The National Archives (United Kingdom)
The National Archives is a non-ministerial government department. Its parent department is the Department for Culture and Sport of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, it is the official archive for England and Wales. There are separate national archives for Northern Ireland. TNA was four separate organisations: the Public Record Office, the Historical Manuscripts Commission, the Office of Public Sector Information and Her Majesty's Stationery Office; the Public Record Office still exists as a legal entity, as the enabling legislation has not been modified, documents held by the institution thus continue to be cited by many scholars as part of the PRO. Since 2008, TNA has hosted the former UK Statute Law Database, now known as legislation.gov.uk. It is institutional policy to include the definite article, with an initial capital letter, in its name but this practice is not always followed in the non-specialist media; the National Archives is based in Kew in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south-west London.
The building was opened in 1977 as an additional home for the public records, which were held in a building on Chancery Lane. The site was a World War I hospital, used by several government departments, it is near to Kew Gardens Underground station. Until its closure in March 2008, the Family Records Centre in Islington was run jointly by The National Archives and the General Register Office; the National Archives has an additional office in Norwich, for former OPSI staff. There is an additional record storage facility in the worked-out parts of Winsford Rock Salt Mine, Cheshire. For earlier history, see Public Record Office; the National Archives was created in 2003 by combining the Public Record Office and the Historical Manuscripts Commission and is a non-ministerial department reporting to the Minister of State for digital policy. On 31 October 2006, The National Archives merged with the Office of Public Sector Information, which itself contained Her Majesty's Stationery Office, a part of the Cabinet Office.
The name remained The National Archives. 1991–2005: Sarah Tyacke 2005–2010: Natalie Ceeney 2010–2013: Oliver Morley 2013–2014: Clem Brohier 2014–present: Jeff James TNA claims it is "at the heart of information policy—setting standards and supporting innovation in information and records management across the UK, providing a practical framework of best practice for opening up and encouraging the re-use of public sector information. This work helps inform today's decisions and ensure that they become tomorrow's permanent record." It has a number of key roles in information policy: Policy – advising government on information practice and policy, on issues from record creation through to its reuse Selection – selecting which documents to store Preservation – ensuring the documents remain in as good a condition as possible Access – providing the public with the opportunity to view the documents Advice – advising the public and other archives and archivists around the world on how to care for documents Intellectual property management – TNA manages crown copyright for the UK Regulation – ensuring that other public sector organisations adhere to both the public records act and the PSI reuse regulations.
The National Archives has long had a role of oversight and leadership for the entire archives sector and archives profession in the UK, including local government and non-governmental archives. Under the Public Records Act 1958 it is responsible for overseeing the appropriate custody of certain non-governmental public records in England and Wales. Under the 2003 Historical Manuscripts Commission Warrant it has responsibility for investigating and reporting on non-governmental records and archives of all kinds throughout the United Kingdom. In October 2011, when the Museums and Archives Council was wound up, TNA took over its responsibilities in respect of archives in England, including providing information and advice to ministers on archives policy; the National Archives now sees this part of its role as being "to enhance the'archival health of the nation'". The National Archives is the UK government's official archive, "containing 1000 years of history from Domesday Book to the present", with records from parchment and paper scrolls through to digital files and archived websites.
The material held at Kew includes the following: Documents from the central courts of law from the twelfth century onwards, including the Court of King's Bench, the Court of Common Pleas, the Court of Chancery, the Court of Exchequer, the Supreme Court of Judicature, the Central Criminal Court and many other courts Medieval, early modern and modern records of central government A large and disparate collection of maps and architectural drawings Records for family historians including wills, naturalisation certificates and criminal records Service and operational records of the armed forces War Office, Admiralty etc. Foreign Office and Colonial Office correspondence and files Cabinet papers and Home Office records Statistics of the Board of Trade The surviving records of the English railway companies, transferred from the British Railways Record OfficeThere is a museum, which displays key documents such as Domesday Book and has exhibitions on various topics using material from the collections.
The collections held by the National A
Gladstone's Library, known until 2010 as St Deiniol's Library, is a residential library in Hawarden, Wales. It is a Grade I listed building. Gladstone's Library is Britain's only Prime Ministerial Library and the national memorial to the Victorian statesman, four times Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone, it is home to a unique collection of more than 250,000 printed items, including a renowned collection of theological, historical and political materials. The library was founded by William Gladstone in 1894, he was eager to share his personal library with others those who faced financial constraint. He would allow young adults of the village of Hawarden to use his collection, his desire, his daughter Mary Gladstone said, was to "bring together books who had no readers with readers who had no books". In 1895, at the age of 85, William Gladstone gave £40,000 and much of his own library. Armed with only his valet and one of his daughters, William Gladstone wheeled 32,000 books three quarters of a mile between his home at Hawarden Castle and the library.
He put them onto shelves using his own catalogue system. In a characteristically sparse diary entry he concisely described the library's founding thus: "I have this day constituted my trust at St Deiniol's; the cost of the work has been I think £41 to £42000, including some charges of maintenance to Dec. 31. 95. May God of His mercy prosper it." Following his death in 1898, a public appeal was launched for funds to provide a permanent building to house the collection and to replace the temporary structure. The £9,000 raised provided an imposing building, designed by John Douglas, opened by Earl Spencer on 14 October 1902 as the National Memorial to W. E. Gladstone; the Gladstone family were themselves to fulfill the founder's vision by funding the residential wing, which welcomed its first resident on 29 June 1906. Today the library has 26 bedrooms, a cafe, a programme of events based around William Gladstone's core interest areas of religion and theology and politics, 19th-century literary culture.
Visiting the historic reading rooms and joining in order to use its collections are both free of charge. The library's priority is to build and nurture a wide network of writers and thinkers in order to maintain William Gladstone's legacy of engagement with social and spiritual questions. In March 2018 the Gladstone's Library and the Royal Institute of British Architects announced a £4.5 million Living Heritage Project to build a new building and refurbish the existing grade I listed historical library. In June 2018 four architectural companies were shortlisted—AOC Architecture, Caruso St John Architects, Hopkins Architects, Simpson & Brown—each receiving £4,000 to develop a proposal. In July 2018 the Royal Institute of British Architects announced that Caruso St John had won the competition to design the new building for Gladstone’s Library. Dr Williams's Library in London List of non-ecclesiastical and non-residential works by John Douglas Media related to Gladstone's Library at Wikimedia Commons Official website U.
S. Friends of Gladstone's Library
Daniel Williams (theologian)
For others of this name, see Daniel Williams. Daniel Williams was a British benefactor and theologian, within the Presbyterian tradition, i.e. a Christian outside the Church of England. He is known for the legacy he left which led to the creation of Dr Williams's Library, a centre for research on English Dissenters. Williams was born in Wrexham, Denbighshire and was a cousin of Stephen Davies, minister at Banbury, he became a preacher by the age of nineteen: details of his education are unknown, though it was cut short by his refusing to conform to the state church, when Charles II was restored to the throne. He ministered in Ireland from 1664 to 1687; this posting was a result of his accepting an invitation from the Countess of Meath to be her chaplain. He was a regular preacher to Drogheda's joint Presbyterian–Independent congregation and became Samuel Marsden's colleague at the congregation at Wood Street, Dublin, he acted as a peacemaker amongst the Scottish Presbyterians, fiercely opposed Catholicism and helped to maintain the Presbyterians' union with the other Dissenting congregations in Ireland, as well as exorcising a house by prayer in 1678.
On a new outbreak of the Troubles and after being abandoned by Gilbert Rule, Williams left for London in September 1687. There he became an influential Dissenter, becoming friends with the leading ministers Richard Baxter and John Howe and twice being invited to preach before the Lord Mayor of London, the Independent Sir John Shorter. At a meeting at Howe's house in May 1688 as to the making an address of thanks to James II for his Declaration of Indulgence, Williams opposed any such address since "it were better for to be reduc'd to their former Hardships, than declare for Measures destructive of the Liberties of their Country" and to cause an open split with the Church of England, he refused to be convinced to return to Ireland by the Dublin congregation, spent the rest of his career in London, where he advised William III on Irish matters. Williams died in Hoxton from asthma, he was buried in a vault at Bunhill Fields, he left his whole estate of £50,000 to charity. He left his books and money to establish a library, now known as the Dr Williams's Library, situated in Bloomsbury, London.
In addition to its theological holdings, it contains collections of philosophy, history and other donated collections. The library is known to researchers of history and genealogy for its holdings of pre-19th century material relating to Protestant nonconformity in England, he left money to aid the foundation of seven charity schools in North Wales, to provide scholarships to the University of Glasgow for candidates to the ministry in the Nonconformist church. Williams married Thomas Juxon's daughter Elizabeth in Ireland in 1675 - she died in 1698, they had had no children. By his second wife Jane Guill, whom he married in 1701, he had two daughters. Gordon, Alexander. "Williams, Daniel". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 61. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 385–389. Wykes, David L.. "Williams, Daniel". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29491. "Daniel Williams". Welsh Biography Online
Newington Green Unitarian Church
Newington Green Unitarian Church in north London is one of England's oldest Unitarian churches. It has had strong ties to political radicalism for over 300 years, is London's oldest Nonconformist place of worship still in use, it was founded in 1708 by English Dissenters, a community of, gathering around Newington Green for at least half a century before that date. The church belongs to the umbrella organisation known as the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, has had an upturn in its fortunes since the turn of the millennium, its most famous minister was Dr Richard Price, a political radical, remembered for his role in the Revolution Controversy, a British debate about the French Revolution, but who did pioneering work in finance and statistics. The most famous member of its congregation was Mary Wollstonecraft, who drew inspiration from Price's sermons in her work, both in arguing for the new French republic and in raising the issue of the rights of women; the building, which faces the north side of the green, was extended in 1860, was listed in 1953.
It lies within the London Borough of Hackney, although the rest of the green is part of the London Borough of Islington. After the end of Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth and the Restoration of Charles II, those in England and Wales who were not members of the Church of England found themselves in an uncomfortable position. Several pieces of legislation, known collectively as the Clarendon Code, made their lives difficult; the first restricted public office to Anglicans. The Act of Uniformity the following year was a step too far for many clergymen, about 2,000 of them left the established church in the Great Ejection of 1662; the third act forbad unauthorised religious meetings of more than five people. The final one prohibited Nonconformist clergymen from living within five miles of a parish from which they had been banned. Where the ministers went, their flocks tended to follow; some of these restrictions were ameliorated a generation with the passing of the Act of Toleration 1689, which guaranteed freedom of worship for certain groups.
It allowed Nonconformists their own places of worship and their own teachers and preachers, subject to certain oaths of allegiance and to the registering of these locations and leaders, but it perpetuated their existing social and political disabilities, including their exclusion from political office and from universities. Roman Catholics were targeted by these acts, many of them went underground; some Christians who had hoped for a more Protestant Reformation within the Established Church chose to emigrate to the American colonies, as the Pilgrim Fathers had done in 1620. Others maintained their faith and lived with the restrictions the state placed upon them, moving to areas where they were tolerated, they set up educational establishments, known in general as dissenting academies, which were intellectually and morally more rigorous than the universities. One such was at Newington Green an agricultural village a few miles from London, but now within Inner London. Unitarianism or Rational Dissent – "that intellectual aristocracy in the ranks of Dissent, as historians characterise it" – had an obvious affinity with education, critical enquiry, challenges to the status quo, is "one of the roots of modern English Culture".
A critical mass of such people, including "dissident intellectuals, pedagogues with reforming ideas and Dissenters" and "the well-to-do edge of radical Protestantism" clustered around Newington Green. Not all of these free-thinkers were Unitarians, such as Quaker John Coakley Lettsome or the Anglicans Vicesimus Knox and George Gaskin, but most had some connections to the chapel on the green; the original building of 1708 was financed with £300 from Edward Harrison, a goldsmith, equivalent to £47,345 in 2018. He leased it to the trustees of the congregation, who furnished it with pulpit, so on, raising the necessary £96 from about 20 subscribers by hiring or selling pews, it was a "substantial brick building, of nearly square form, with the high, projecting roof, common at its era", "Historic views show that the original façade had a small pediment against a large hipped roof, with a central oval window below." It was too plain for Wollstonecraft's Anglican tastes, one of her biographers thought it defiantly stark.
This building was extended and improved in the mid-nineteenth century. An internal gallery was built to increase the seating available, a few years the roof and apse were renewed, a "stuccoed frontage" was built, "mirroring the original façade with a three-bay front with two round-headed windows, but with added Tuscan pilasters and a large pediment". In the mid-twentieth century, the building was damaged by enemy action. In 1953 its architectural importance was recognised as a Grade II listed building. Other religious institutions existed nearby. St Matthias, one of London's foremost High Churches, was built a couple of hundred yards away between 1849 and 1853 with money from a rich doctor named Robert Brett, who thought that the Dissenting chapels were attracting so many worshippers in part because the Anglican pews were full. Jews fleeing the pogroms of the Russian Empire established a congregation in the area by 1876, built the Dalston Synagogue in adjoining Poets Road in 1885; this Victorian Gothic building became one of the leading synagogues of London, with Jacob Koussevitzsky as its cantor from 1936.
Sotheby's is a British-founded American multinational corporation headquartered in New York City. One of the world's largest brokers of fine and decorative art, real estate, collectibles, Sotheby's operation is divided into three segments: auction and dealer; the company's services range from corporate art services to private sales. It is named after one of John Sotheby. Sotheby's is the world's fourth oldest auction house in continuous operation, with 90 locations in 40 countries; as of December 2011, the company had 1,446 employees worldwide. It is the world's largest art business with global sales in 2011 totalling $5.8 billion. Sotheby's was established on 11 March 1744 in London; the American holding company was incorporated in August 1983 in Michigan. In June 2006, Sotheby's Holdings, Inc. reincorporated in the State of Delaware and was renamed Sotheby's. In July 2016, Chinese insurance company Taikang Life became Sotheby's largest shareholder. Sotheby's predecessor and Leigh, was founded in London on 11 March 1744, when Samuel Baker presided over the disposal of "several hundred scarce and valuable" books from the library of Rt Hon Sir John Stanley Bt. of Alderley.
Three Swedish auction houses are older and Sotheby's great rival in London and New York, Christie's, dates from 1759 or shortly after. The current business dates back to 1804, when two of the partners of the original business left to set up their own book dealership; the library Napoleon took with him into exile at St Helena, as well as the library collections of John Wilkes, Benjamin Heywood Bright and the Dukes of Devonshire and of Buckingham were sold through Samuel Baker's auctions. After Baker's death in 1778, his estate was divided between John Sotheby. George Leigh died unmarried in 1816, but not before endeavouring to secure his succession by recruiting Samuel E Leigh into the business. Under the Sotheby family, the auction house extended its activities to auctioning prints and coins. John Wilkinson, Sotheby's Senior Accountant, became the company's new CEO; the business did not seek to auction fine arts in general until much their first major success in this field being the sale of a Frans Hals painting for nine thousand guineas as late as 1913.
In 1917, Sotheby's relocated from 13 Wellington Street to 34-35 New Bond Street, which remains as its London base to this day. They soon came to rival Christie's as leaders of the London auction market, which had become the most important for art. In 1955, Sotheby's opened an office at New York City. In 1964, Sotheby's purchased Parke-Bernet the largest auctioneer of fine art in the United States. In the following year, Sotheby's moved to New York. With international popularity of fine art auction growing, Sotheby's opened offices in Paris and Los Angeles in 1967, became the first auction house to operate in Hong Kong in 1973, Moscow in 1988. Sotheby's became a U. K. public company in 1977. A 25 percent drop from the 1980–81 record of $610 million in sales contributed to Sotheby's decision to relocate its North American headquarters from Madison Avenue to a former cigar factory at 1334 York Avenue, New York, in 1982; the auction house closed its Madison Avenue galleries at East 76th Street. The Los Angeles galleries were sold and auctions of West Coast material moved to New York.
In the following year, a group of investors privatized Sotheby's. Sotheby's was incorporated as Sotheby's Holdings, Inc. in Michigan in August 1983. Taubman took Sotheby's public in 1988, listing the company's shares on the New York Stock Exchange, making Sotheby's the oldest publicly traded company on the NYSE under the ticker symbol "BID." In June 2006, Sotheby's Holdings, Inc. reincorporated in the State of Delaware and was renamed Sotheby's shortly after. With private transactions constituting an essential and profitable business segment, through the years Sotheby's has bought art galleries and helped dealers finance purchases, it has gone into partnership with dealers on private sales. In 1990, Sotheby's teamed up with dealer William Acquavella, to form Acquavella Modern Art, a Nevada general partnership and a subsidiary of Sotheby's Holding Company; the subsidiary paid $143 million for the contents of the Pierre Matisse Gallery in Manhattan, which included about 2,300 works by such artists as Miró, Jean Dubuffet, Alberto Giacometti, Marc Chagall, began selling the works both at auction and privately.
In 1996, Sotheby's acquired Andre Emmerich Gallery to operate a division called Emmerich/Sotheby's, in 1997 it purchased a 50% interest in Deitch Projects. As a consequence, the Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, the main beneficiary of the artists' estates, as well as the estates of Morris Louis and Milton Avery announced that they would not renew their Emmerich contracts; that decision came right after it was disclosed that Sotheby's had decided to close Emmerich's prime space at 41 East 57th Street, that its artists would be handled out of Deitch Projects. Sotheby's subsequently closed Andre Emmerich in 1998 and sold its share in Deitch Projects back to Jeffrey Deitch. In 2006, Sotheby's acquired a Dutch dealership, Noortman Master Paintings, from its owner, Robert Noortman, for $82.5 million. Sotheby's and Noortman had collaborated before in 1995, when the sales of Dutch plastic millionaire Joost Ritman were divided between the two companies. In 1990, Sotheby's New
Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one person, as opposed to the Trinity which in many other branches of Christianity defines God as three persons in one being: the Father and Holy Spirit. Unitarian Christians, believe that Jesus was inspired by God in his moral teachings, he is a savior, but he was not a deity or God incarnate. Unitarianism does not constitute one single Christian denomination, but rather refers to a collection of both extant and extinct Christian groups, whether related to each other or not, which share a common theological concept of the oneness nature of God. While the uncompromising theological monotheism at the heart of Christian Unitarianism distinguishes it from the major Christian denominations which subscribe to Trinitarian theology, Christian Unitarianism is analogous to the more austere monotheistic understandings of God in Judaism, nearer to the concept of the oneness of God in Islam. Unitarianism is known for the rejection of several other Western Christian doctrines, including the doctrines of original sin and the infallibility of the Bible.
Unitarians in previous centuries accepted the doctrine of punishment in an eternal hell, but few do today. Unitarianism might be considered a part of Protestantism, depending on one's stance or viewpoint, some exclude it from that term due to its Nontrinitarian nature. Despite common origins during the Protestant Reformation, some scholars call it a part of Nontrinitarianism, while others consider it both Protestant and Nontrinitarian, seeing no contradiction between those two terms. None of the three views are universally accepted; the Unitarian movement is tied to the more radical critiques of the Reformation. First organized in Eastern Europe during the Reformation, Unitarian communities have developed in Britain, South Africa, Canada, the United States, Jamaica and Japan. Unitarians began simultaneously in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and in Transylvania in the mid-16th century. Among the adherents were a significant number of Italians who took refuge in Poland. In the 17th century, significant repression in Poland led many Unitarians to flee or be killed for their faith, notably Katarzyna Weiglowa.
From the 16th to 18th centuries, Unitarians in Britain faced significant political persecution, including John Biddle, Mary Wollstonecraft, Theophilus Lindsey. In England, the first Unitarian Church was established in 1774 on Essex Street, where today's British Unitarian headquarters are still located. In the United States, different schools of Unitarian theology first spread in New England and the mid-Atlantic states; the first official acceptance of the Unitarian faith on the part of a congregation in America was by King's Chapel in Boston, from where James Freeman began teaching Unitarian doctrine in 1784, was appointed rector and revised the prayer book according to Unitarian doctrines in 1786. In India, three different schools of Unitarian thought influenced varying movements, including the Brahmo Samaj, the Unitarian Church of the Khasi Hills, the Unitarian Christian Church of Chennai, in Madras, founded in 1795. Unitarians place emphasis on the ultimate role of reason in interpreting sacred scriptures, thus freedom of conscience and freedom of the pulpit are core values in the tradition.
Reformation is an ongoing process. Constant study and new experiences can lead to new insights for teachings and community practice. In varying contexts, Unitarians seek to affirm the use of reason in religion and freedom of conscience. In J. Gordon Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions, the Unitarian tradition is classified among "the'liberal' family of churches". Unitarianism is a proper noun and follows the same English usage as other theologies that have developed within a religious movement; the term existed shortly before it became the name of a religious movement, thus it is used as a common noun that would describe any understanding of Jesus Christ that denies the Trinity or which believes that God is only one person. In that case, it would be a nontrinitarian belief system not associated with the Unitarian religious movement. For example, the Unitarian movement has never accepted the Godhood of Jesus, therefore does not include those nontrinitarian belief systems that do, such as Oneness Pentecostalism, United Pentecostal Church International and the True Jesus Church and the writings of Michael Servetus, all of which maintain that Jesus is God as a single person.
Although these groups are unitarians in the common sense, they are not in the proper sense. To avoid confusion, this article is about Unitarianism as a religious movement. For the generic form of unitarianism, see Nontrinitarianism; some religious groups have adopted the 19th-century term biblical unitarianism to distinguish their theology from Unitarianism. These have no direct relation to the Unitarian movement; the term Unitarian is sometimes applied today to those who belong to a Unitarian church but do not hold a Unitarian theological belief. In the past, the vast majority of members of Unitarian churches were Unitarians in theology. Over time, some Unitarians and Unitarian Universalists moved away from the traditional Christian roots of Unitarianism. For example, in the 1890s the American Unitarian Association began to allow non-Christian and non-theistic churches and individuals to be part of their fellowship; as a result, people who held no Unitarian belief began to be called Unitarians because they
New College London
New College London was founded as a Congregationalist college in 1850. New College London came into being in 1850 by the amalgamation of three dissenting academies; the first was associated with William Coward, a London merchant who used his money to train ministers for the "protestant dissenters". The trustees of his will supported, among others, the academy started by Philip Doddridge, taking it over after Doddridge's death in 1751; this establishment, founded at Market Harborough, moved to Northampton, to Daventry, back to Northampton to Wymondley, in 1833 to London. Its final home was built by Thomas Cubitt the year before, was located in Byng Place, Torrington Square, south of the Catholic Apostolic Church in the heart of Bloomsbury, when it was known as Coward College. Two of its principals were Dr. Thomas William Jenkyn. Despite the financial support of Coward, the college is best known as the Daventry Academy, its best-known student was the polymath Joseph Priestley. The second dissenting academy, which ended up known as Highbury College, started out in Mile End in 1783, moved to Hoxton in 1791, to Highbury in 1826.
Its most famous student was Christopher Newman Hall. The third, Homerton College, was split into two, its theological function became part of New College, whereas the rest of it, refounded as a teacher training college, became part of the University of Cambridge. These three merged as New College London, its initial programme is laid out in the final chapter of The introductory lectures delivered at the opening of the college: October, 1851. Meanwhile, the Village Itinerancy Society was transformed into the Hackney Theological Seminary, renamed as Hackney College in 1871; this was relocated from its origins in Hackney to a fine new building in Hampstead, became associated with Peter Taylor Forsyth. New College and Hackney College became constituents of the University of London's Faculty of Theology when the faculty was created in 1900, they were united by Act of Parliament in 1924 as Hackney and New College, renamed New College, London in 1936."New buildings were erected behind the Hackney College premises at Hampstead, were opened in 1938."When, in 1972, most English Congregational churches joined the newly formed United Reformed Church, only a small number remained independent, the New College's work was reorganised.
In 1976, its library was donated to Dr Williams's Library. Since 1981, the work of the college has been continued by the New College London Foundation, which trains ministers for the URC and Congregational churches. After closure in 1977 the New College buildings were leased to the Open University, which assigned its rights to the Paris Chamber of Commerce in 2001, as the campus of ESCP-EAP; the freehold of the buildings were sold to the Paris Chamber of Commerce in 2005 and the funds distributed to the four beneficiaries, the United Reformed Church, the Congregational Federation, The Evangelical Fellowship of Congregational Churches and the Unaffiliated Congregational Churches Charity. Despite the name the college was never associated with Royal Holloway and Bedford New College a constituent college of the University of London. New College has gathered many leading thinkers from the Congregationalist and United Reformed traditions. Rev John Harris DD was its first Principal, succeeded by Rev Robert Halley DD Walter Frederic Adeney was educated at the college and was lecturer in Biblical and systematic theology at New College in the 1880s.
Bertram Lee-Woolf, a leading authority on the work of Martin Luther held a professorship at the college. Howard Scullard was a governor of the college from 1930 until 1980; the Revd. John Huxtable, Principal of the college 1953-64, helped to found the URC and became its first Moderator; the Revd. Dr Geoffrey Nuttall, Lecturer in Church History at the college, was elected to membership of the British Academy in 1991. Ron Price, a New Testament scholar, studied at the college in the 1960s; the Revd. Elizabeth Welch, Moderator of the URC in the West Midlands, studied at the college in the 1970s. David Peel, the URC’s Moderator of General Assembly for 2005–2006, came under the influence of the college while residing there as a student lodger. Lists of New College London students