Sigma Chi known as Sig Chi is one of the largest social fraternities in North America. The fraternity has 244 active chapters across the United States and Canada and has initiated more than 300,000 members; the fraternity was founded on June 28, 1855, at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, by members who split from the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. Sigma Chi is divided into six operational entities: the Sigma Chi Fraternity, the Sigma Chi Foundation, the Sigma Chi Canadian Foundation, the Risk Management Foundation, Constantine Capital Inc. and Blue and Gold Travel Services. Like all fraternities, Sigma Chi has its own colors and rituals. According to the fraternity's constitution, "the purpose of this fraternity shall be to cultivate and maintain the high ideals of friendship and learning upon which Sigma Chi was founded". Sigma Chi was founded in 1855 by Benjamin Piatt Runkle, Thomas Cowan Bell, William Lewis Lockwood, Isaac M. Jordan, Daniel William Cooper, Franklin Howard Scobey, James Parks Caldwell as the result of a disagreement over who would be elected Poet in the Erodelphian Literary Society of Miami University in Ohio.
Several members of Miami University's Delta Kappa Epsilon chapter were members of the Erodelphian Literary Society. In the fall of 1854 the literary society was to elect its Poet and a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon was nominated for the position, he was supported by five of his brothers, but four others supported another man, not a member of the fraternity. Although Thomas Bell and Daniel Cooper were not members of Erodelphian they had aligned themselves with the four dissenting members; the chapter were evenly divided on the issue. Both sides saw this as a matter of principle and over the next few months their friendships became distanced. In February 1855 Runkle and his companions planned a dinner for their brothers in an attempt to seal the rift. Whitelaw Reid, one of the other brothers who supported the Delta Kappa Epsilon member as poet, was the only one to arrive. Reid brought. Reid had told Millikin his side of the dispute and they had arrived to punish the group for not supporting their Delta Kappa Epsilon brother.
The leaders of the rebellion and Scobey, were to be expelled from the fraternity. The other four would be allowed to stay in the fraternity. Runkle resigned, after the parent chapter at Yale University was contacted, all six men were formally expelled; the six men decided to form their own fraternity along with William Lewis Lockwood, a student from New York who had not joined a fraternity. On June 28, 1855, the organization was founded under the name Sigma Phi Fraternity. Lockwood used his business training to help organize the fraternity in its early years; the eventual theft of Sigma Phi's constitution, rituals and other records from Lockwood's room in Oxford in January 1856 prompted them to change the name of the fraternity to Sigma Chi. It is possible this action could have been forced upon the group as there was a Sigma Phi Society. Much of Sigma Chi's heraldry was inspired by the legendary story of the Emperor Constantine from the Battle of Milvian Bridge against Maxentius; the White Cross and the motto "In Hoc Signo Vinces" are examples of the Constantine link.
Although many of the symbols of Sigma Chi relate to Christianity, Sigma Chi is not a Christian fraternity. Benjamin Piatt Runkle was born in Ohio. Runkle helped design the badge of Sigma Chi based on the story of Constantine and the vision of the Cross. Runkle was known for having a fierce pride and was suspended from Miami University when he fought a member of Beta Theta Pi for sneering at his badge; when the Civil War began Runkle joined the Union Army. He was badly left for dead on the battlefield. Runkle retired as a major general. After the army he was ordained an Episcopal priest, he was the only founder to serve as Grand Consul. He died on Sigma Chi's 61st birthday in Ohio, he is now buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. Thomas Cowan Bell was born near Ohio, he was twenty-three years old, second oldest of the founders. He began teaching. In 1861 he rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. After the war he returned to his career in education, serving as the superintendent of schools in Nobles County, Minnesota as well as the principal and president of several preparatory and collegiate institutions in the Western United States.
Bell died the day after attending the initiation of alpha beta chapter at University of California Berkeley on February 3, 1919. He is buried at the Presidio of San Francisco in San Francisco National Cemetery in California. Section OS, Row 43A, Grave 3. William Lewis Lockwood was born in New York City, he was the only founder. He was considered the "businessman" of the founders and managed the first chapter's funds and general operations, becoming the first treasurer of Sigma Chi. After graduating from Miami University in 1858 he began work as a lawyer, he received serious wounds serving in the Union Army during the Civil War, from which he never recovered. He named his son after Franklin Howard Scobey. Isaac M. Jordan was born in Pennsylvania as Isaac Alfred Jordan, his family moved to Ohio where Jo
Treehouse of Horror IX
"Treehouse of Horror IX" is the fourth episode in the tenth season of the American animated television series The Simpsons. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on October 25, 1998; this is the ninth Treehouse of Horror episode, like the other "Treehouse of Horror" episodes, contains three self-contained segments: In "Hell Toupée", Homer gets a hair transplant and is possessed by the spirit of an executed criminal. "Treehouse of Horror IX" was written by Donick Cary, Larry Doyle and David S. Cohen, directed by Steven Dean Moore. "Terror of Tiny Toon" includes a live-action segment starring Kathie Lee Gifford. Jerry Springer and Ed McMahon appear in the episode, voicing themselves, while Robert Englund provides the voice of Freddy Krueger from the Nightmare on Elm Street film series; the episode features Jason Voorhees from the Friday the 13th series while various characters visit the talk shows Live with Regis and Kathie Lee and The Jerry Springer Show. In its original airing on the Fox Network, the episode had an 8.6 Nielsen rating.
In 1999, composer Alf Clausen was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Music Composition for a Series for his work on the episode. Snake is arrested for smoking inside the Kwik-E-Mart. Chief Wiggum explains that this is Snake's third strike, so he will be executed in accordance with the three strikes law. Before hauling Snake away, Chief Wiggum points out that Apu and Bart are all witnesses. After the execution, Homer visits Dr. Nick; when Homer goes to sleep the following night, it plants its roots in Homer's brain. With the hair controlling his mind, Homer murders Moe. Bart realizes that the other two witnesses have been killed, Homer vows to protect him. Homer locks himself and Bart in a room. Homer tries to kill Bart with a sledgehammer. Bart begs Homer to fight the hair and, after a struggle, Homer rips the hair off his head. Wiggum shoots the hair dead. Marge forbids Bart and Lisa from watching the Itchy & Scratchy Halloween special, removing the batteries from the remote control.
When Marge leaves, Bart finds plutonium in Homer's toolbox and hammers it into the remote's battery slot. When they use the remote, the kids enter the world of Scratchy. Bart and Lisa are soon hunted by Scratchy. Back in the Simpson house, Homer watches the show. Oblivious to what he sees, Homer decides to change the channel, Bart, Lisa and Scratchy wind up on Live with Regis and Kathie Lee, they end up back at Itchy's house and urge Homer from inside the TV to use the remote to get them out, who succeeds in doing so. Itchy and Scratchy escape. At first, the family is scared, but realize how small the two characters are and decide to keep them as pets. Marge discovers Maggie's first baby tooth. Maggie loses her legs and grows green tentacles. Maggie's pacifier sucks contact the alien duo and Kodos, they arrive at the Simpson house. Marge explains how it happened. Kang and Kodos demand that the Simpsons give Maggie to them, Kang and Homer start to fight until they are taken on The Jerry Springer Show.
When an audience member criticizes Kang, he vaporizes her, as well as the rest of the audience and the film crew. After leaving the studio and Kodos threaten to destroy every politician in Washington unless given Maggie. Marge and the Simpsons slyly imply that the aliens could not destroy every politician, they fly off to do so. Like the other Treehouse of Horror episodes to that point, the segments of "Treehouse of Horror IX" were credited to different writers. "Hell Toupee" was written by Donick Cary. "Terror of Tiny Toon" was written by Larry Doyle. "Starship Poopers" was written by David S. Cohen and was the last writing credit he received for the show; the episode continues the Treehouse of Horror tradition of having the credits re-written as "scary names". David S. Cohen's executive producer credit is "David'Watch Futurama' Cohen" is a reference to the show Futurama, created by Cohen and Matt Groening, which premiered the following year."The Terror of Tiny Toon" includes a live-action segment starring Regis Philbin and Kathie Lee Gifford of Live with Regis and Kathie Lee.
The segment was directed by Donick Cary. In the sequence, Scratchy and Lisa fall into a pot of soup that Regis and Kathie Lee are making; the soup splash was created by dropping an item into the pot adding the animated characters over it. The taping of this segment took longer than expected, so a broadcast of WABC-TV's Eyewitness News, to take place had to be moved to another studio. Jerry Springer guest stars in the episode as himself, his lines were recorded by Julie Thacker. Much of the animation in "Hell Toupée" was worked on by assistant director Chris Clements. Moe's death scene was more violent, but it was toned down at the request of Mike Scully; the animators looked forward to working on "The Terror of Tiny Toon" because they were fans of Itchy & Scratchy. In "Starship Poopers", there is a shot of sound waves emanating from Springfield. At one point, there is a shot of North America and it appears that Springfield is located in Louisiana; the mystery of the location of Spring
Matthew Abraham Groening is an American cartoonist, producer and voice actor. He is the creator of the comic strip Life in Hell and the television series The Simpsons and Disenchantment; the Simpsons is the longest-running U. S. primetime-television series in history and the longest-running U. S. animated sitcom. Groening made his first professional cartoon sale of Life in Hell to the avant-garde Wet magazine in 1978. At its peak, the cartoon was carried in 250 weekly newspapers. Life in Hell caught the attention of James L. Brooks. In 1985, Brooks contacted Groening with the proposition of working in animation for the Fox variety show The Tracey Ullman Show. Brooks wanted Groening to adapt his Life in Hell characters for the show. Fearing the loss of ownership rights, Groening decided to create something new and came up with a cartoon family, the Simpson family, named the members after his own parents and sisters—while Bart was an anagram of the word "brat"; the shorts would be spun off into their own series The Simpsons.
In 1997, Groening and former Simpsons writer David X. Cohen developed Futurama, an animated series about life in the year 3000, which premiered in 1999, running for four years on Fox picked up by Comedy Central for additional seasons. Groening developed a new series for Netflix titled Disenchantment, which premiered in August 2018. Groening has won 12 Primetime Emmy Awards, ten for The Simpsons and two for Futurama as well as a British Comedy Award for "outstanding contribution to comedy" in 2004. In 2002, he won the National Cartoonist Society Reuben Award for his work on Life in Hell, he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 14, 2012. Groening was born on February 15, 1954 in Portland, the middle of five children, his Norwegian American mother, Margaret Ruth, was once a teacher, his German Canadian father, Homer Philip Groening, was a filmmaker, advertiser and cartoonist. Homer, born in Main Centre, Canada, grew up in a Mennonite, Plautdietsch-speaking family. Matt's grandfather, Abraham Groening, was a professor at Tabor College, a Mennonite Brethren liberal arts college in Hillsboro, Kansas before moving to Albany College in Oregon in 1930.
Groening grew up in Portland, attended Ainsworth Elementary School and Lincoln High School. From 1972 to 1977, Groening attended The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, a liberal arts school that he described as "a hippie college, with no grades or required classes, that drew every weirdo in the Northwest." He served as the editor of the campus newspaper, The Cooper Point Journal, for which he wrote articles and drew cartoons. He befriended fellow cartoonist Lynda Barry after discovering that she had written a fan letter to Joseph Heller, one of Groening's favorite authors, had received a reply. Groening has credited Barry with being "probably biggest inspiration." He first became interested in cartoons after watching the Disney animated film One Hundred and One Dalmatians, he has cited Robert Crumb, Ernie Bushmiller, Ronald Searle and Charles M. Schulz as inspirations. In 1977, at the age of 23, Groening moved to Los Angeles to become a writer, he went through what he described as "a series of lousy jobs," including being an extra in the television movie When Every Day Was the Fourth of July, busing tables, washing dishes at a nursing home, clerking at the Hollywood Licorice Pizza record store, landscaping in a sewage treatment plant, chauffeuring and ghostwriting for a retired Western director.
Groening described life in Los Angeles to his friends in the form of the self-published comic book Life in Hell, loosely inspired by the chapter "How to Go to Hell" in Walter Kaufmann's book Critique of Religion and Philosophy. Groening distributed the comic book in the book corner of Licorice Pizza, a record store in which he worked, he made his first professional cartoon sale to the avant-garde Wet magazine in 1978. The strip, titled "Forbidden Words," appeared in the September/October issue of that year. Groening had gained employment at the Los Angeles Reader, a newly formed alternative newspaper, delivering papers, typesetting and answering phones, he showed his cartoons to the editor, James Vowell, impressed and gave him a spot in the paper. Life in Hell made its official debut as a comic strip in the Reader on April 25, 1980. Vowell gave Groening his own weekly music column, "Sound Mix," in 1982. However, the column would actually be about music, as he would write about his "various enthusiasms, pet peeves and problems" instead.
In an effort to add more music to the column, he "just made stuff up," concocting and reviewing fictional bands and nonexistent records. In the following week's column, he would confess to fabricating everything in the previous column and swear that everything in the new column was true, he was asked to give up the "music" column. Among the fans of the column was Harry Shearer, who would become a voice on The Simpsons. Life in Hell became popular immediately. In November 1984, Deborah Caplan, Groening's then-girlfriend and co-worker at the Reader, offered to publish "Love is Hell", a series of relationship-themed Life in Hell strips, in book form. Released a month the book was an underground success, selling 22,000 copies in its first two printin
Quackery synonymous with health fraud, is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices. A quack is a "fraudulent or ignorant pretender to medical skill" or "a person who pretends, professionally or publicly, to have skill, qualification or credentials they do not possess; the term quack is a clipped form of the archaic term quacksalver, from Dutch: kwakzalver a "hawker of salve". In the Middle Ages the term quack meant "shouting"; the quacksalvers sold their wares on the market shouting in a loud voice. Common elements of general quackery include questionable diagnoses using questionable diagnostic tests, as well as untested or refuted treatments for serious diseases such as cancer. Quackery is described as "health fraud" with the salient characteristic of aggressive promotion. Since it is difficult to distinguish between those who knowingly promote unproven medical therapies and those who are mistaken as to their effectiveness, United States courts have ruled in defamation cases that accusing someone of quackery or calling a practitioner a quack is not equivalent to accusing that person of committing medical fraud.
To be both quackery and fraud, the quack must know they are misrepresenting the benefits and risks of the medical services offered. In addition to the ethical problems of promising benefits that can not reasonably be expected to occur, quackery includes the risk that patients may choose to forego treatments that are more to help them, in favor of ineffective treatments given by the "quack". Stephen Barrett of Quackwatch defines quackery "as the promotion of unsubstantiated methods that lack a scientifically plausible rationale" and more broadly as: "anything involving overpromotion in the field of health." This definition would include questionable ideas as well as questionable products and services, regardless of the sincerity of their promoters. In line with this definition, the word "fraud" would be reserved only for situations in which deliberate deception is involved. Paul Offit has proposed four ways in which alternative medicine "becomes quackery": "...by recommending against conventional therapies that are helpful."
"...by promoting harmful therapies without adequate warning." "...by draining patients' bank accounts..." "...by promoting magical thinking..." Unproven ineffective, sometimes dangerous medicines and treatments have been peddled throughout human history. Theatrical performances were sometimes given to enhance the credibility of purported medicines. Grandiose claims were made for what could be humble materials indeed: for example, in the mid-19th century revalenta arabica was advertised as having extraordinary restorative virtues as an empirical diet for invalids. Where no fraud was intended, quack remedies contained no effective ingredients whatsoever; some remedies contained substances such as opium and honey, which would have given symptomatic relief but had no curative properties. Some would have addictive qualities to entice the buyer to return; the few effective remedies sold by quacks included emetics and diuretics. Some ingredients did have medicinal effects: mercury and arsenic compounds may have helped some infections and infestations.
However, knowledge of appropriate uses and dosages was limited. The science-based medicine community has criticized the infiltration of alternative medicine into mainstream academic medicine and publications, accusing institutions of "diverting research time and other resources from more fruitful lines of investigation in order to pursue a theory that has no basis in biology." R. W. Donnell coined the phrase "quackademic medicine" to describe this attention given to alternative medicine by academia. Referring to the Flexner Report, he said that medical education "needs a good Flexnerian housecleaning."For example, David Gorski criticized Brian M. Berman, founder of the University of Maryland Center for Integrative Medicine, for writing that "There evidence that both real acupuncture and sham acupuncture more effective than no treatment and that acupuncture can be a useful supplement to other forms of conventional therapy for low back pain." He castigated editors and peer reviewers at the New England Journal of Medicine for allowing it to be published, since it recommended deliberately misleading patients in order to achieve a known placebo effect.
With little understanding of the causes and mechanisms of illnesses marketed "cures" referred to as patent medicines, first came to prominence during the 17th and 18th centuries in Britain and the British colonies, including those in North America. Daffy's Elixir and Turlington's Balsam were among the first products that used branding and mass marketing to create and maintain markets. A similar process occurred in other countries of Europe around the same time, for example with the marketing of Eau de Cologne as a cure-all medicine by Johann Maria Farina and his imitators. Patent medicines contained alcohol or opium, while not curing the diseases for which they were sold as a remedy, did make the imbibers feel better and confusedly appreciative of the product; the number of internationally marketed quack medicines
Anesthesiology, anaesthesia or anaesthetics is the medical speciality concerned with the total perioperative care of patients before and after surgery. It encompasses anesthesia, intensive care medicine, critical emergency medicine, pain medicine. A physician specialised in this field of medicine is called an anesthesiologist, anaesthesiologist or anaesthetist, depending on the country; the core element of the specialty is the study and use of anesthesia and anesthetics, since the 19th century anesthesiology has developed from an experimental field with non-specialist practitioners using novel, untested drugs and techniques into what is now a refined and effective field of medicine. In some countries, anesthesiologists comprise the largest single cohort of doctors in hospitals, their role can now extend far beyond the traditional role of anesthesia care in the operating room, into fields such as providing pre-hospital emergency medicine, running intensive care units, transporting critically ill patients between facilities, prehabilitation programs to optimize patients for surgery.
Various names are used for the specialty, those doctors who practise it, in different parts of the world: In North America and China, the medical study and application of anesthetics is called anesthesiology, a physician in the specialty is called an anesthesiologist. In these countries, the word "anesthetist" is used to refer to advanced non-physician providers of anesthesia services such as anesthesiologist assistants and nurse anesthetists. In some countries that are current or former members of the Commonwealth of Nations–namely, United Kingdom, New Zealand and South Africa–the medical specialty is instead referred to as anaesthesia or anaesthetics, with an extra "a"; as such, in these countries the same term may be used to refer to the overall medical specialty, the medications and techniques that are used, the resulting state of loss of sensation. The term anaesthetist is used only to refer to a physician practising in the field; some countries which used "anaesthesia" and "anaesthetist", such as Ireland and Hong Kong, have transitioned to "anaesthesiology" and "anaesthesiologist", or are in the process of transition.
In most other parts of the world, the spelling anaesthesiology is most used when writing in English, a physician practising it is termed an anaesthesiologist. This is the spelling adopted by the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists and most of its most of its member societies, as well as the European Society of Anaesthesiology, it is the most used term found in the titles of medical journals; as a specialty, the core element of anesthesiology is the practice of anesthesia. This comprises the use of various injected and inhaled medications to produce a loss of sensation in patients, making it possible to carry out procedures that would otherwise cause intolerable pain or be technically unfeasible. Safe anesthesia requires in-depth knowledge of various invasive and non-invasive organ support techniques that are used to control patients' vital functions while under the effects of anaesthetic drugs. Anesthesiologists are expected to have expert knowledge of human physiology, medical physics, pharmacology, as well as a broad general knowledge of all areas of medicine and surgery in all ages of patients, with a particular focus on those aspects which may impact on a surgical procedure.
In recent decades, the role of anesthesiologists has broadened to focus not just on administering anesthetics during the surgical procedure itself, but beforehand in order to identify high-risk patients and optimize their fitness, during the procedure to maintain situational awareness of the surgery itself so as to improve safety, as well as afterwards in order to promote and enhance recovery. This has been termed "perioperative medicine"; the concept of intensive care medicine arose in the 1950s and 1960s, with anesthesiologists taking organ support techniques that had traditionally been used only for short periods during surgical procedures, applying these therapies to patients with organ failure, who might require vital function support for extended periods until the effects of the illness could be reversed. The first intensive care unit was opened by Bjørn Aage Ibsen in Copenhagen in 1953, prompted by a polio epidemic during which many patients required prolonged artificial ventilation.
In many countries, intensive care medicine is considered to be a subspecialty of anesthesiology, anesthesiologists rotate between duties in the operating room and the intensive care unit. This allows continuity of care when patients are admitted to the ICU after their surgery, it means that anesthesiologists can maintain their expertise at invasive procedures and vital function support in the controlled setting of the operating room, while applying those skills in the more dangerous setting of the critically ill patient. In other countries, intensive care medicine has evolved further to become a separate medical specialty in its own right, or has become a "supra-specialty" which may be practiced by doctors from various base specialties such as anesthesiology, emergency medicine, general medicine, surgery or neurology. Anesthesiologists have key roles in major trauma, airway management, caring other patients outside the operating theatre who have critical emergencies that pose an immediate threat to life, a
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people. Stereotypes are generalized because one assumes that the stereotype is true for each individual person in the category. While such generalizations may be useful when making quick decisions, they may be erroneous when applied to particular individuals. Stereotypes may arise for a number of reasons. Explicit stereotypes are those people who are willing to admit to other individuals, it refers to stereotypes that one is aware that one holds, is aware that one is using to judge people. People can attempt to consciously control the use of explicit stereotypes though their attempt to control may not be effective. Only males play. In fact half of all gamers are female, when including mobile phone gaming. Women are more to play mobile phone games than traditional video games. Implicit stereotypes are those that lay on individuals' subconsciousness, that they have no control or awareness of. In social psychology, a stereotype is any thought adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of behaving intended to represent the entire group of those individuals or behaviors as a whole.
These thoughts or beliefs may or may not reflect reality. Within psychology and across other disciplines, different conceptualizations and theories of stereotyping exist, at times sharing commonalities, as well as containing contradictory elements; the term stereotype comes from the French adjective stéréotype and derives from the Greek words στερεός, "firm, solid" and τύπος, hence "solid impression on one or more idea/theory." The term comes from the printing trade and was first adopted in 1798 by Firmin Didot to describe a printing plate that duplicated any typography. The duplicate printing plate, or the stereotype, is used for printing instead of the original. Outside of printing, the first reference to "stereotype" was in 1850, as a noun that meant image perpetuated without change. However, it was not until 1922 that "stereotype" was first used in the modern psychological sense by American journalist Walter Lippmann in his work Public Opinion. Stereotypes and discrimination are understood as related but different concepts.
Stereotypes are regarded as the most cognitive component and occurs without conscious awareness, whereas prejudice is the affective component of stereotyping and discrimination is one of the behavioral components of prejudicial reactions. In this tripartite view of intergroup attitudes, stereotypes reflect expectations and beliefs about the characteristics of members of groups perceived as different from one's own, prejudice represents the emotional response, discrimination refers to actions. Although related, the three concepts can exist independently of each other. According to Daniel Katz and Kenneth Braly, stereotyping leads to racial prejudice when people react to the name of a group, ascribe characteristics to members of that group, evaluate those characteristics. Possible prejudicial effects of stereotypes are: Justification of ill-founded prejudices or ignorance Unwillingness to rethink one's attitudes and behavior Preventing some people of stereotyped groups from entering or succeeding in activities or fields Stereotype content refers to the attributes that people think characterize a group.
Studies of stereotype content examine what people think of others, rather than the reasons and mechanisms involved in stereotyping. Early theories of stereotype content proposed by social psychologists such as Gordon Allport assumed that stereotypes of outgroups reflected uniform antipathy. For instance and Braly argued in their classic 1933 study that ethnic stereotypes were uniformly negative. By contrast, a newer model of stereotype content theorizes that stereotypes are ambivalent and vary along two dimensions: warmth and competence. Warmth and competence are predicted by lack of competition and status. Groups that do not compete with the in-group for the same resources are perceived as warm, whereas high-status groups are considered competent; the groups within each of the four combinations of high and low levels of warmth and competence elicit distinct emotions. The model explains the phenomenon that some out-groups are admired but disliked, whereas others are liked but disrespected; this model was empirically tested on a variety of national and international samples and was found to reliably predict stereotype content.
Early studies suggested that stereotypes were only used by rigid and authoritarian people. This idea has been refuted by contemporary studies that suggest the ubiquity of stereotypes and it was suggested to regard stereotypes as collective group beliefs, meaning that people who belong to the same social group share the same set of stereotypes. Modern research asserts that full understanding of stereotypes requires considering them from two complementary perspectives: as shared within a particular culture/subculture and as formed in the mind of an individual person. Stereotyping can serve cognitive functions on an interpersonal level, social functions on an intergroup level. For stereotyping to function on an intergroup level, an individual must see themselves as part of a group and being part of that group must be salient for the individual. Craig McGarty, Russell Spears, Vincent Y. Yzerbyt argued that the cognitive functions of stereotyping are best understood in relation to its social functions, vice versa.
Stereotypes can help make sense of the w
Homer Jay Simpson is a fictional character and one of the main protagonists of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons. He is voiced by Dan Castellaneta and first appeared on television, along with the rest of his family, in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Homer was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on his comic strip Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters, he named the character after Homer Groening. After appearing for three seasons on The Tracey Ullman Show, the Simpson family got their own series on Fox that debuted December 17, 1989; as the patriarch of the eponymous family and his wife Marge have three children: Bart and Maggie. As the family's provider, he works at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant as safety inspector. Homer embodies many American working class stereotypes: he is crude, incompetent, clumsy, dim-witted, hot-tempered and addicted to beer, junk food and watching television.
However, he tries his hardest to be a decent man and is fiercely devoted to his family when his wife and children need him the most. Despite the suburban blue-collar routine of his life, he has had a number of remarkable experiences, including going to space, climbing the tallest mountain in Springfield by himself, fighting former President George H. W. Bush and winning a Grammy Award as a member of a barbershop quartet, named the b sharps. In the shorts and earlier episodes, Castellaneta voiced Homer with a loose impression of Walter Matthau, he has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise. His signature catchphrase, the annoyed grunt "D'oh!", has been included in The New Oxford Dictionary of English since 1998 and the Oxford English Dictionary since 2001. Homer is one of the most influential characters in the history of television, is considered to be an American cultural icon.
The British newspaper The Sunday Times described him as "The greatest comic creation of time". He was named the greatest character "of the last 20 years" in 2010 by Entertainment Weekly, was ranked the second-greatest cartoon character by TV Guide, behind Bugs Bunny, was voted the greatest television character of all time by Channel 4 viewers. For voicing Homer, Castellaneta has won four Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance and a special-achievement Annie Award. In 2000, Homer and his family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Homer Jay Simpson is the bumbling husband of Marge and father of Bart and Maggie Simpson, he is the son of Abraham "Grampa" Simpson. Homer held over 188 different jobs in the first 400 episodes of The Simpsons. In most episodes, he works as the Nuclear safety Inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, a position he has held since "Homer's Odyssey", the third episode of the series. At the plant, Homer is ignored and forgotten by his boss Mr. Burns, falls asleep and neglects his duties.
Matt Groening has stated that he decided to have Homer work at the power plant because of the potential for Homer to wreak havoc. Each of his other jobs has lasted only one episode. In the first half of the series, the writers developed an explanation about how he got fired from the plant and was rehired in every episode. In episodes, he began a new job on impulse, without any mention of his regular employment; the Simpsons uses a floating timeline in which the characters never physically age, and, as such, the show is assumed to be set in the current year. In several episodes, events in Homer's life have been linked to specific time periods. "Mother Simpson" depicts Homer's mother, Mona, as a radical who went into hiding in 1969 following a run-in with the law. However, the episode "That'90s Show" contradicted much of this backstory, portraying Homer and Marge as a twentysomething childless couple in the early 1990s. Homer's age has changed as the series developed. During Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein's period as showrunners, they found that as they aged, Homer seemed to become older too, so they increased his age to 38.
His height is 5'9". Naming the characters after members of his own family, Groening named Homer after his father Homer Groening, who himself had been named after ancient Greek poet Homer. Little else of Homer's character was based on him, to prove that the meaning behind Homer's name was not significant, Groening named his own son Homer. According to Groening, "Homer originated with my goal to both amuse my real father, just annoy him a little bit. My father was an athletic, intelligent filmmaker and writer, the only thing he had in common with Homer was a love of donuts." Although Groening has stated in several interviews that Homer was named after his father, he claimed in several 1990 interviews that a character in the 1939 Nathanael West novel The Day of the Locust was the inspiration for naming Homer. Homer