Echo of Moscow
Echo of Moscow is a 24/7 commercial Russian radio station based in Moscow. It broadcasts in many Russian cities, some of the former Soviet republics, via the Internet; the current editor-in-chief is Alexei Venediktov. Echo of Moscow became famous during the events of 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt - it was one of the few news outlets that spoke against the State Committee on the State of Emergency; the Committee's decree number 3 on the suspension of Echo's broadcast is now regarded as a prestigious state award by the station's journalists. According to editor-in-chief Alexei Venediktov, the special KGB Alfa group made several attempts to cut the radio's access to the transmitter, but its employees managed to connect the studio directly to the transmitter through the telephone line and continue broadcasting. From the first day of its existence Echo of Moscow adhered to one rule: «All significant points of view about events should be presented». Journalists have been jokingly calling the station «Ear of Moscow».
Most of Echo of Moscow's content consists of news and talk shows focusing on social and political issues, where the station tries to represent different points of view. Alexey Venediktov has been the station's chief editor since 1998. Radio hosts of the station include Victor Shenderovich, Yulia Latynina, Sergey Parkhomenko, Alexander Nevzorov, Yevgenia Albats, Vladimir Kara-Murza, Vladimir Ryzhkov, Yevgeny Yasin and Sophie Shevardnadze; as of April 2014 Yulia Latynina is the most popular presenter at the radio station. In addition to broadcasting, Echo of Moscow runs a website that publishes analytical and factual materials in a variety of fields including international and domestic political affairs, social developments and cultural trends; the articles are written by well-known political analysts, academic researchers and public figures. Among the website's authors are Dmitrii Bykov, Matvey Ganapolsky, Alexey Navalny, Victor Shenderovich, a number of others, who have sustained national and international acclaim in their areas of expertise.
The Echo of Moscow site is an authoritative source of information, its publications are cited, relied on and reproduced by major Russian internet publications and other media sources. As of 2018 Echo of Moscow is majority owned by Gazprom Media which holds 66% of its shares, the remaining 34% are held by journalist staff. 900,000 people in Moscow and 1,8 million in other Russian regions listen to Echo of Moscow daily. According to TNS Global, the most common listeners are middle class and upper middle class Russians 40 years and older with a higher education, residing in the city of Moscow, they make up one third of the total listeners of the radio station. The radio's programs can be streamed online and are available in text and video formats at the station's website; the website itself attracts an average of 700.000 visitors daily. In October 2017, the station was broken into by an assailant who pepper-sprayed a security guard and soon afterwards stabbed Tatyana Felgengauer, one of Echo's top presenters, in the neck.
Her injuries were life-threatening, but she was able to make a full recovery thanks to timely medical intervention. The station described the attacker as an Israeli, quoting "informed sources". Forensic medical expertise determined him to be a paranoid schizophrenic, he was sentenced to compulsory medical treatment by the court. In September 2009, numerous chief editor replies point out that Gazprom and/or other stock-holders did not interfere with informational policy and were not allowed to. On 1 November 2014, the station received an official Roskomnadzor warning that a program the station had aired about Ukraine contained "information justifying war crimes". A radio station can be closed down. Abakan — 71.06, 104.2 FM Barnaul — 69.11 FM Chelyabinsk — 70.70, 99.5 FM Chicago — 1330 AM Ekaterinburg — 67.46, 91.4 FM Izhevsk — 105.3 FM Irkutsk — 69.5 FM Kazan — 105.8 FM Krasnoyarsk — 106.6 FM Makhachkala — 105.2 FM Mirny — 102.4 FM Moscow — 91.2 FM Nizhnevartovsk — 107.0 FM Nizhny Novgorod — 107.4 FM Orenburg — 101.3 FM Omsk — 70.55, 105.0 FM Penza — 107.5 FM Perm — 91.2 FM Rostov-na-Donu — 69.44 FM Samara — 99.1 FM Saint Petersburg — 91.5 FM Saratov, Engels — 105.8 FM Tolyatti — 107.9 FM Tomsk — 105.0 FM Tyumen — 72.44 FM Tver — 107.2 FM Ufa — 91.1 FM Ukhta — 105.0 FM Vladikavkaz, Beslan — 102.8 FM Vologda — 105.7 FM Yaroslavl — 106.5 FM Zelenogorsk — 71.06 FM List of Russian-language radio stations Official website Frequencies List David Remnick.
Echo in the Dark: A radio station strives to keep the airwaves free. - The New Yorker. September 22, 2008 Online broadcast
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
Samuel Dale Brownback is an American attorney, politician and member of the Republican Party who has served as the United States Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom since February 2018. Brownback served as the Secretary of Agriculture of Kansas, as the U. S. Representative for Kansas's 2nd congressional district, as a United States Senator from Kansas and the 46th Governor of Kansas, he ran for the Republican nomination for President in 2008. Born in Garnett, Brownback grew up on the family farm in Parker, Kansas, he graduated from Kansas State University with a degree in agricultural economics in 1978 and received a J. D. from the University of Kansas in 1982. He worked as an attorney in Manhattan, before being appointed Secretary of Agriculture of Kansas in 1986 by Democratic Governor John W. Carlin. Brownback defeated Carlin in the general election in a landslide, he represented Kansas's 2nd congressional district for a single term before running in a 1996 special election for the U.
S. Senate seat held by Bob Dole, he won the special election and was reelected by large margins in 1998 and 2004. Brownback ran for president in 2008, but withdrew before the primaries began and endorsed eventual Republican nominee John McCain. Brownback declined instead running for governor, he was elected governor of Kansas in 2010 and took office in January 2011. As governor, Brownback initiated what he called a "red-state experiment"—dramatic cuts in income tax rates intended to bring economic growth, he signed into law one of the largest income tax cuts in Kansas history. The tax cuts caused state revenues to fall by hundreds of millions of dollars and created large budget shortfalls. A major budget deficit led to cuts in areas including transportation. In a repudiation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, in 2013 Brownback turned down a $31.5 million grant from the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services to set up a public health insurance exchange for Kansas. In 2013, he signed a bill that blocked tax breaks for abortion providers, banned sex-selection abortions and declared that life begins at fertilization.
In the run-up to the 2014 gubernatorial election, over 100 former and current Kansas Republican officials criticized Brownback's leadership and endorsed his Democratic opponent, Paul Davis. Brownback was narrowly reelected. In June 2017, the Kansas Legislature rolled back Brownback's tax cuts, overriding Brownback's veto, enacted tax increases. Brownback, who had a 66% disapproval rating after the repeal of his signature law, left office as one of the least popular governors in the country. On July 26, 2017, the Trump administration issued a statement that Brownback would be nominated as the new U. S. Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom; the nomination was forwarded by committee, on a party line vote, but expired at the end of 2017 in lieu of a Senate confirmation vote by the time of adjournment. The committee resent his nomination to the Senate on January 8, 2018, he was confirmed two weeks in a strict party-line vote with Vice President Mike Pence casting the necessary tie-breaking vote to end a filibuster and for his confirmation.
On January 25, Brownback submitted his resignation as governor, effective January 31, Lieutenant Governor Jeff Colyer was sworn in as governor. Brownback was sworn in as U. S. Ambassador at Large for International Religious Freedom on February 1. Sam Brownback was born on September 1956, in Garnett, Kansas to Nancy and Glen Robert Brownback, he was raised in a farming family in Kansas. Some of Brownback's German-American ancestors settled in Kansas after leaving Pennsylvania following the Civil War. Throughout his youth, Brownback was involved the FFA, serving as president of his local and state FFA chapters, as national FFA vice president from 1976 to 1977. After graduating from Prairie View High School, Brownback attended Kansas State University, where was elected student body president and became a member of the Alpha Gamma Rho agricultural fraternity. After graduating from college in 1978 with a degree in Agricultural Economics in 1978, he spent about a year working as a radio broadcaster for the now-defunct KSAC farm department, hosting a weekly half-hour show.
Brownback received his J. D. from the University of Kansas in 1982. Brownback was an attorney in Manhattan, before being appointed as Kansas Secretary of Agriculture by Governor John W. Carlin on September 18, 1986. In 1990, he was accepted into the White House Fellow program and detailed to the Office of the U. S. Trade Representative from 1990 to 1991. Brownback returned to Kansas to resume his position as Secretary of Agriculture, he left his post on July 30, 1993. He was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1994 and ran in the 1996 special election for the U. S. Senate seat vacated by Bob Dole, beating appointed Republican Sheila Frahm. Sheila Frahm was appointed to fill the seat of U. S. Senator Bob Dole when Dole resigned in 1996 to campaign for president. Brownback defeated Frahm in the 1996 Republican primary and went on to win the general election against Democrat Jill Docking. In 2001, the Federal Election Commission assessed fines and penalties against Brownback's campaign committee and against his in-laws for improper 1996 campaign contributions.
As a result of these improper contributions, the campaign was ordered to give the government $19,000 in contributions and Brownback's in-laws and Ruth Stauffer, were ordered to pay a $9,000 civil penalty for improperly funneling contributions through Triad Management Services. In
Nancy Patricia Pelosi is an American politician serving as speaker of the United States House of Representatives since January 2019. First elected to Congress in 1987, she is the only woman to have served as speaker, is the highest-ranking elected woman in United States history. Pelosi is second in the presidential line of succession after the vice president. A member of the Democratic Party, Pelosi is in her 17th term as a congresswoman, representing California's 12th congressional district, which consists of four-fifths of the city and county of San Francisco, she represented the 5th district, when district boundaries were redrawn after the 1990 Census, the 8th district. She has led House Democrats since 2003, serving twice each as Speaker and as House Minority Leader depending upon whether Democrats or Republicans held the majority. Pelosi was a major opponent of the Iraq War as well as the Bush Administration's 2005 attempt to privatize Social Security. During her first speakership, she was instrumental in the passage of many landmark bills, including the Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, along with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and 2010 Tax Relief Act, which served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession.
In the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats won control of the House. Afterward, when the 116th Congress convened on January 3, 2019, Pelosi was elected Speaker for the second time, becoming the first former speaker to return to the post since Sam Rayburn in 1955. Pelosi was born in Baltimore to an Italian-American family, the youngest, only girl, of seven children of Annunciata M. "Nancy" D'Alesandro, Thomas D'Alesandro Jr. Both of Pelosi's parents had Italian roots, her mother was born in Campobasso, in South Italy, her father could trace his Italian ancestry to Genoa and Abruzzo. When Nancy was born, her father was a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and he became Mayor of Baltimore seven years later. Pelosi's mother was active in politics, organizing Democratic women and teaching her daughter the value of social networking. Pelosi's brother, Thomas D'Alesandro III a Democrat, was Mayor of Baltimore from 1967 to 1971. Pelosi was involved with politics from an early age, she helped her father at his campaign events.
She attended John F. Kennedy's inaugural address when he became U. S. President in January 1961, she graduated from the Institute of a Catholic all-girls high school in Baltimore. In 1962, she graduated from Trinity College in Washington, D. C. with a Bachelor of Arts in political science. Pelosi interned for Senator Daniel Brewster in the 1960s alongside future House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer. After moving to San Francisco, Pelosi worked her way up in Democratic politics, she became a friend of one of the leaders of the California Democratic Party, 5th District Congressman Phillip Burton. In 1976, Pelosi was elected as a Democratic National Committee member from California, a position she would hold until 1996, she was elected as party chair for Northern California on January 30, 1977, for the California Democratic Party, which she held from 1981 until 1983. That same year, she ran to succeed Chuck Manatt as chair of the Democratic National Committee, but lost to then-DNC Treasurer Paul G. Kirk.
Pelosi left her post as DSCC finance chair in 1986. Phillip Burton was succeeded by his wife, Sala. In late 1986, Sala became ill with cancer and decided not to run for reelection in 1988, she picked Pelosi as her designated successor, guaranteeing her the support of the Burtons' contacts. Sala died on February 1987, just a month after being sworn in for a second full term. Pelosi won the special election to succeed her, narrowly defeating San Francisco Supervisor Harry Britt on April 7, 1987 easily defeating Republican candidate Harriet Ross on June 2, 1987. Pelosi represents one of the safest Democratic districts in the country. Democrats have held the seat since 1949 and Republicans, who make up only 13 percent of registered voters in the district, have not made a serious bid for the seat since the early 1960s, she won reelection in the regular election in 1988 and has been reelected another 16 times with no substantive opposition, winning with an average of 80 percent of the vote. She has not participated in candidates' debates since her 1987 race against Harriet Ross.
The strongest challenge Pelosi has faced was in 2016 when Preston Picus polled 19.1% and Pelosi won with 80.9%. For the 2000 and 2002 election cycles, she held the distinction of contributing the most among members of Congress to other congressional campaigns, in part because she is in a safe district and does not need the campaign funds. In the House, she served on the Appropriations and Intelligence Committees, was the ranking Democrat on the Intelligence Committee until her election as Minority Leader. Pelosi is a member of the House Baltic Caucus. In 2001, Pelosi was elected the House Minority Whip, second-in-command to Minority Leader Dick Gephardt of Missouri, she was the first woman in U. S. history to hold that post. In 2002, after Gephardt resigned as minority leader to seek the Democratic nomination in the 2004 presidential election, Pelosi was elected to replace him, becoming the first woman to lead a major party in the House. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats took control of the House.
The change in control meant as House Minority Leader, Pelosi w
2010 California gubernatorial election
The 2010 California gubernatorial election was held November 2, 2010 to elect the Governor of California. The primary elections were held on June 8, 2010; because constitutional office holders in California have been prohibited from serving more than two terms in the same office since 1990, incumbent Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger was ineligible to run for re-election for a third term. Former Governor Jerry Brown, to whom the term limits did not apply due to a grandfather clause, defeated Meg Whitman in the general election. Brown was sworn into office on January 3, 2011. Bill Chambers, railroad switchman Douglas Hughes, retired business owner Ken Miller, former broadcast manager Steven Mozena Lawrence Naritelli and controller Robert Newman and farmer Steve Poizner and then-California Insurance Commissioner David Tully-Smith, primary care physician Meg Whitman, former CEO of eBay Richard Aguirre, businessman Jerry Brown, incumbent California Attorney General and former Governor of California Lowell Darling, independent artist Vibert Greene, mechanical engineer and CEO Charles Pineda, parole board judge Peter Schurman, non-profit organization consultant who dropped out of the race Nadia Smalley Joe Symmon, president of a non-profit organization Dianne Feinstein, U.
S. Senator Gavin Newsom, Mayor of San Francisco Chelene Nightingale, business owner Markham Robinson, owner of a software firm S. Deacon Alexander, student Laura Wells, financial systems consultant Jordan Llamas, Doctor of Psychology and Political Science Dale Ogden, business consultant and actuary Stewart Alexander, political consultant and former vice presidential candidate for Socialist Party USA Carlos Alvarez, retail worker Mohammad Arif, businessman Both Whitman and Brown were criticized for negative campaigning during the election. During their final debate at the 2010 Women's Conference a week before the election, moderator Matt Lauer asked both candidates to pull attack ads for the rest of the election, which elicited loud cheers from the audience. Brown agreed and picked one ad each of his and Whitman's that he thought, if Whitman would agree, should be the only ones run, but Whitman, loudly cheered earlier as the prospective first woman governor of the state, was booed when she stated that she would keep "the ads that talk about where Gov. Brown stands on the issues."The Los Angeles Times reported that nearly $250 million was spent on the Governor's race.
At least two spending records were broken during the campaign. Whitman broke personal spending records by spending $140 million of her own money on the campaign, independent expenditures exceeded $31.7 million, with $25 million of that spent in support of Brown. In an interview with CNN, the reporter opined that Whitman was hurt most during the campaign by a matter involving Nicky Diaz, her former Mexican maid, whom Whitman fired after Diaz asked for help as she was an illegal immigrant. Jobs: Meg Whitman 1. Eliminate small business start-up tax 2. Eliminate factory tax 3. Increase R&D tax credit 4. Promote investments in agriculture 5. Eliminate the state tax on capital gains Jerry Brown 1. Stimulate clean energy jobs 2. Invest in infrastructure/construction jobs (federal dollars for projects. Create strike team to focus on job retention 4. Cut regulations (speed up regulatory processes and eliminate duplicative functions. Increase manufacturing jobs 6. Deliver targeted workforce training programs 7.
Invest in education Education: Meg Whitman 1. Direct more money to classroom 2. Reward outstanding teachers 3. Eliminate cap on charter schools 4. Grade public schools A-F 5. Establish fast-track parent process for charter school conversions 6. Invest $1 billion in UC and CSU University systems 7. Utilize alternative paths to the classroom to attract high quality teachers Jerry Brown 1. Higher education 2. Overhaul state testing program 3. Change school funding formulas and consolidate the 62 existing categorical programs 4. Teacher recruitment and training 5. Simplify the Education Code and return more decision-making to local school districts 6. A more balanced and creative school curriculum 7. Place special emphasis on teaching science, technology and math 8. Increase proficiency in English 9. Improve high school graduation rates 10. Charter schools 11. Magnet or theme schools 12. Citizenship and character United States gubernatorial elections, 2010 http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/survey/S_910MBS.pdf California Secretary of State - Elections California State Offices at Project Vote Smart California Governor 2010 from OurCampaigns.com Campaign contributions for 2010 California Governor from Follow the Money 2010 California Gubernatorial General Election: All Head-to-Head Matchups graph of multiple polls from Pollster.com Election 2010: California Governor from Rasmussen Reports 2010 California Governor - Whitman vs. Brown from Real Clear Politics 2010 California Governor's Race from CQ Politics Race Profile in The New York Times 2010 Governor's Race in the Los Angeles Times, endorsement for Brown California Governor Race 2010 in The Sacramento Bee, endorsement for Brown California Elections 2010 in