from this roundabout to near the power station to the right.
Close by is Whitley Bridge and the A19 meets the A645 at a roundabout and its previous alignment to the north of the village, before travelling through Chapel Haddlesey where it crosses the River Aire and the small village of Burn, west of the former RAF Burn, where it crosses the Selby Canal before Brayton, it joins the A63. The £44m six mile A63 Selby bypass, to the south of the town opened on 11 June 2004. Before this happened, all the traffic, headed straight towards the centre of Selby, over a level-crossing and on to a busy traffic-light junction with the A63 from Leeds; the A19 took the major of the concurrency through the town centre, whilst crossing the old toll bridge and heading on north towards York. The road is still the A19 through Selby, but the bypass is the A63. However, north-bound traffic follows the A63; the £5m 5-mile Riccall and Barlby bypass opened in October 1987. This provided better junctions with the A63 and A163; the A63 and A19 meet at a roundabout near a large pickle factory.
It heads towards Riccall. Where the road leaves the old railway, the Trans Pennine Trail follows along the old track. At Escrick, it enters the Vale of York, passes the BP York Road Garage, the Parsonage Hotel and the church of St Helen. Next is Deighton, passing the White Swan Inn it heads towards Crockey Hill, it meets the A64 near the headquarters of Persimmon plc. The York Northern By-Pass as the A1237 is a substitute for the A19 through York – this road is poorly engineered and has frequent roundabouts; the A19 still goes through York, beginning with the Fulford Interchange with the A64 close to a shopping centre Fulford, meeting the B1222 and passing St Oswald's church. It passes through Clifton and Rawcliffe. North of York, the road passes the Riverside Farm pub goes through Skelton as Shipton Road passing the Blacksmith's Arms and Ramada York Hotel, it re-enters North Yorkshire and the district of Hambleton and goes straight through the middle of Shipton by Beningbrough as Main Street, to the annoyance of many residents.
It passes Dawnay Arms and the Holy Evangelists church. Leaving the village it passes a garage on the left. There goes through Tollerton Forest. Heading northward the section between York and Thirsk was not helped much by the opening of the £5m 3-mile Easingwold Bypass in November 1994, as the road remained single carriageway, starting at a roundabout. There is a left turn for Raskelf; the residents of Thormanby look forward to their village being bypassed. Here it passes the Black Bull pub. There is the small dwelling of Birdforth with a roadside cafe and crossroads for Hutton Sessay and Carlton Husthwaite, it goes across Pudding Pie Hill. It meets the A168 from the south, the old route through Thirsk is now the A170 the A61; the bypass meets the A168 at a junction near South Kilvington. North of Thirsk, the A19 takes over from the A168 as the link from the A1 to Teesside and becomes a fast dual carriageway with grade separated interchanges; the five-mile £4.4 million Thirsk By-pass was opened on 5 September 1972 by Robin Turton, Baron Tranmire, the local MP, with a flypast by f
City of Sunderland
The City of Sunderland is a local government district of Tyne and Wear, in North East England, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough. It is named after its largest settlement, but covers a far larger area which includes the towns of Hetton-le-Hole, Houghton-le-Spring, Washington, as well as a range of suburban villages; the district was formed in 1974, titled the Metropolitan Borough of Sunderland, as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972 and is an amalgamation of four former local government districts of County Durham. It was granted city status in 1992, the 40th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the throne; the borough had a population of 275,300 at the time of the 2011 census, with the majority of the population residing in Sunderland. The'Sunderland Built-up Area' is quoted alternatively as having a population of around 335,000; the metropolitan borough was formed in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972 by the merger of several districts of County Durham - Washington Urban District, Houghton-le-Spring Urban District and Hetton Urban District - with the County Borough of Sunderland.
The metropolitan borough was granted city status in 1992, the 40th anniversary of the Queen's accession. At the Queen's Golden Jubilee the city was unsuccessful. Although the city does not have a Cathedral, as it is located in the Diocese of Durham, it does have Sunderland Minster. Between 1939 and 1945 the Wear yards launched 245 merchant ships totalling 1.5 million tons, a quarter of the merchant tonnage produced in the UK at this period. Competition from overseas caused a downturn in demand for Sunderland built ships toward the end of the 20th century; the last shipyard in Sunderland closed in 1988. HMS Ocean, the Royal Navy's biggest warship, is Sunderland's adopted ship. In March 2004 it was granted the freedom of the City. St Benedict Biscop was adopted as the City's Patron Saint in March 2004. Like all metropolitan authorities, the city is divided into a number of wards or electoral districts; each has three councillors elected for a four-year term. One third of councillors face re-election each year, no city elections are held in the fourth year of the election cycle - this was when each ward's sole metropolitan county councillor was elected, prior to the county council's abolition in 1986.
The City has 25 such wards. When the boundaries of these wards were set in 1982, each ward had a equal population. By 2004 there had been a considerable shift in population. In particular, the east and south east – the old parish of Sunderland and the mining village of Ryhope – had lost population to the "New Town" of Washington; as a result, the boundaries were redrawn. The 2004 election for all 75 councillors was held on 10 June 2004; the Local Government Act 1972 created two different two-tier systems for local administration, with different division of functions. As a metropolitan authority, Sunderland retained responsibility for waste collection, although disposal of the waste was a county function, for education. In 1986, when Tyne and Wear Metropolitan County Council was abolished, most county functions became the responsibility of the constituent districts, whilst new joint boards assumed the co-ordinating roles in the county, thus control over economic development, of the Museums and Archive Service, of the Tyne and Wear Fire and Civil Defence Authority and of the Passenger Transport Authority is exercised not by committees of directly elected county councillors but by nominees chosen by the elected members of the five district authorities.
Sunderland has not had a separate police force since 1967, when the Borough of Sunderland Police merged with Durham Constabulary. The City is now part of the Northumbria Police Force area; this force was set up in 1974, covers the whole of Tyne and Wear plus the much larger but much less densely populated county of Northumberland. The city is unparished, except for Hetton-le-Hole, a civil parish, which has a town council; the City has had a Labour controlled council since 1974, before that. After the elections of May 2003 the political structure was 63 Labour, 9 Conservative, 1 independent; the only Liberal Party councillor sat with the only Liberal Democrat as a "Liberal/Democrat" group. Three Councillors resigned from the Labour Party following disputes over the selection of candidates for the 2004 elections. Two became independent members; the reorganisation of electoral areas saw major changes in all but two wards, but the elections of 10 June 2004, the first fought under the new boundaries, saw little change in the political representation of the City as a whole, with 61 Labour, 12 Conservative, 2 Liberal Democrat councillors elected.
The Conservative party won all three seats in a new ward. The Liberal Democrats stronghold ward was abolished and became part of four new wards, the Liberal Democrat councillors elected in 2004 were from two different areas. Following further disputes within the Labour Party, three councillors resigned the whip at the end of 2006 and, joined by one of the Liberal Democrat members formed an independent group, the minority party in opposition. At the elections of May 2007, the Labour Party continued their decline. Labour lost three seats to the Conservatives, whilst former Labour Mayor Mrs Julianna Heron lost to an independent: the same person who had defeated her husband in 2003 and, in turn defeated by him in 2004; the Conservative pa
James Earl Carter Jr. is an American politician and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A Democrat, he served as a Georgia State senator from 1963 to 1967 and as the 76th governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. Carter has remained active in public life during his post-presidency, in 2002 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in co-founding the Carter Center. Raised in Plains, Carter graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1946 with a Bachelor of Science degree and joined the United States Navy, where he served on submarines. After the death of his father in 1953, Carter left his naval career and returned home to Georgia to take up the reins of his family's peanut-growing business. Carter inherited comparatively little due to his father's forgiveness of debts and the division of the estate among the children, his ambition to expand and grow the Carters' peanut business was fulfilled. During this period, Carter was motivated to oppose the political climate of racial segregation and support the growing civil rights movement.
He became an activist within the Democratic Party. From 1963 to 1967, Carter served in the Georgia State Senate, in 1970, he was elected as Governor of Georgia, defeating former Governor Carl Sanders in the Democratic primary on an anti-segregation platform advocating affirmative action for ethnic minorities. Carter remained as governor until 1975. Despite being a dark-horse candidate, little known outside of Georgia at the start of the campaign, Carter won the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination. In the general election, Carter ran as an outsider and narrowly defeated incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford. On his second day in office, Carter pardoned all the Vietnam War draft evaders. During Carter's term as president, two new cabinet-level departments, the Department of Energy and the Department of Education, were established, he established a national energy policy that included conservation, price control, new technology. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties, the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, the return of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama.
On the economic front he confronted persistent stagflation, a combination of high inflation, high unemployment and slow growth. The end of his presidential tenure was marked by the 1979–1981 Iran hostage crisis, the 1979 energy crisis, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In response to the invasion, Carter escalated the Cold War by ending détente, imposing a grain embargo against the Soviets, enunciating the Carter doctrine, leading an international boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. In 1980, Carter faced a primary challenge from Senator Ted Kennedy, but he won re-nomination at the 1980 Democratic National Convention. Carter lost the general election in an electoral landslide to Republican nominee Ronald Reagan. Polls of historians and political scientists rank Carter as an average president. In 2012, Carter surpassed Herbert Hoover as the longest-retired president in U. S. history, in 2017 became the first president to live to the 40th anniversary of his inauguration.
He is the oldest and earliest-serving of all living U. S. presidents. In 2019, Carter surpassed George H. W. Bush as the longest-lived American president in U. S. history. In 1982, he established the Carter Center to expand human rights, he has traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations, monitor elections, advance disease prevention and eradication in developing nations. Carter is considered a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity charity, he has written over 30 books ranging from politics to poetry and inspiration. He has criticized some of Israel's actions and policies in regards to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and has advocated for a two-state solution. James Earl Carter Jr. was born on October 1, 1924, at the Wise Sanitarium in Plains, Georgia, a hospital where his mother was employed as a registered nurse. Carter was the first U. S. president to be born in a hospital. He was the eldest son of Bessie Lillian and James Earl Carter Sr. Carter is a descendant of English immigrant Thomas Carter, who settled in Virginia in 1635.
Numerous generations of Carters lived as cotton farmers in Georgia. Carter is a descendant of Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Cornell University's founder, is distantly related to Richard Nixon and Bill Gates. Plains was a boomtown of 600 people at the time of Carter's birth. Carter's father was a successful local businessman, who ran a general store, was an investor in farmland, he served as a reserve second lieutenant in the U. S. Army's Quartermaster Corps during World War I; the family moved several times during Carter Jr.'s infancy. The Carters settled on a dirt road in nearby Archery, entirely populated by impoverished African American families, they had three more children: Gloria and Billy. Carter got along well with his parents, although his mother worked long hours and was absent in his childhood. Although Earl was staunchly pro-segregation, he allowed his son to befriend the black farmhands' children. Carter was an enterprising teenager, given his own acre of Earl's farmland where he grew and sold peanuts.
He rented out a section of tenant housing that he had purchased. Carter attended the Plains High School from 1937 to 1941. By that time, the Great Depression had impoverished Archery and Plains, but the family benefited from New Deal farming subsidies, Earl
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm