Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s. The term denotes the modern popular music of Jamaica and its diaspora. A 1968 single by Toots and the Maytals, "Do the Reggay" was the first popular song to use the word "reggae," naming the genre and introducing it to a global audience. While sometimes used in a broad sense to refer to most types of popular Jamaican dance music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style, influenced by traditional mento as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues the New Orleans R&B practiced by Fats Domino and Allen Toussaint, evolved out of the earlier genres ska and rocksteady. Reggae relates news, social gossip, political comment. Reggae spread into a commercialized jazz field, being known first as ‘Rudie Blues’ ‘Ska’ ‘Blue Beat’, ‘Rock Steady’, it is recognizable from the counterpoint between the bass and drum downbeat, the offbeat rhythm section. The immediate origins of reggae were in rocksteady. Reggae is linked to the Rastafari, an Afrocentric religion which developed in Jamaica in the 1930's, aiming at promoting Pan Africanism.
Soon after the Rastafarian movement appeared, the international popularity of reggae music became associated with and increased the visibility of Rastafarianism spreading the Rastafari gospel throughout the world. Reggae music is an important means of transporting vital messages of Rastafarianism; the musician becomes the messenger, as Rastafarians see it,"the soldier and the musician are tools for change."Stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues, mento and draws influence from traditional African folk rhythms. One of the most recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms; the tempo of reggae is slower paced than ska but faster than rocksteady. The concept of call and response can be found throughout reggae music; the genre of reggae music is led by the bass. Some key players in this sound are Jackie Jackson from Toots and the Maytals, Carlton Barrett from Bob Marley and the Wailers, Lloyd Brevett from The Skatalites, Paul Douglas from Toots and the Maytals, Lloyd Knibb from The Skatalites, Winston Grennan, Sly Dunbar, Anthony "Benbow" Creary from The Upsetters.
The bass guitar plays the dominant role in reggae. The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized; the guitar in reggae plays on the off beat of the rhythm. It is common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, Iyaric dialects. Reggae is noted for its tradition of social criticism and religion in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love and socializing. Reggae has spread to many countries across the world incorporating local instruments and fusing with other genres. Reggae en Español spread from the Spanish speaking Central American country of Panama to the mainland South American countries of Venezuela and Guyana to the rest of South America. Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, has evolved into several subgenres and fusions. Many reggae artists began their careers in the UK, there have been a number of European artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica and the Caribbean community in Europe.
Reggae in Africa was boosted by the visit of Bob Marley to Zimbabwe in 1980. In Jamaica, authentic reggae is one of the biggest sources of income; the 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as "a estab. Sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row". Reggae as a musical term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit "Do the Reggay" by The Maytals which named the genre of Reggae for the world. Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois word streggae into reggae. However, Toots Hibbert said: There's a word we used to use in Jamaica called'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy; the girls would say that about the men too. This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said,'OK man, let's do the reggay.' It was just something. So we just start. People tell me that we had given the sound its name.
Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records. Bob Marley is said to have claimed that the word reggae came from a Spanish term for "the king's music"; the liner notes of To the King, a compilation of Christian gospel reggae, suggest that the word reggae was derived from the Latin regi meaning "to the king". Although influenced by traditional mento and calypso music, as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues, reggae owes its direct origins to the ska and rocksteady of 1960s Jamaica; the generic title for Jamaican music recorded between 1961 and 1967, ska emerged from Jamaican R&B, based on American R&B and doo-wop. Rastafari entered some countries through reggae music; the Rastafari moveme
The Second Stage Turbine Blade
The Second Stage Turbine Blade is the debut studio album released by rock band Coheed and Cambria. It was released on March 5, 2002 through Equal Vision Records, it is the second part of a tetralogy, telling the story of The Amory Wars. It was re-released on September 20, 2005 and included three unreleased bonus tracks; the album introduces the husband and wife characters Coheed and Cambria, the characters from whom the band's name originates. This album is one of four Coheed and Cambria albums not to have a multi-part suite, as In Keeping Secrets of Silent Earth: 3 had the "Camper Velourium" series, Good Apollo, I'm Burning Star IV, Volume One: From Fear Through the Eyes of Madness had the "Willing Well" series, Good Apollo, I'm Burning Star IV, Volume Two: No World for Tomorrow had the "End Complete" series, The Afterman: Ascension and Descension albums have the "Key Entity Extraction" series. All lyrics written by Claudio Sanchez. Note: On the standard ten-track edition, the hidden track "IRO-Bot" is contained in "God Send Conspirator".
Claudio Sanchez – vocals, rhythm guitar Josh Eppard – drums, piano Michael Todd – bass, vocals Travis Stever – lead guitar Michael Birnbaum – production, mixing Chris Bittner – production, mixing Jayson Dezuzio – recording, pre-production Roger Lian – mastering Nate Kelley – drums Dr. Know – guitar Todd Martin – recording Montana Masback – additional vocals
God of Love (album)
God of Love is the sixth full-length studio album by the hardcore punk pioneers Bad Brains. It is the band's first album since "I Against I", it was released in 1995 on Maverick Records. The release contains more reggae than any other Bad Brains album, although the heavy title track received video airplay on MTV. Backed by huge promotion from the label and an opening slot on the Beastie Boys' Ill Communication tour, the band fell apart as the volatile singer, H. R. was arrested in several instances involving beating a skinhead, a security guard, the band's manager in separate incidents throughout the tour. The band missed a performance at Madison Square Garden with Beastie Boys due to H. R.'s behavior. The band reunited in 1997; this album was re-released on Record Store Day, April 16, 2011, as only 2,000 copies along with a 7". "Cool Mountaineer" "Justice Keepers" "Long Time" "Rights of a Child" "God of Love" "Over the Water" "Tongue Tee Tie" "Darling I Need You" "To the Heavens" "Thank Jah" "Big Fun" "How I Love Thee" Bad BrainsH.
R. – vocals Dr. Know – guitar Darryl Jenifer – bass Earl Hudson – drumsProductionChristopher Shaw – engineer Ric Ocasek – producer Bad Brains official website
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
Yasiin Bey, better known by his stage name Mos Def, is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer and activist. Best known for his music, Mos Def began his hip hop career in 1994, alongside his siblings in the short-lived rap group Urban Thermo Dynamics, after which he appeared on albums by Da Bush Babees and De La Soul, he subsequently formed the duo Black Star, alongside fellow Brooklyn-based rapper Talib Kweli, they released their eponymous debut album in 1998. He was featured on the roster of Rawkus Records and in 1999 released his solo debut, Black on Both Sides, his debut was followed by True Magic and The Ecstatic. The editors at About.com listed him as the 14th greatest emcee of all time on their "50 greatest MC's of our time" list. Some of Mos Def's top hits include, "Oh no", "Definition" and "Respiration." Prior to his career in music, Mos Def entered public life as a child actor, having played roles in television films and theater. Since the early 2000s, Mos Def has appeared in films such as Something the Lord Made, Next Day Air, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, 16 Blocks, Be Kind Rewind, The Italian Job, The Woodsman and Brown Sugar and in television series such as Dexter and House.
He is known as the host of Def Poetry Jam, which aired on HBO between 2002 and 2007. Mos Def has been vocal on several social and political causes, including police brutality, the idea of American exceptionalism and the status of African-Americans. Mos Def was born Dante Terrell Smith in Brooklyn, New York City, the son of Sheron Smith and Abdulrahman; the eldest of 12 children and step-children, he was raised by his mother in Brooklyn, while his father lived in New Jersey. His father was a member of the Nation of Islam and followed Imam Warith Deen Mohammed, who merged into mainstream Sunni Islam from the Nation of Islam. Mos Def was not exposed to Islam until the age of 13. At 19, he took the Muslim declaration of faith, he is close friends with fellow Muslim rappers Ali Shaheed Muhammad and Q-Tip of A Tribe Called Quest. Mos Def attended middle school at Philippa Schuyler Middle School 383 in Bushwick, Brooklyn where he picked up his love for acting. After returning from filming You Take the Kids in Los Angeles, getting into a relationship with an older girl, Mos Def dropped out of high school during sophomore year.
Growing up in New York City during the crack epidemic of the 1980s and early 1990s, he has spoken about witnessing widespread instances of gang violence and poverty in society, which he avoided by working on plays, Off-Off-Broadway and arts programs. In a traumatic childhood experience, Mos Def witnessed his five-year-old younger brother Ilias Bey get hit by a car. Bey, who adopted the alias DCQ, was described by Smith as "my first partner in hip hop". Mos Def began his music career in 1994, forming the group UTD along with younger brother DCQ and younger sister Ces. In 2004, they released their first and only release to date; the album features a compilation of unreleased and re-released tracks recorded during the original UTD run. In 1996, Mos Def emerged as a solo artist and worked with De La Soul and Da Bush Babees, before he released his own first single, "Universal Magnetic" in 1997. Mos Def formed the rap group Black Star with Talib Kweli; the duo released an album, Mos Def & Talib Kweli Are Black Star, in 1998.
Produced by Hi-Tek, the album featured the singles "Respiration" and "Definition", which both reached in the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart. Mos Def released his solo debut album Black on Both Sides in October 1999 through Rawkus; the single "Ms. Fat Booty" charted, while the album reached #25 on the Billboard 200. Around this time he contributed to the Scritti Politti album Anomie & Bonhomie. In January 2002, Rawkus Records was taken over by Geffen Records, which released his second solo album The New Danger in October 2004, it included contributions by Shuggie Otis and Bernie Worrell, Doug Wimbish, Will Calhoun as the Black Jack Johnson Band. The album reached # 5 on the Billboard 200; the single "Sex, Love & Money" charted, was nominated for a Grammy Award. Mos Def's final solo album for Geffen Records, titled True Magic, was released in 2006. On November 7, 2007, Mos Def performed live in San Francisco at The Mezzanine venue; the performance was recorded for an upcoming "Live in Concert" DVD.
During the event, he announced. He performed a number of new tracks. Producer and fellow Def Poet Al Be Back revealed; the album was released on June 9, 2009. Mos Def appears alongside Kanye West on the track "Two Words" from The College Dropout album, the track "Drunk And Hot Girls" and the bonus track "Good Night" off West's third major album, Graduation. In 2002, he released the 12" single Fine, featured in the Brown Sugar Motion Picture Soundtrack. Mos Def appears on the debut album from fellow New Yorkers Apollo Heights on a track titled, "Concern." In October, he signed a deal with Downtown Records and appeared on a remix to the song "D. A. N. C. E." By Justice. He appeared on Stephen Marley's debut album Mind Control on the song "Hey Baby." In 2009, he
Paul D. Hudson, better known by his stage name H. R. is an American musician, best known as the frontman of the influential hardcore punk band Bad Brains. His vocal delivery has been described as diverse, ranging from a rapid-fire nasal whine, to feral growling and screeches, to smooth near-crooning or staccato reggae rhymes, he has departed the band periodically to pursue solo efforts that are more stylistically mellow reggae than Bad Brains' usual punk/metal offerings. He is the older brother of Bad Brains' drummer. Born in Liverpool, England to a Jamaican mother and American father stationed with the US Air Force in the UK, his family moved to the United States when he was a toddler, proceeded to move around until settling in Washington, D. C.. Along with his early love of music, he was a gifted athlete from an early age, competing in swimming and pole-vaulting, he and his younger brother Earl both entered the local D. C. music scene as teenagers with their friends and future bandmates Daryl Jenifer.
H. R. was an early nickname that stood for ”hunting rifle”, but which he changed to stand for ”human rights”. H. R. and his bandmates became Rastafari around 1979. This spiritual direction influenced the music of Bad Brains via his vocals, inspired the creation of his reggae band, Human Rights. Although reggae is the main focus of his solo material, he explores other musical genres, he has had numerous albums released on SST Records. While a Village Voice review of a Bad Brains concert described H. R.’s presence on stage: "like James Brown gone berserk, with a hyperkinetic repertoire of spins, back-flips and skanks", in recent years his stage presence has become more subdued due to his spiritual development from the O. G. Punk/Rasta to more of a Rasta Elder, as well as his occasional playing of rhythm guitar. H. R. has collaborated with the Long Beach Dub Allstars on their song "New Sun" on the Right Back album, with P. O. D. on their song "Without Jah, Nothin'", on the album Satellite. In recent years, H.
R.'s Human Rights performances have become markedly more mellow and restrained, focusing on reggae and rasta. This is a stark contrast to his wildly animated, aggressive stage performances of the late 1970s and 1980s. Interviews with H. R. feature prominently in the 2006 documentary American Hardcore, in which he discusses the early days of the hardcore scene in New York City and Washington D. C. and his association with peers like the Cro-Mags. In particular, he recalls encouraging Ian MacKaye to articulate Minor Threat's emerging straight edge philosophy, to give young people a positive direction; as depicted in the 2012 documentary Bad Brains: A Band in D. C. H. R.'s bizarre behavior, such as wearing a motorcycle helmet during a performance and refusing to sing, caused friction with other members of the band. In late 2016, the film Finding Joseph I: The HR From Bad Brains Documentary premiered in Europe and the United States. Directed by James Lathos, the documentary features interviews with H.
R. as well as other musicians and family member, while chronicling his life and philosophies ”PMA”. The film's companion book was publishef by Lesser Gods in January 2017. H. R. has adult children from previous relationships and has been married to Lori Carnes since 2012. In 2016, H. R.'s wife, revealed that H. R. suffers from SUNCT syndrome, a rare neurological disorder which causes sporadic, excruciating headaches. He underwent brain surgery in early 2017 to relieve the headaches, he suffers from schizophrenia. For H. R.'s discography with Bad Brains, see Bad Brains discography. It's About Luv Olive Tree Records. Keep Out of Reach Olive Tree Records. Human Rights Olive Tree Records/SST Records. Singin' in the Heart SST Records. Charge SST Records. I Luv Rock of Enoch Our Faith Hey Wella Out of Bounds D. I. A Records. HR In Dubb D. I. A Records/Hamma "HR Live At CBGB's 1984" Catch A Fire Music H. R. Anthology showcases a diverse array of songs from the 1980s albums. H. R. Tapes'84 –'86, compilation CD including "It's About Luv" and "Keep Out of Reach".
Sublime Feat. H. R. – Shame in Dem Game, on Sublimes box set, Everything Under the Sun "Inverted Paradox" – 2012 D. I. A Records CD featuring H. R. tracks'Out of Bounds' and'Row.' "Heroes" and "Heroes part 2" on Return from Incas by Lost Generation "Zion", "Zion Dub" and "Road to Zion" on Zion by Zion Train "New Sun" on Right Back by Long Beach Dub Allstars "Black Eye" on 77 003 by Bargain Music "Like a Lily" on Se Viene El Bum by Lumumba "Without Jah, Nothin'" on Satellite by P. O. D. "Yummy, Yummy", "More and More" and "Hip Hip Hooray" on The Epic Trilogy by Gone "Riya" on The Hour of Reprisal by Ill Bill "Forty Deuce Hebrew" on The Grimy Awards by Ill Bill "Lucky Rabbit" on Pains by Islander "Chant It Down" on Chaliwa by New Zion Trio "Kumbaya" on Luicidal by Luicidal "Think It Over" on Power Under Control by Islander Official Website Punkcast #1034 Live video at CBGB NYC, 10 September 2006.. 30underdc.com Early biography of Bad Brains, includes interviews and flyers