Natural Bridge State Resort Park
Its namesake natural bridge is the centerpiece of the park. The natural sandstone arch spans 78 ft and is 65 ft high, the natural process of weathering formed the arch over millions of years. The park is approximately 2,300 acres of which approximately 1,200 acres is dedicated by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission as a nature preserve, in 1981 this land was dedicated into the nature preserves system to protect the ecological communities and rare species habitat. The first federally endangered Virginia big eared bats, Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus, the park was founded as a private tourist attraction in 1895 by the Lexington and Eastern Railroad. In 1910, Louisville and Nashville Railroad acquired the land when it purchased the Lexingon, there are over 20 miles of trails over uneven terrain from moderate to strenuous difficulty, including trails to Whites Branch Arch, Hensons Cave Arch, and other scenic areas. Some of the most famous sites are the arch itself, Lovers Leap, the parks 0.
5-mile Original Trail to the natural bridge dates from the 1890s. Other trails include the 7. 5-mile Sand Gap Trail and the 0. 75-mile Balanced Rock Trail, five miles of the 307-mile Sheltowee Trace National Recreation Trail run through the park, including the Whittleton Trail which connects the park to the Red River Gorge Geologic Area. Activities such as hiking off-trails, disturbing wildlife, or collecting plants are not legal in any Kentucky State Park, Fat Mans Squeeze, a narrow passage in the rock formation, leads to the bottom of the arch. Natural Bridge has several unique sandstone formations, including the Balanced Rock. This is a block of sandstone balanced on the edge of a cliff near the Natural Bridge. The Balanced Rock, is located on Trail #2, not far above Hemlock Lodge, in the early days of the Park, it was called the Sphinx because, when viewed from the correct angle, it crudely resembles the Sphinx in Egypt. Although it is now called the Balanced Rock, it is in fact a pedestal rock - a single piece of stone that has weathered in such a fashion that its midsection is narrower than its cap or its base.
This formation is one of the biggest and most perfectly formed examples of a pedestal rock east of the Rocky Mountains, Natural Bridge State Park is a member of the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, and offers guided backpacking trips and natural history educational programs. Annual events open to the public include Herpetology Weekend each May, Natural Arches Weekend each February, the Kentucky Natives Societys Wildflower Weekend in April consists of Kentucky plants and how they are essential to the well-being of our natural ecosystems commonwealth. We incorporate research and support efforts to identify and protect endangered, the State Park is famous for hosting traditional Appalachian square dances. The traditional Appalachian style dances are held on Friday and Saturday evenings throughout the warm starlit Ky summers on the dance floor. The dance draws hundreds of participants and spectators, showcasing dance groups and singer/performer talents from all over
Big Bone Lick State Park
Big Bone Lick State Park is located at Big Bone in Boone County, Kentucky. The name of the park comes from the Pleistocene megafauna fossils found there, mammoths are believed to have been drawn to this location by a salt lick deposited around sulphur springs. Ancestors of the sloth and horse grazed the vegetation, the area near the springs was very soft and marshy causing many animals to become stuck with no way to escape. It bills itself as the birthplace of American paleontology, a term which dates from the 1807 expedition by William Clark undertaken at the direction of President Thomas Jefferson. In Nicholas Cresswells journal, dated 1774 to 1777, he records a visit in 1775 to what was called Elephant Bone Lick, in this account, Cresswell describes finding several bones of prodigious size, as well as tusk fragments, and teeth—one weighing approximately 10 pounds. While he assumed the bones were from ancient elephants, the native traditions claimed the bones to be those of white buffaloes that had been poisoned by the salty water.
In 2002, the National Park Service designated Big Bone Lick State Park as an official Lewis, the park was listed in 1972 on the National Register of Historic Places and was further listed as a National Natural Landmark in February 2009. The visitors center features indoor and outdoor exhibits of fossils, American art, the Discovery Trail winds through several habitats, including grassland and savanna, and is accessible to the physically challenged. A small bison herd is maintained on-site, the park has picnicking facilities and a 62-site campground
National Wildlife Refuge
National Wildlife Refuge System is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is the system of lands and waters set aside to conserve Americas fish, wildlife. National Wildlife Refuges manage a range of habitat types, including wetlands, prairies and marine areas. Among these hundreds of national refuges are home to some 700 species of birds,220 species of mammals,250 reptile and amphibian species and more than 1000 species of fish. Endangered species are a priority of National Wildlife Refuges in that nearly 60 refuges have been established with the purpose of conserving 280 threatened or endangered species. National Wildlife Refuges are places where visitors can participate in a variety of outdoor recreational activities. The National Wildlife Refuge System welcomes nearly 50 million visitors each year, hunters visit more than 350 hunting programs on refuges and on about 36,000 Waterfowl Production Areas.
Opportunities for fresh or saltwater fishing are available at more than 340 refuges, there is at least one wildlife refuge in each of the fifty states. The agency has created Comprehensive Conservation Plans for each refuge, developed through consultation with private and these began a review process by stakeholders beginning in 2013. The CCCPs must be consistent with the Fish and Wildlife Service goals for conservation, the CCPs outline conservation goals for each refuge for fifteen years into the future, with the intent that they will be revised every fifteen years thereafter. Additionally, NEPA requires FWS planners and refuge staff to engage the public in planning process to assist them with identifying the most appropriate alternative. Completed CCPs are available to the public and can be found on the FWS website, equally important is an intimate understanding of the social and economic drivers that impact and are impacted by management decisions and can facilitate or impede implementation success.
Consideration of these contributes to the success of the Service’s mission to protect wildlife. The Refuge System works collaboratively internally and externally to leverage resources, according to the Services 2013 Banking on Nature Report, visitors to refuges positively impact the local economies. Prevention and control of fires is a very active part of refuge management. Completion of controlled burns to reduce fuel loading, and participation in the wildland fire suppression efforts, are vital for management of refuge lands. A considerable infrastructure of physical structures is essential to management of refuge lands. As of September 30,2015 there were 13,030 roads and trails,5,284 buildings,8,007 water management structures, the overall facility infrastructure is valued at nearly $30 billion
Fort Donelson National Battlefield
The commanders received national recognition for their victories in February 1862, as they were the first major Union successes of the war. This struck a blow to the Confederacy early in the war. The main portion of the park, in Dover, Fort Heiman, in nearby Calloway County, was a Confederate battery in the Battle of Fort Henry. The most vulnerable area in the Confederate defensive line in the Western Theater was the state of Kentucky, the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers were potential avenues for a Union invasion of the South through Kentucky and into Tennessee and beyond. Since Kentucky had declared neutrality, the Confederacy could not build defensive works within the state without risking alienating the local population, the local population in western Kentucky was pro-Confederate. Kentuckys westernmost congressional district elected a secessionist and Lincoln proclaimed it to be in rebellion and they surveyed possible sites along the Cumberland River, noting the high ridges and deep hollows near the Kentucky border.
In mid-May, on the west bank of the not far below Dover, Anderson laid out the water battery of Fort Donelson. The new fort was named in honor of the Confederate General Daniel S. Donelson who, along with Colonel Bushrod Johnson of the Corps of Engineers, construction was begun by a large force of men brought from the nearby Cumberland Iron Works. The site was established as Fort Donelson National Military Park on March 26,1928, the national military park and national cemetery were transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. The park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15,1966 and it was redesignated a national battlefield on August 16,1985. Public Law 108-367 increased the authorized boundary of the battlefield from 551.69 acres to 2,000 acres. On October 30,2006, Calloway County transferred the Fort Heiman site to the Park Service, Fort Heiman had been listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 12,1976.
The Cumberland River was dammed in the 1960s, this area is referred to as Lake Barkley. It covers a roughly similar to the original river while at flood stage. The Fort Donelson National Cemetery, at 15.34 acres in Stewart County, contains 670 Union dead, there are numerous veterans from wars. The cemetery is presently unavailable for additional burials, washington, U. S. Department of the Interior. Where the South Lost the War, An Analysis of the Fort Henry—Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862, Stackpole books,2003, ISBN 0-8117-0049-6. NPS Fort Donelson National Battlefield site Public Law 108-367 U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Fort Donelson Fort Donelson National Cemetery at Find a Grave
Thomas Walker (explorer)
On the return of the chiefs home, Dr. Walker, a gentleman of distinction, and my father, Joseph Martin, accompanied them. The Indians being guides, they passed through the now called Cumberland Gap. They still had a little rum remaining, and they drank to the health of the Duke of Cumberland and this gave rise to the name of Cumberland Mountain and Cumberland River. Prince William Augustus, the Duke of Cumberland, was a hero of the time, Walker explored Kentucky in 1750,19 years before the arrival of Daniel Boone. Two of Walkers sons and Francis Walker, became Congressmen in the new United States, Thomas Walker was born at Rye Field, Walkerton and Queen County, Virginia. He was raised as an Englishman in the Tidewater region of Virginia, Walkers first profession was that of a physician, he had attended the College of William and Mary and studied under his brother-in-law Dr. George Gilmer. Walker became a man of status in the county when he married Mildred Thornton in 1741, the new couple built a home known as Castle Hill there and had 12 children.
They in turn became prominent Albemarle County citizens in their own rights, in April 1744, Walker was elected as vestryman at his church, a position he held for more than forty years, until 1785. He served Virginia as a delegate to the House of Burgesses from Albemarle County, on July 12,1749, the Loyal Land Company was founded with Walker as a leading member. After receiving a grant of 800,000 acres in what is now southeastern Kentucky. Walker was named head of the Loyal Land Company in 1752, during the expedition, Walker gave names to many topographical features, including the Cumberland Gap. His party built the first non-Indian house in Kentucky, Walker kept a daily journal of the trip. At the age of 64, Walker traveled to the areas of Kentucky and Tennessee again. Because the border was mapped and surveyed, rather than created along the boundary of a river. It was called the Walker Line, and still constitutes the border between Kentucky and Tennessee from east to west terminating at the Tennessee River, Walker was influential in dealing with Indian affairs.
He was appointed to represent Virginia at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix and Treaty of Lochaber, in 1775, Walker served as a Virginia commissioner in negotiations with representatives of the Iroquois Six Nations in Pittsburgh, as the colonies tried to engage them as allies against the British. He is credited as the first American to discover and use soggy bottom, due to his broad knowledge of the areas and their resources, Walker served as an adviser to Thomas Jefferson from 1780 to 1783 on what became his book, Notes on the State of Virginia. After the death of his first wife, in 1781 Walker married Elizabeth Thornton, Thomas Walker died on November 9,1794 at his home of Castle Hill
In addition to organizing commemorative events, volunteer veterans operating through The American Legion support activities and provide assistance at Veterans Administration hospitals and clinics. The Legion is active in issue-oriented United States politics and its primary political activity is lobbying on behalf of interests of veterans and service members, including support for veterans benefits such as pensions and the Veterans Health Administration. The veterans organization has historically promoted Americanism and opposed communism in the United States. American veterans who served at least one day of active duty during wartime. Members must have been discharged or still serving honorably. United States Merchant Marines who served from December 7,1941, Veterans who served during the following wars are eligible, Veterans of World War I were eligible during their lifetimes, the last American World War I veteran, Frank Buckles, died in 2011. Membership peaked for The American Legion right after World War II, after the Korean War, there were 2.5 million Legionnaires.
As baby boomers joined, membership increased to 3.1 million in 1992, membership has slowly been decreasing since then. In 2013, the Legion reported 2.3 million members, the aftermath of two American wars in the second half of the 19th century had seen the formation of several ex-soldiers organizations. In Southern politics the UCV maintained a more dominant position as a bulwark of the Democratic Party which dominated there. The conclusion of the brief Spanish–American conflict of 1898 ushered in another soldiers organization and they lobbied government to strengthen the military. Its officers were at 10 Bridge Street, New York City, in 1917, when war was declared the legion had 23,000 members skilled in 77 professions pledged to fight. Their pledge cards were shared with the government and ultimately used to two regiments of air mechanics. The legion was discorporated in 1917, the need for an organization for former members of the AEF was pressing and immediate. Cautionary voices were raised about an apparent correlation between disaffected and discharged troops and the Bolshevik uprisings taking place in Russia, Finland and this situation was a particular matter of concern to Lt.
Col. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. eldest son of the 26th President. One day in January 1919, Roosevelt had a discussion at General Headquarters with a mobilized National Guard officer named George A. White and White advocated ceaselessly for this proposal until ultimately they found sufficient support at headquarters to move forward with the plan. General John J. Pershing issued orders to a group of 20 non-career officers to report to the YMCA headquarters in Paris on February 15,1919, the selection of these individuals had been made by Roosevelt. They were joined with a number of regular Army officers Pershing selected himself, the session of reserve and regular officers was instructed to provide a set of laws to curb the problem of declining morale
Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site
Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site is a 745-acre park near Perryville in Boyle County, Kentucky. An interpretive museum is located near the site where many Confederate soldiers killed in the Battle of Perryville were buried, monuments, interpretive signage, and cannons mark notable events that occurred during the battle. The site became part of the Kentucky State Park System in 1936. The battle was fought on October 8,1862, between the Union Army of the Ohio, commanded by Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, perryvilles homes and farms were left in shambles by the battle. During the battle Bottom had significant damage to his farm, other accounts note that nearly all residents of the area suffered some losses as well as having their homes and outbuildings used as field hospitals. The main force of the Union army had buried most of their dead in long trenches before pursuing Bragg, Union soldiers finally forced local residents to help them lay the dead in shallow trenches carved in the dry soil.
Two months later,347 were reburied in a grave on Bottoms land. In 1886 a total of 435 Confederates were buried on Bottoms land, although Bottom claimed that about 100 were identified, the only remnants of the cemetery were a corner of a stone wall and one headstone—that of Samuel H. Ransom of the 1st Tennessee Infantry CSA. At the end of the war in 1865, Union soldiers reburied the remains of 969 Federal dead in a cemetery at Perryville with a stone wall. Around the time of the centennial, numerous scholars worked to establish the importance of the Western campaigns. In recent years, appreciation for what happened at Perryville and other battlefields in Kentucky, more than 7,000 acres at Perryville are now recognized as a National Historic Landmark, and the site averages around 100,000 visitors per year. A reenactment of the battle occurs each October, the Perryville Battlefield Preservation Association was created in 1991 to preserve and protect the park. The acquisition of 149 acres of farmland from a descendant of Henry Bottom more than doubled the size of the park, the Civil War Trust has as of 2013 saved 954 acres of the battlefield.
Numerous acres of this land have been incorporated in the state park yearly. Noe, Kenneth W. Perryville, This Grand Havoc of Battle, University Press of Kentucky,2001, Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site Kentucky Department of Parks
Pine Mountain State Resort Park
Pine Mountain State Resort Park is a Kentucky state park located in Bell County, United States. The park opened in 1924 as Kentuckys first state park, each spring, the park hosts the annual Kentucky Mountain Laurel Festival, as it has since 1933. When Pine Mountain State Resort Park was established in 1926, it was named Cumberland State Park, but the name was changed in 1938 in order to avoid confusion with the newly formed Cumberland Falls State Resort Park. During the parks early years, there was little development, in 1933 the Civilian Conservation Corps began constructing the main office building, roads, bridges and hiking trails. In 1960s, the Kentucky State Park System began updating their parks, for Pine Mountain State Park, they constructed a new wing to the lodge that contained 30 more guest rooms,10 additional cottages, swimming pool, and golf course. Today, the park serves as one of southeastern Kentuckys premier state parks, herndon J. Evans Lodge - The lodge has 30 guest rooms. Mountain View Restaurant seats 125 people and has a dining area that seats 25 people.
Wasioto Winds Golf Course - This 18 hole golf course was ranked fourth in the nation by Golf Digest Magazine as the Best New Affordable Public Golf Courses in January 2003, cottages - The park has nine one room cabins that were developed by the CCC in the 1920s. It has eleven modern two-bedroom cabins, chained Rock - During the 1930s, the people of Pineville, Kentucky decided to create a new tourist attraction. So in 1933, a group of people hauled a 101-foot-long chain to the top of Pine Mountain, supposedly the rock was chained to the mountain in order to keep it from rolling down the mountain and destroying the city. Other attractions - Miniature golf, hiking, Ray Harm artworks, interpretive center, playgrounds and gift shop
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area
The Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area preserves the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River and its tributaries in northeastern Tennessee and southeastern Kentucky. In addition, the mining community of Blue Heron is preserved and interpreted via signage. Charit Creek Lodge is a lodge, accessible by trail. The Big South Forks most prominent feature is the river cutting through the softer Mississippian age rock beneath the hard Pennsylvanian capstone of the Cumberland Plateau. Water is the most influential agent of change in the Big South Fork region. Over time water action has many unique and amazing geologic features ranging from the river gorge with its magnificent bluffs to the natural arches. Flowing water hollows out the softer layers beneath and forms waterfalls, where there is hard capstone intact, arches can form creating natural bridges across streams or a dry ravines. Direct erosion widens a joint and forms a cavity below the more resilient rock thus creating a void between the hard capstone and the area below, as result, water eroded arches are formed in the Big South Fork.
Hoodoos are a rare but intriguing feature occurring in the Big South Fork and these hoodoos form in a similar manner to those found in the western United States. Where tough capstone still exists on the side of a hill for instance, the result is a naturally formed erect columnar rock where once was located a hill