Draft (hull)

The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull, with the thickness of the hull included. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a boat can safely navigate. A table made by the shipyard shows the water displacement for each draft; the density of the water and the content of the ship's bunkers has to be taken into account. The draft can be used to determine the weight of the cargo on board by calculating the total displacement of water and using Archimedes' principle; the related term "trim" is defined as the difference between the forward and aft drafts. The draft aft is measured in the perpendicular of the stern; the draft forward is measured in the perpendicular of the bow. The mean draft is obtained by calculating from the averaging of the stern and bow drafts, with correction for water level variation and value of the position of F with respect to the average perpendicular; the trim of a ship is the difference between the aft draft.

When the aft draft is greater the vessel is deemed to have a positive trim, it has a negative trim when the forward draft is the greater. In such a case it is referred to as being down-by-the-head. In commercial ship operations, the ship will quote the mean draft as the vessel's draft; however in navigational situations, the maximum draft the aft draft, will be known on the bridge and will be shared with the pilot. The draft of a ship can be affected by multiple factors, not considering the rise and fall of the ship by displacement: Variation by trim Variation by list Variation by water level change Allowance of fresh water draft variation by passage from fresh to sea water or vice versa Heat variation in navigating shallow waters Variation as a result of a ship moving in shallow waters, or squat The drafts are measured with a "banded" scale, from bow and to stern, for some ships, the average perpendicular measurement is used; the scale may use metric units. If the English system is used, the bottom of each marking is the draft in feet and markings are 6 inches high.

In metric marking schemes, the bottom of each draft mark is the draft in decimeters and each mark is one decimeter high. Larger ships try to maintain an average water draft when they are light in order to make a better sea crossing and reduce the effects of the wind. In order to achieve this they use sailing ballasts to stabilize the ship, following the unloading of cargo; the water draft of a large ship has little direct link with its stability because stability depends on the respective positions of the metacenter of the hull and the center of gravity. It is true, that a "light" ship has quite high stability which can lead to implying too much rolling of the ship. A laden ship can have either a strong or weak stability, depending upon the manner by which the ship is loaded; the draft of ships can be increased when the ship is in motion in shallow water, a phenomenon known as squat. Draft is a significant factor limiting navigable waterways for large vessels; this includes many shallow coastal waters and reefs, but some major shipping lanes.

Panamax class ships—the largest ships able to transit the Panama Canal—do have a draft limit but are limited by beam, or sometimes length overall, for fitting into locks. However, ships can be longer and higher in the Suez Canal, the limiting factor for Suezmax ships is draft; some supertankers are able to transit the Suez Canal when unladen or laden, but not when laden. Canals are not the only draft-limited shipping lanes. A Malaccamax ship, is the deepest draft able to transit the busy but shallow Strait of Malacca; the Strait only allows ships to have.4 m more draft than the Suez Canal. Capesize, Ultra Large Crude Carriers and a few Chinamax carriers, are some of the ships that have too deep a draft when laden, for either the Strait of Malacca or the Suez Canal. A small draft allows pleasure boats to navigate through shallower water; this makes it possible for these boats to access smaller ports, to travel along rivers and to'beach' the boat. A large draft ensures a good level of stability in strong wind.

For example: Ballasts placed low in the keel of a boat such as a dragon boat with a draft of 1.20 m for a length of 8.90 m. A boat like a catamaran can mitigate the problem by retrieving good stability in a small draft, but the width of the boat increases. A term called keel depth is used for submarines, which can submerge to different depths at sea, specifying the current distance from the water surface to the bottom of the submarine's keel, it is used in navigation to avoid underwater obstacles and hitting the ocean floor, as a standard point on the submarine for depth measurements. Submarines also have a specified draft used while operating on the surface, for navigating in harbors and at docks. Air draft Hull Naval architecture Waterline Hayler, William B.. American Merchant Seaman's Manual. Cornell Maritime Prress. ISBN 0-87033-549-9. Turpin, Edward A.. Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook. Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-056-X

Paul Pilgrim

Paul Henry Pilgrim was an American runner. He competed at the 1904, 1906 and 1908 Olympics and won three gold medals, in 1904 and 1906. At the 1904 Summer Olympics, Pilgrim failed to complete the 400 m and 800 m events, finished sixth in the four mile team run, aiding the New York Athletic Club to win the gold medal. In 1906, Pilgrim traveled to Athens on his own, missing the wave that washed over the deck of the American team's ship in Gibraltar; the wave injured about half-dozen athletes aboard the deck, including one of the favorites in the 400 m, Harry Hillman. Pilgrim advanced to the final in the 400 m, was third before the final straight. On that stretch, he passed Wyndham Halswelle of Great Britain and Nigel Barker of Australia to win in time of 53.2 seconds. In the 800 m, Pilgrim won by two feet; this medal does not appear in results or tables published by the International Olympic Committee, which retroactively downgraded the 1906 Summer Olympics and does not consider them to have been true "Games of the Olympiad."

Following his success in 1906 Pilgrim never won a major competition. At the 1908 Summer Olympics he failed to reach the final of the 400 m event, he worked the rest of his career at NYAC, where he served as Athletic Director from 1914 to 1953. Cook, Theodore Andrea; the Fourth Olympiad. London: British Olympic Association. De Wael, Herman. "Athletics 1908". Herman's Full Olympians. Retrieved July 15, 2006. Wudarski, Pawel. "Wyniki Igrzysk Olimpijskich". Retrieved July 15, 2006

Chilkur, Suryapet district

Chilkur is a census town in Suryapet district of the Indian state of Telangana. It is the headquarters of Chilkur mandal of Kodad revenue division, it is 50 km away from district headquarters and Lies between Kodad and Huzurnagar. It is too Hot in summer. Chilkur summer highest day temperature is in between 35 °C to 48 °C. Average temperatures of January is 24 °C, February is 26 °C, March is 29 °C, April is 33 °C, May is 36 °C. According to Census of India, 2011, population of Chilkur is 18,952 of which 9,578 are male and 9,374 are female; the literacy rate is 85.7%. Sex ratio is 986 females to 1000 males. Child sex ratio is 951 girls to 1000 boys. Chilkur is Mandal Headquarters. Sri. Bollam Mallaiah Yadav is the present MLA of the constituency from ]. Chilkur had some best pages in History. Chalukyas and Nizam dynasties ruled the region