A male organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm. Each spermatozoon can fuse with ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, but some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most male mammals, including male humans, have a Y chromosome, which codes for the production of larger amounts of testosterone to develop male reproductive organs. Not all species share a common sex-determination system. In most animals, including humans, sex is determined genetically, but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. For example, Cymothoa exigua changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity; the existence of two sexes seems to have been selected independently across different evolutionary lineages. The repeated pattern is sexual reproduction in isogamous species with two or more mating types with gametes of identical form and behavior to anisogamous species with gametes of male and female types to oogamous species in which the female gamete is much larger than the male and has no ability to move.
There is a good argument that this pattern was driven by the physical constraints on the mechanisms by which two gametes get together as required for sexual reproduction. Accordingly, sex is defined operationally across species by the type of gametes produced and differences between males and females in one lineage are not always predictive of differences in another. Male/female dimorphism between organisms or reproductive organs of different sexes is not limited to animals. In land plants and male designate not only the female and male gamete-producing organisms and structures but the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants. A common symbol used to represent the male sex is the Mars symbol, ♂ — a circle with an arrow pointing northeast; the symbol is identical to the planetary symbol of Mars. It was first used to denote sex by Carl Linnaeus in 1751; the symbol is called a stylized representation of the Roman god Mars' shield and spear. According to Stearn, all the historical evidence favours that it is derived from θρ, the contraction of the Greek name for the planet Mars, Thouros.
The sex of a particular organism may be determined by a number of factors. These may be genetic or environmental, or may change during the course of an organism's life. Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals, such as worms, have both male and female reproductive organs. Most mammals, including humans, are genetically determined as such by the XY sex-determination system where males have an XY sex chromosome, it is possible in a variety of species, including humans, to be XXY or have other intersex/hermaphroditic qualities, though one would still be considered genotypically male so long as one has a Y-chromosome. During reproduction, a male can give either an X sperm or a Y sperm, while a female can only give an X egg. A Y sperm and an X egg produce a male, while an X egg produce a female; the part of the Y-chromosome, responsible for maleness is the sex-determining region of the Y-chromosome, the SRY. The SRY activates Sox9, which forms feedforward loops with FGF9 and PGD2 in the gonads, allowing the levels of these genes to stay high enough in order to cause male development.
The ZW sex-determination system, where males have a ZZ sex chromosome may be found in birds and some insects and other organisms. Members of the insect order Hymenoptera, such as ants and bees, are determined by haplodiploidy, where most males are haploid and females and some sterile males are diploid. In some species of reptiles, such as alligators, sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. Other species, such as some snails, practice sex change: adults start out male become female. In tropical clown fish, the dominant individual in a group becomes female while the other ones are male. In some arthropods, sex is determined by infection. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia alter their sexuality. In those species with two sexes, males may differ from females in ways other than the production of spermatozoa. In many insects and fish, the male is smaller than the female. In seed plants, which exhibit alternation of generations, the female and male parts are both included within the sporophyte sex organ of a single organism.
In mammals, including humans, males are larger than females. In birds, the male exhibits a colorful plumage that attracts females. Boy Female Gender Male plant Male pregnancy Man Masculinity Gentleman Wedgwood, Hensleigh. "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society: 68
Star Trek is an American space opera media franchise based on the science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. The first television series called Star Trek and now referred to as "The Original Series", debuted in 1966 and aired for three seasons on NBC, it followed the interstellar adventures of Captain James T. Kirk and his crew aboard the starship USS Enterprise, a space exploration vessel built by the United Federation of Planets in the 23rd century; the Star Trek canon includes The Original Series, an animated series, five spin-off television series, the film franchise, further adaptations in several media. In creating Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by the Horatio Hornblower novels, the satirical book Gulliver's Travels, Westerns such as the television series Wagon Train; these adventures continued in the 22-episode Star Trek: The Animated Series and six feature films. Five other television series were produced: Star Trek: The Next Generation follows the crew of a new starship Enterprise, set a century after the original series.
The most recent Star Trek TV series, entitled Star Trek: Discovery, aired on the digital platform CBS All Access. The adventures of The Next Generation crew continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a "reboot" set in an alternate timeline, or "Kelvin Timeline," entitled Star Trek; this film featured a new cast portraying younger versions of the crew from the original show. Its sequel, Star Trek Beyond, was released to coincide with the franchise's 50th anniversary. Star Trek has been a cult phenomenon for decades. Fans of the franchise are called Trekkers; the franchise spans a wide range of spin-offs including games, novels and comics. Star Trek had a themed attraction in Las Vegas that opened in 1998 and closed in September 2008. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world; the series has Klingon. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions; as of July 2016, the franchise had generated $10 billion in revenue, making Star Trek one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.
Star Trek is noted for its cultural influence beyond works of science fiction. The franchise is noted for its progressive civil rights stances; the Original Series included. Star Trek references may be found throughout popular culture from movies such as the submarine thriller Crimson Tide to the animated series South Park; as early as 1964, Gene Roddenberry drafted a proposal for the science-fiction series that would become Star Trek. Although he publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space—a so-called "Wagon Train to the Stars"—he told friends that he was modeling it on Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, intending each episode to act on two levels: as a suspenseful adventure story and as a morality tale. Most Star Trek stories depict the adventures of humans and aliens who serve in Starfleet, the space-borne humanitarian and peacekeeping armada of the United Federation of Planets; the protagonists have altruistic values, must apply these ideals to difficult dilemmas. Many of the conflicts and political dimensions of Star Trek represent allegories of contemporary cultural realities.
Star Trek: The Original Series addressed issues of the 1960s, just as spin-offs have reflected issues of their respective decades. Issues depicted in the various series include war and peace, the value of personal loyalty, imperialism, class warfare, racism, human rights, sexism and the role of technology. Roddenberry stated: " a new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, Vietnam and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek: we were sending messages and they all got by the network." "If you talked about purple people on a far off planet, they never caught on. They were more concerned about cleavage, they would send a censor down to the set to measure a woman's cleavage to make sure too much of her breast wasn't showing"Roddenberry intended the show to have a progressive political agenda reflective of the emerging counter-culture of the youth movement, though he was not forthcoming to the networks about this. He wanted Star Trek to show what humanity might develop into, if it would learn from the lessons of the past, most by ending violence.
An extreme example is the alien species, the Vulcans, who had a violent past but learned to control their emotions. Roddenberry gave Star Trek an anti-war message and depicted the United Federation of Planets as an ideal, optimistic version of the United Nations, his efforts were opposed by the network because of concerns over marketability, e.g. they opposed Roddenberry's insistence that Enterprise have a racially diverse crew. The central trio of Kirk, McCoy from Star Trek: The Original Series was modeled on classical mythological storytelling. There is a mythological component with science fiction. It's people looking for answers – and science fiction offers to explain the inexplicable, the same as religion tends to do... If we accept the premise that it has a mythological element all the stuff about going out into space and meeting new life – trying to explain it and put a human element to it – it's a hopeful visio
The mohawk is a hairstyle in which, in the most common variety, both sides of the head are shaven, leaving a strip of noticeably longer hair in the center. The mohawk is sometimes referred to as an iro in reference to the Iroquois, from whom the hairstyle is derived - though the hair was plucked out rather than shaved. Additionally, hairstyles bearing these names more resemble those worn by the Pawnee, rather than the Mohawk, Mohican/Mahican, Mohegan, or other phonetically similar tribes; the red-haired Clonycavan Man bog body found in Ireland is notable for having a well-preserved Mohawk hairstyle, dated to between 392 BCE and 201 BCE. It is today worn as an emblem of non-conformity; the world record for the tallest mohawk goes to Kazuhiro Watanabe, who has a 1.13 meters tall mohawk. While the mohawk hairstyle takes its name from the people of the Mohawk nation, an indigenous people of North America who inhabited the Mohawk Valley in upstate New York, the association comes from Hollywood and more from the popular 1939 movie Drums Along the Mohawk starring Henry Fonda.
The Mohawk and the rest of the Iroquois confederacy in fact wore a square of hair on the back of the crown of the head. The Mohawk did not shave their heads when creating this square of hair, but rather pulled the hair out, small tufts at a time; the following is a first-hand account of James Smith, captured during the French and Indian war and adopted into the Mohawk tribe: number of Indians collected about me and one of them began to pull hair out of my head. He had some ashes on a piece of bark in which he dipped his fingers in order to take a firmer hold, so he went on as if he had been plucking a turkey, until he had all the hair clean out of my head, except a small spot about three or four inches square on my crown the remaining hair was cut and three braids formed which were decorated Therefore, a true hairstyle of the Mohawks was one of plucked-out hair, leaving a three-inch square of hair on the back crown of the head with three short braids of hair decorated; the three braids of a True Mohawk hairstyle are represented today on traditional headdresses of the Mohawk known as a "Gustoweh".
Mohawk Gustowehs have three upright eagle feathers. When not decorated, the short braids were allowed to hang loose as seen in Good Peter's image in the referenced article; the hairstyle has been in existence in many parts of the world for millennia. For instance, the Clonycavan Man, a 2000-year-old male bog body discovered near Dublin in 2003, was found to be wearing a mohawk styled with plant oil and pine resin. Artwork discovered at the Pazyryk burials dating back to 600 BCE depicts Scythian warriors sporting similar mohawks; the body of a warrior occupying one of the kurgans had been scalped earlier in life and wore a hair prosthesis in the form of a mohawk. Herodotus claimed that the Macai, a northern Libyan tribe, "shave their hair so as to leave tufts, letting the middle of their hair grow long, but round this on all sides shaving it close to the skin." Among the Pawnee people, who lived in present-day Nebraska and in northern Kansas, a "mohawk" hair style was common. When going to war, 16th-century Ukrainian Cossacks would shave their heads, leaving a long central strip.
This haircut was known as a oseledets or chupryna and was braided or tied in a topknot. During World War II, many American GIs, notably paratroopers from the 101st Airborne Division wore mohawks to intimidate their enemies, it was occasionally worn by American troops during the Vietnam War. In the early 1950s, mohawks were worn by some jazz musicians like Sonny Rollins, a few teenage girls. Although a mohawk is most defined as a narrow, central strip of upright hair running from the forehead to the nape, with the sides of the head bald, the term can be applied more loosely to various similar hairstyles, many of which have informal names. Rather than the strip of longer hair in the center of the scalp, a "reverse mohawk" known as a "nohawk" or "hawkmo", features a shaved strip from the forehead to the nape of the neck leaving hair on either side of the line. A pioneering example was sported by English rock singer Peter Gabriel whilst on tour with progressive rock band Genesis in 1973. A fauxhawk copies the style of a mohawk, but without shaving the sides of the head and not extending past the peak of the cranium.
The fauxhawk is worn with a small but noticeable spike in the middle, though considerably shorter than many traditional mohawks. The style re-emerged in the early 2000s, with some of the popularly known wearers being Travis vocalist Fran Healy, David Beckham and Jónsi; the fauxhawk is known as the "Hoxton fin" after the Hoxton district of London, where it was fashionable in the late 1990s. A fauxhawk where the hair down the center of the head is longer than the hair on the sides is a "euro-hawk". Sometimes the top of the hair is long enough to cover up the shorter sides; some of the more popular sports figures and fashion models can be found wearing euro-hawks in various lengths and colors. The mohawk has been a style seen on punk rockers and the like, but fauxhawks and euro-hawks have transcended to all hair types; the ponyhawk or pony hawk is a type of euro-hawk created by a row of ponytails going down the middle of the head. This look was worn by contestant Sanjaya Malakar on an episode of the television series American Idol.
A "braid hawk" or "braided hawk" is fauxhawk hairstyles with a complex structure of braids, as worn by Kelly Osbourne. The main difference regards the possibility to obtain a look like Mohawk but without shaving th
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Homer Jay Simpson is a fictional character and one of the main protagonists of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons. He is voiced by Dan Castellaneta and first appeared on television, along with the rest of his family, in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Homer was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on his comic strip Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters, he named the character after Homer Groening. After appearing for three seasons on The Tracey Ullman Show, the Simpson family got their own series on Fox that debuted December 17, 1989; as the patriarch of the eponymous family and his wife Marge have three children: Bart and Maggie. As the family's provider, he works at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant as safety inspector. Homer embodies many American working class stereotypes: he is crude, incompetent, clumsy, dim-witted, hot-tempered and addicted to beer, junk food and watching television.
However, he tries his hardest to be a decent man and is fiercely devoted to his family when his wife and children need him the most. Despite the suburban blue-collar routine of his life, he has had a number of remarkable experiences, including going to space, climbing the tallest mountain in Springfield by himself, fighting former President George H. W. Bush and winning a Grammy Award as a member of a barbershop quartet, named the b sharps. In the shorts and earlier episodes, Castellaneta voiced Homer with a loose impression of Walter Matthau, he has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise. His signature catchphrase, the annoyed grunt "D'oh!", has been included in The New Oxford Dictionary of English since 1998 and the Oxford English Dictionary since 2001. Homer is one of the most influential characters in the history of television, is considered to be an American cultural icon.
The British newspaper The Sunday Times described him as "The greatest comic creation of time". He was named the greatest character "of the last 20 years" in 2010 by Entertainment Weekly, was ranked the second-greatest cartoon character by TV Guide, behind Bugs Bunny, was voted the greatest television character of all time by Channel 4 viewers. For voicing Homer, Castellaneta has won four Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance and a special-achievement Annie Award. In 2000, Homer and his family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Homer Jay Simpson is the bumbling husband of Marge and father of Bart and Maggie Simpson, he is the son of Abraham "Grampa" Simpson. Homer held over 188 different jobs in the first 400 episodes of The Simpsons. In most episodes, he works as the Nuclear safety Inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, a position he has held since "Homer's Odyssey", the third episode of the series. At the plant, Homer is ignored and forgotten by his boss Mr. Burns, falls asleep and neglects his duties.
Matt Groening has stated that he decided to have Homer work at the power plant because of the potential for Homer to wreak havoc. Each of his other jobs has lasted only one episode. In the first half of the series, the writers developed an explanation about how he got fired from the plant and was rehired in every episode. In episodes, he began a new job on impulse, without any mention of his regular employment; the Simpsons uses a floating timeline in which the characters never physically age, and, as such, the show is assumed to be set in the current year. In several episodes, events in Homer's life have been linked to specific time periods. "Mother Simpson" depicts Homer's mother, Mona, as a radical who went into hiding in 1969 following a run-in with the law. However, the episode "That'90s Show" contradicted much of this backstory, portraying Homer and Marge as a twentysomething childless couple in the early 1990s. Homer's age has changed as the series developed. During Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein's period as showrunners, they found that as they aged, Homer seemed to become older too, so they increased his age to 38.
His height is 5'9". Naming the characters after members of his own family, Groening named Homer after his father Homer Groening, who himself had been named after ancient Greek poet Homer. Little else of Homer's character was based on him, to prove that the meaning behind Homer's name was not significant, Groening named his own son Homer. According to Groening, "Homer originated with my goal to both amuse my real father, just annoy him a little bit. My father was an athletic, intelligent filmmaker and writer, the only thing he had in common with Homer was a love of donuts." Although Groening has stated in several interviews that Homer was named after his father, he claimed in several 1990 interviews that a character in the 1939 Nathanael West novel The Day of the Locust was the inspiration for naming Homer. Homer
Trilogy of Error
"Trilogy of Error" is the eighteenth episode of The Simpsons' twelfth season, the 266th episode overall. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on April 29, 2001. In the episode, Homer's rush to the hospital to re-attach his severed thumb, Lisa's rush to school to win the science fair, Bart's run-in with an illegal fireworks scheme are interconnected as each act tells the events of the same day, but from a different point of view. "Trilogy of Error" was written by Matt Selman. The episode titled "Go, Simpson Go", was pitched by Selman who figured the whole plot out before pitching it; the episode features a guest appearance from Frankie Muniz as Thelonious, while Joe Mantegna reprises his role as recurring character Fat Tony. The episode has received positive reviews since its original airing and Selman named it the best episode he has written. Lisa shows Homer her school science project, a grammar robot named Linguo, which Homer breaks by pouring beer down its throat. Shortly after, Marge accidentally severs Homer's thumb.
They drive to the hospital, but Dr. Hibbert claims that insurance will not cover the cost, so they drive off for Dr. Nick's clinic. Since Homer's thumb is starting to shrivel, he stops at Moe's, he gets distracted. Homer sees Marge is gone, he hitchhikes with Cletus who drives him to Dr. Nick's. Homer asks Cletus to drive him to Shelbyville Hospital, but his truck gets stolen, leaving Homer to walk to the hospital, his thumb is completely shrivelled up now, he is about to throw it away when an explosion sends Linguo's head in the air, landing next to Homer. Lisa has to fix Linguo, she gets a ride from Krusty. However, Krusty mistakenly takes her to West Springfield Elementary School. Lisa, needing a ride, stops at Moe's Tavern looking for her dad. Homer comes in. Outside, Lisa finds Marge, who takes her to school. Marge and Lisa see Cletus' truck and hitch a ride, but when he exits his truck they steal it and drive off. However, they are forced to stop. Bart answers the doorbell, it is Milhouse, who takes Bart to a cave he has found, full of fireworks.
Bart accidentally sets fire to Dr. Nick's clinic. Bart and Milhouse hide in a building, but are caught by the police due to a fake address given by Marge; the police ask the boys to help find the fireworks smuggler. Bart and Milhouse find Fat Tony and his henchmen, but when Tony realizes that Bart is undercover he chases the boys through the sewers until they emerge where Marge and Lisa are. Having been chased down the street and Milhouse get cornered. To save them, Marge throws Linguo at the mobsters and due to their bad grammar, the sparks from Linguo's body ignite the fireworks, what causes Linguo to explode. Fat Tony is arrested, but Marge points out Homer's severed thumb and Lisa's destroyed science project. Fat Tony proposes a solution. Lisa brings the mobsters to the science fair, Legs reattaches Homer's thumb while Lisa narrates the presentation for her class. At the conclusion of the episode, Mr. Teeny remarks on how the entirety of the episode made no sense. "Trilogy of Error" was written by Matt Selman and was directed by Mike B. Anderson as part of the twelfth season of The Simpsons.
Selman was inspired by the 1999 comedy thriller film Go. Before pitching it, he devised the whole plot; the episode was called "Go, Simpson Go" in an allusion to the 1998 German crime thriller film Run Lola Run. Due to the non-linear structure of the episode, the writing staff found it difficult to write jokes for the episode, because "every thing would affect the story". In the original draft, the second act would have portrayed Lisa travelling on the short school bus and meeting children with amusing disabilities, but it was deemed "too radical" at the time; the production team wanted to create a segment focusing on Marge, but they decided she was prominent in the first two segments. During production, the staff found it difficult to choose which jokes to start each act, since all three started the same way. There was a debate on the appearance of Homer's truncated thumb; the staff decided to add a thumbnail, although characters in The Simpsons do not have nails on their fingers and toes. The cost of "Trilogy of Error" was above average, despite the several replays of the same animation and the expectations of the production staff.
During production of the third act of the episode, Selman went on vacation and the staff had to finish the act without him. The title of the episode is a reference to the 1975 made-for-television horror film Trilogy of Terror; the episode makes a number of allusions to the 1999 film Go, an example of, Homer and Marge's theft of Rainier Wolfcastle's car after Wolfcastle smashes up their car. The episode parodies the 1992 film Reservoir Dogs by showing the same events occurring from different points of view, while featuring music similar to that featured in Run Lola Run during the "Lisa's Day" segment. In its original broadcast, "Trilogy of Error" finished with a Nielsen rating of 8.4, equivalent to 14.4 million viewing households. It was the highest-rated show on Fox that week; the episode aired on the Fox network in the United States on April 29, 2001. On August 18, 2009, it was released on DVD as part of the box set The Simpsons – The Complete Twelfth Season. Staff members Matt Groening, Mike Scully, Al
Canadian Medical Association Journal
The Canadian Medical Association Journal is a peer-reviewed general medical journal published by the Canadian Medical Association. It publishes original clinical research and reviews, practice updates, editorials; the journal has published the following notable articles: Banting and Best's 1922 report, "Pancreatic extracts in the treatment of diabetes mellitus". Banting and Macleod were awarded a Nobel Prize for the discovery of insulin in 1923. 1926 – the first use of liver as a treatment for anemia, which led to the isolation of vitamin B12. 1938 – CMAJ warns about the relationship between sun exposure and skin cancer. 2003 – CMAJ responds to SARS, publishing timely information during the outbreak. 2009 – CMAJ publishes a research paper on the increased risk of reinfarction associated with proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel, cited and generated related research studies on the topic. CMAJ Open, an online open-access offshoot established in January 2013 with Diane Kelsall as its editor-in-chief, has an open peer-review system which makes reviewer comments, author responses, previous versions available online along with the final versions of contributions.
On February 20, 2006, the editor-in-chief, John Hoey, was fired over an editorial independence dispute with the owners of the journal, CMA Media. The journal sent 13 women to buy the emergency contraceptive levonorgestrel over-the-counter in pharmacies across Canada and reported their experiences; the pharmacists asked them for personal data, including the women's names, dates of last menstrual period, when they had unprotected sex, customary method of birth control, reason for dispensing the medication. This was at the recommendation of the Canadian Pharmacists Association, which advised members to store the information permanently in their computers; the Canadian Women's Health Network said that collecting this information was unnecessary and a violation of privacy. The Canadian Pharmacists Association complained to the Canadian Medical Association, demanding that the names of the pharmacists be removed from the article; the Canadian Medical Association ordered the journal to comply. The Canadian Medical Association fired Hoey, without giving a reason.
On February 28, 2006, the acting-editor, Stephen Choi and editorial fellow Sally Murray, resigned from the journal over the same reason, leaving it without any full-time editorial staff, which raised questions about the future of the publication. In January 2007, Paul Hebert became editor-in-chief. After completion of Hebert's term, John Fletcher became editor-in-chief in January 2012. In April 2007, the former staff launched Open Medicine. On February 29, 2016, a similar controversy re-surfaced as the Canadian Medical Association disbanded the CMAJ's Journal Oversight Committee and dismissed Editor-in-Chief Dr. John Fletcher; the CMA cited a falling impact factor and a decline in research submissions as reasons for the change, but these claims are disputed. Dr. Diane Kelsall, a long-time CMAJ deputy editor, became interim Editor-in-Chief while the organization searches for a permanent replacement. A prime mover behind establishment of the Canadian Medical Association Journal was Andrew Macphail, chair of the history of medicine at McGill University and editor of the Montreal Medical Journal.
At the Canadian Medical Association's 1907 annual meeting held in Montreal, "Macphail argued that without a journal to express its views and record its proceedings the association would have little impact", was successful in getting a clause urging the founding of a journal put into the CMA constitution. At the 1910 meeting an executive report was adopted urging immediate steps to found a journal. Macphail was appointed the first editor; the Montreal Medical Journal was acquired, the Maritime Medical News agreed to suspend publication. The first issue of the new Canadian Medical Association Journal was published in January 1911. In 1913, for the first time, the journal showed a profit, sufficient to liquidate the previous deficit. Subscriptions had increased 60% over the 1911 level and were being purchased by 20% of Canadian doctors. Official website