Phoenicia was a thalassocratic, ancient Semitic-speaking Mediterranean civilization that originated in the Levant Lebanon, in the west of the Fertile Crescent. Scholars agree that it was centered on the coastal areas of Lebanon and included northern Israel, southern Syria reaching as far north as Arwad, but there is some dispute as to how far south it went, the furthest suggested area being Ashkelon, its colonies reached the Western Mediterranean, such as Cádiz in Spain and most notably Carthage in North Africa, the Atlantic Ocean. The civilization spread across the Mediterranean between 1500 BC and 300 BC. Phoenicia is an ancient Greek term used to refer to the major export of the region, cloth dyed Tyrian purple from the Murex mollusc, referred to the major Canaanite port towns, their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to those of ancient Greece, centered in modern Lebanon, of which the most notable cities were Tyre, Arwad, Berytus and Carthage. Each city-state was a politically independent unit, it is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single nationality.
In terms of archaeology, language and religion there was little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other residents of the Levant, such as their close relatives and neighbors, the Israelites. Around 1050 BC, a Phoenician alphabet was used for the writing of Phoenician, it became one of the most used writing systems, spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, where it evolved and was assimilated by many other cultures, including the Roman alphabet used by Western civilization today. The name Phoenicians, like Latin Poenī, comes from Greek Φοίνικες; the word φοῖνιξ phoînix meant variably "Phoenician person", "Tyrian purple, crimson" or "date palm" and is attested with all three meanings in Homer. The word may be derived from φοινός phoinós "blood-red", itself related to φόνος phónos "murder", it is difficult to ascertain which meaning came first, but it is understandable how Greeks may have associated the crimson or purple color of dates and dye with the merchants who traded both products.
Robert S. P. Beekes has suggested a pre-Greek origin of the ethnonym; the oldest attested form of the word in Greek may be the Mycenaean po-ni-ki-jo, po-ni-ki borrowed from Ancient Egyptian: fnḫw, although this derivation is disputed. The folk etymological association of Φοινίκη with φοῖνιξ mirrors that in Akkadian, which tied kinaḫni, kinaḫḫi "Canaan" to kinaḫḫu "red-dyed wool"; the land was natively known as its people as the knʿny. In the Amarna letters of the 14th century BC, people from the region called themselves Kenaani or Kinaani, in modern English understood as/equivalent to Canaanite. Much in the sixth century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus writes that Phoenicia was called χνα khna, a name that Philo of Byblos adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna, afterwards called Phoinix"; the ethnonym survived in North Africa until the fourth century AD. Herodotus's account refers to the myths of Europa. According to the Persians best informed in history, the Phoenicians began the quarrel.
These people, who had dwelt on the shores of the Erythraean Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt and Assyria... The Greek historian Strabo believed. Herodotus believed that the homeland of the Phoenicians was Bahrain; this theory was accepted by the 19th-century German classicist Arnold Heeren who said that: "In the Greek geographers, for instance, we read of two islands, named Tyrus or Tylos, Aradus, which boasted that they were the mother country of the Phoenicians, exhibited relics of Phoenician temples." The people of Tyre in South Lebanon in particular have long maintained Persian Gulf origins, the similarity in the words "Tylos" and "Tyre" has been commented upon. The Dilmun civilization thrived in Bahrain during the period 2200–1600 BC, as shown by excavations of settlements and Dilmun burial mounds. However, some claim there is little evidence of occupation at all in Bahrain during the time when such migration had taken place.
Canaanite culture developed in situ from the earlier Ghassulian chalcolithic culture. Ghassulian itself developed from the Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex, which in turn developed from a fusion of their ancestral Natufian and Harifian cultures with Pre-Pottery Neolithic B farming cultures, practicing the domestication of animals, during the 6200 BC climatic crisis which led to the Neolithic Revolution in the Levant. Byblos is attested as an archaeological site from the Early Bronze Age; the Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically though the Ugaritic language does not belong to the Canaanite languages proper. The Canaanite-Phoenician alphabet consists of all consonants. Starting around 1050 BC, this script was used for the writing of Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language, it is believed to be one of the ancestors of modern alphabets. B
Qasr al-Abd is a large Hellenistic palace from 200 BCE, whose ruins stand in western Jordan in the valley of Wadi Seer 17 kilometres west of Amman, close to the village of Iraq al-Amir. Although little is known for definite about the history of Qasr al-Abd it is believed to have been built by a Tobiad notable, Hyrcanus of Jerusalem, head of the powerful Tobiad family and governor of Ammon. Credence for this theory is gained from the fact that the Hebrew name'Tuvya' or'Toviyya' is engraved above the adjacent burial caves of Iraq al-Amir, which share their name with the nearby village. In another of these caves there is a carving of a lioness sheltering a cub at the palace. According to a local legend, Tobias was a commoner; when he asked for her hand in marriage, the nobleman said that Tobias could only have her hand if he built the so-called "Castle of the Slave." After completing the castle, the nobleman had Tobias killed as he did not want his daughter marrying a commoner. It is known that the structure was surrounded by a large excavated reflecting pool, leading the first-century AD Jewish historian Flavius Josephus to suppose that this was a moat and the building a fortress.
However, more recent evidence for the building's original function being as a country pleasure palace has been presented by the contemporary Israeli archaeologist Ehud Netzer. It has been suggested that the site was in fact intended to serve as a mausoleum of the family of Tobias, the Tobiads. In any case, it was never completed; the name Qasr al-Abd can be translated as Castle of the Slave or Servant, a title which may refer to Hyrcanus himself, who, as governor, was a "servant of the king". The biblical Book of Nehemiah mentions "Toviyya, the Servant, the Ammonite". According to Josephus, Hyrcanus left Jerusalem after losing a power struggle, established his residence east of the Jordan on the ancestral lands of the Tobiad dynasty; the area was a border zone between Judea and Arabia, Josephus mentions that Hyrcanus was in constant skirmishes with Arabians and capturing many. He took his own life in 175 BC, following the ascent to power in Syria of the anti-Jewish Seleucid king Antiochus Epiphanes, fearing the latter's revenge for his support for the Egyptian Ptolemies against the Syrian Seleucids.
The building was unfinished at the time of his death, was seized by Antiochus Epiphanes. Josephus mentions the "beasts of gigantic size carved on it", carved tigers or lions are still preserved on the remains visible today; the palace was badly damaged by a great earthquake that hit the region in 362 AD. The decorated two-storey stone structure is a rare example of Hellenistic architecture in Jordan. In the 1st century AD, Flavius Josephus described it as, "A strong fortress, constructed of white marble up to the roof and had beasts of gigantic size carved on it; the castle is built from some of the largest single blocks of any building in the Middle East, with the largest block measuring seven by three metres. However, these blocks were at most only 40 centimetres wide. Archaeologists have established that Qasr al-Abd once stood in a much larger estate, surrounded by a wall and included a park with trees and shrubs. Much of the estate now stands beneath the village of Iraq al-Amir; the ruins of Qasr al-Abd have been restored, due to the efforts of a French team directed by Ernest Will and the architect François Larché in collaboration with Fawzi Zayadine of the Jordanian Archaeological Service.
The team spent the years 1979 to 1985 making detailed drawings of the fallen stones and on the subsequent reconstruction. Iraq al-Amir, le château du Tobiade Hyrcan par E. Will et F. Larché, volume I, BAH, T. CXXXII, 1991. Iraq al-Amir: le château du Tobiade Hyrcan. Volume II, Restitution et reconstruction, par F. Larché, contributions de F. Braemer et de B. Geyer, IFPO, Beyrouth 2005, 2 vol. BAH, T. 172.'Iraq al-Amir, guide historique et archéologique du domaine des Tobiades. Beyrouth, Guides archéologiques de l’Ifpo, 2010. King Hussein guide to sites near Amman Atlas Tours guidehttp://www.dailymotion.com/video/xilpij_jordanie-iraq-al-emir-le-reve-inacheve-1-2_webcam
A quarry is a type of open-pit mine in which dimension stone, construction aggregate, sand, gravel, or slate is excavated from the ground. The word quarry can include the underground quarrying for stone, such as Bath stone. Types of rock extracted from quarries include: Chalk China clay Cinder Clay Coal Construction aggregate Coquina Diabase Gabbro Granite Gritstone Gypsum Limestone Marble Ores Phosphate rock Quartz Sandstone Slate Many quarry stones such as marble, granite and sandstone are cut into larger slabs and removed from the quarry; the surfaces finished with varying degrees of sheen or luster. Polished slabs are cut into tiles or countertops and installed in many kinds of residential and commercial properties. Natural stone quarried from the earth is considered a luxury and tends to be a durable surface, thus desirable. Quarries in level areas with shallow groundwater or which are located close to surface water have engineering problems with drainage; the water is removed by pumping while the quarry is operational, but for high inflows more complex approaches may be required.
For example, the Coquina quarry is excavated to more than 60 feet below sea level. To reduce surface leakage, a moat lined with clay was constructed around the entire quarry. Ground water entering the pit is pumped up into the moat; as a quarry becomes deeper, water inflows increase and it becomes more expensive to lift the water higher during removal. Some water-filled quarries are worked by dredging. Many people and municipalities consider quarries to be eyesores and require various abatement methods to address problems with noise and appearance. One of the more effective and famous examples of successful quarry restoration is Butchart Gardens in Victoria, BC, Canada. A further problem is pollution of roads from trucks leaving the quarries. To control and restrain the pollution of public roads, wheel washing systems are becoming more common. Many quarries fill with water after abandonment and become lakes. Others are made into landfills. Water-filled quarries can be deep 50 ft or more, cold, so swimming in quarry lakes is not recommended.
Unexpectedly cold water can cause a swimmer's muscles to weaken. Though quarry water is very clear, submerged quarry stones and abandoned equipment make diving into these quarries dangerous. Several people drown in quarries each year. However, many inactive quarries are converted into safe swimming sites; such lakes lakes within active quarries, can provide important habitat for animals. Clay pit Coal mining Collecting fossils Gravel pit List of minerals List of rock types List of stones Miner Mountaintop removal mining Opencast mining Quarry lake Quarries
Pasargadae was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great, who ordered its construction. It is located in Iran. Today it is an archaeological one of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage Sites. A limestone tomb there is believed to be that of Cyrus the Great. Cyrus the Great began building the capital in later; the remains of the tomb of Cyrus' son and successor Cambyses II have been found in Pasargadae, near the fortress of Toll-e Takht, identified in 2006. Pasargadae remained the capital of the Achaemenid empire; the archaeological site covers 1.6 square kilometres and includes a structure believed to be the mausoleum of Cyrus, the fortress of Toll-e Takht sitting on top of a nearby hill, the remains of two royal palaces and gardens. Pasargadae Persian Gardens provide the earliest known example of the Persian chahar bagh, or fourfold garden design; the Gate R, located at the eastern edge of the palace area, is the oldest known freestanding propylaeum. It may have been the architectural predecessor of the Gate of All Nations at Persepolis.
The most important monument in Pasargadae is the tomb of Cyrus the Great. It has six broad steps leading to the sepulchre, the chamber of which measures 3.17 m long by 2.11 m wide by 2.11 m high and has a low and narrow entrance. Though there is no firm evidence identifying the tomb as that of Cyrus, Greek historians say that Alexander believed it was; when Alexander looted and destroyed Persepolis, he paid a visit to the tomb of Cyrus. Arrian, writing in the second century AD, recorded that Alexander commanded Aristobulus, one of his warriors, to enter the monument. Inside he found a golden bed, a table set with drinking vessels, a gold coffin, some ornaments studded with precious stones and an inscription on the tomb. No trace of any such inscription survives, there is considerable disagreement to the exact wording of the text. Strabo reports that it read: Another variation, as documented in Persia: The Immortal Kingdom, is: The design of Cyrus' tomb is credited to Mesopotamian or Elamite ziggurats, but the cella is attributed to Urartu tombs of an earlier period.
In particular, the tomb at Pasargadae has exactly the same dimensions as the tomb of Alyattes, father of the Lydian King Croesus. The main decoration on the tomb is a rosette design over the door within the gable. In general, the art and architecture found at Pasargadae exemplified the Persian synthesis of various traditions, drawing on precedents from Elam, Babylon and ancient Egypt, with the addition of some Anatolian influences; the first capital of the Achaemenid Empire, Pasargadae lies in ruins 40'40 kilometers from Persepolis, in present-day Fars province of Iran. Pasargadae was first archaeologically explored by the German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld in 1905, in one excavation season in 1928, together with his assistant Friedrich Krefter. Since 1946, the original documents, photographs, fragments of wall paintings and pottery from the early excavations are preserved in the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, DC. After Herzfeld, Sir Aurel Stein completed a site plan for Pasargadae in 1934.
In 1935, Erich F. Schmidt produced a series of aerial photographs of the entire complex. From 1949 to 1955, an Iranian team led by Ali Sami worked there. A British Institute of Persian Studies team led by David Stronach resumed excavation from 1961 to 1963, it was during the 1960s that a pot-hoard known as the Pasargadae Treasure was excavated near the foundations of'Pavilion B' at the site. Dating to the 5th-4th centuries BC, the treasure consists of ornate Achaemenid jewellery made from gold and precious gems and is now housed in the National Museum of Iran and the British Museum, it has been suggested that the treasure was buried as a subsequent action once Alexander the Great approached with his army remained buried, hinting at violence. After a gap, work was resumed by the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization and the Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée of the University of Lyon in 2000; the complex is one of the key cultural heritage sites for tourism in Iran. There has been growing concern regarding the proposed Sivand Dam, named after the nearby town of Sivand.
Despite planning that has stretched over 10 years, Iran's own Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization was not aware of the broader areas of flooding during much of this time. Its placement between both the ruins of Pasargadae and Persepolis has many archaeologists and Iranians worried that the dam will flood these UNESCO World Heritage sites, although scientists involved with the construction say this is not obvious because the sites sit above the planned waterline. Of the two sites, Pasargadae is the one considered to be more threatened. Experts agree that the planning of future dam projects in Iran will merit an earlier examination of the risks to cultural resource properties. Of broadly shared concern to archaeologists is the effect of the increase in humidity caused by the lake. All agree that the humidity created by it will speed up the destruction of Pasargadae, yet experts from the Ministry of Energy believe it could be compensated for by controlling the water level of the reservoir. Construction of the dam began April 19, 2007, with the height of the waterline limited so as to mitigate damage to the ru
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Hebron is a Palestinian city located in the southern West Bank, 30 km south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies 930 meters above sea level; the largest city in the West Bank, the second largest in the Palestinian territories after Gaza, it has a population of 215,452 Palestinians, between 500 and 850 Jewish settlers concentrated in and around the old quarter. Jews and Muslims all venerate the city of Hebron for its association with Abraham – it includes the traditional burial site of the biblical Patriarchs and Matriarchs, within the Cave of the Patriarchs. Judaism ranks Hebron as the second-holiest city after Jerusalem, while some Muslims regard it as one of the four holy cities; the Hebron Protocol of 1997 divided the city into two sectors: H1, controlled by the Palestinian Authority and H2 20% of the city, administered by Israel. All security arrangements and travel permits for local residents are coordinated between the Palestinian Authority and Israel via military administration of the West Bank.
The Jewish settlers have their own governing municipal body, the Committee of the Jewish Community of Hebron. Hebron is a busy hub of West Bank trade, generating a third of the area's gross domestic product due to the sale of limestone from quarries in its area, it has a local reputation for its grapes, limestone, pottery workshops and glassblowing factories, is the location of the major dairy-product manufacturer, al-Juneidi. The old city of Hebron features narrow, winding streets, flat-roofed stone houses, old bazaars; the city is home to the Palestine Polytechnic University. Hebron is attached to cities of ad-Dhahiriya, Yatta, the surrounding villages with no borders. Hebron Governorate is the largest Palestinian governorate, with a population of 600,364 as of 2010; the name "Hebron" traces back to two Semitic roots, which coalesce in the form ḥbr, having reflexes in Hebrew and Amorite and denoting a range of meanings from "colleague", "unite" or "friend". In the proper name Hebron, the original sense may have been alliance.
The Arabic term derives from the Qur'anic epithet for Abraham, Khalil al-Rahman "Beloved of the Merciful" or "Friend of God". Arabic Al-Khalil thus translates the ancient Hebrew toponym Ḥebron, understood as ḥaber. Archaeological excavations reveal traces of strong fortifications dated to the Early Bronze Age, covering some 24–30 dunams centered around Tel Rumeida; the city flourished in the 17th–18th centuries BCE before being destroyed by fire, was resettled in the late Middle Bronze Age. This older Hebron was a Canaanite royal city. Abrahamic legend associates the city with the Hittites, it has been conjectured that Hebron might have been the capital of Shuwardata of Gath, an Indo-European contemporary of Jerusalem's regent, Abdi-Kheba, although the Hebron hills were devoid of settlements in the Late Bronze Age. The Abrahamic traditions associated with Hebron are nomadic, may reflect a Kenite element, since the nomadic Kenites are said to have long occupied the city, Heber is the name for a Kenite clan.
In the narrative of the Hebrew conquest, Hebron was one of two centres under Canaanite control and ruled by the three sons of Anak, or may reflect some Kenite and Kenizzite migration from the Negev to Hebron, since terms related to the Kenizzites appear to be close to Hurrian, which suggests that behind the Anakim legend lies some early Hurrian population. In Biblical lore they are represented as descendants of the Nephilim; the Book of Genesis mentions that it was called Kirjath-arba, or "city of four" referring to the four pairs or couples who were buried there, or four tribes, or four quarters, four hills, or a confederated settlement of four families. The story of Abraham's purchase of the Cave of the Patriarchs from the Hittites constitutes a seminal element in what was to become the Jewish attachment to the land in that it signified the first "real estate" of Israel long before the conquest under Joshua. In settling here, Abraham is described as making his first covenant, an alliance with two local Amorite clans who became his ba’alei brit or masters of the covenant.
The Hebron of the Bible was centered on what is now known as Tel Rumeida, while its ritual centre was located at Elonei Mamre. It is said to have been wrested from the Canaanites by either Joshua, said to have wiped out all of its previous inhabitants, "destroying everything that drew breath, as the Lord God of Israel had commanded", or the tribe of Judah as a whole, or Caleb the Judahite; the town itself, with some contiguous pasture land, is said to have been granted to the Levites of the clan of Kohath, while the fields of the city, as well as its surrounding villages were assigned to Caleb, who expels the three giants, Sheshai and Talmai, who ruled the city. The biblical narrative has King David called by God to relocate to Hebron and reign from there for some seven years, it is there that the elders of Israel come to him to make a covenant before Elohim and anoint him king of Israel. It was in Hebron again that Absalom has himself declared king and raises a revolt against his father David.
It became one of the principal centers of the Tribe of Judah and was classified as one of the six traditional Cities of Refuge. As is shown by the discovery at Lachish, the second most important Judean city after Jerusalem, of seals with the inscription lmlk Hebron, Hebron continued to constitute an important local economic centre, given i