National Aquarium Denmark
National Aquarium Denmark, Den Blå Planet is a public aquarium in Denmark. The original aquarium was located in Charlottenlund, but this facility closed in 2012 and most of the animal collection was relocated to the new and much larger aquarium Den Blå Planet in Kastrup, a suburb of Copenhagen; the National Aquarium Denmark, Den Blå Planet opened to the public in March 2013 and is the largest aquarium in Northern Europe. The main purpose of the aquarium is to disseminate marine information, help science projects, help improve educational institutions. Denmark's Aquarium in Charlottenlund started construction in 1937 and was opened in 1939. In 1974, this aquarium was expanded to feature five large landscape aquaria and a biological museum with theme-based exhibits and aquariums. In 1990, the facility was further expanded by a new front hall, café, improved toilet facilities and a schooler service. In the final years before the closure of the aquarium in Charlottenlund, it had about 1,000,000 litres of water in about 70 aquarium tanks.
Den Blå Planet opened in 2013 in a suburb of Copenhagen. It resembles a whirlpool, it is, being close to the Copenhagen Airport. It was designed by Danish architects 3XN. To reduce energy consumption the building is equipped with cooling units using seawater from Øresund and double glazing, it covers a total including the 10,000 m2 building and 2,000 m2 outdoors. In the first year of existence, the aquarium received 1.3 million visitors – twice as many as expected. To mitigate this extra wear, in order to improve public education, 12.5 million DKK were spent on changes and renovations of the aquarium. The Blue Planet contains about 7,000,000 litres of water divided into 53 exhibits. There are five main sections: The Rainforest The rainforest section is home to dwarf and Philippine crocodiles, pacus, freshwater stingrays, large catfish, boa constrictors, violet turaco and more; this section has an aquarium with a big school–about 3,000–of piranhas. Near the rainforest is the smaller grotto section, with aquaria for cave tetra, various electric fish and other fish found in dark freshwater habitats.
The African Great Lakes Exhibits for Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria. Aimed at cichlids, but home to other fish such as Nile perch, the section above the aquaria are home to village weaver birds, other small animals. Evolution and adaption Aimed at fish evolution and adaption, contains a mangrove aquarium with four-eyed fish, archerfish and alike, as well as aquaria for Apalachicola snapping turtle and primitive fish such as bichir and lungfish; this includes the oldest fish in the aquarium, an Australian lungfish that arrived at Denmark's Aquarium in Charlottenlund in 1967 when a young adult. Cold Water Primarily home to native Danish species from fresh- and saltwater. Among others, it includes a touch pool, a large North Atlantic aquarium with a 15 m tall seabird cliff, home to cod, conger and other species. Non-native species in or near the Cold Water section are giant Pacific octopus, sea anemones and more; this section housed California sea lions for a period. In early 2014 they were moved to a permanent home at France.
Following modifications, a pair of sea otters moved into the former sea lion exhibit in October 2014, making the aquarium one of only three places where this species can be seen Europe The Warm Ocean This section contains the largest aquarium in Blue Planet, the 4,000,000-litre Ocean tank. It is home to sharks, eagle rays, moray eels, golden trevallies and more that can be seen through the 16 by 8 m main window, 45 cm thick. There is a 16 m long shark tunnel. Opposite the Ocean Tank is the 16 m long coral reef with reef fish. There are various smaller aquaria with species such as shrimpfish, weedy seadragon, seahorses, a Mediterranean aquarium, the venomous stonefish and olive sea snake. Media related to Den Blå Planet at Wikimedia Commons Official website Denmark Zoo Central
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
Our Saviour's Cemetery, Copenhagen
Our Saviour's Cemetery is located at the cornerner of Amagerbrogade and Prags Boulevard in Copenhagen, Denmark. Our Saviour's Church was surrounded by a graveyard; the current Our Saviour's Cemetery was established in 1790 since ce the existing cemeteries in Christianshavn were no longerable to cope with the number of burials. In 1853, as a consequence of the 1853 Copenhagen Cholera Outbreak, all inner city burials were prohibited; the brick wall that surrounds the cemetery is from 1927. A new administration building was inaugurated in 2011; the cemetery was refurbished in 2015. A cobbled area surrounded by benches was estaglished in the centre of the cemetery where its two principal aveneues crosses each other. Ole Brask, photographer Edel Bærskog, painter Ole Dixon, jazz musician Else Frölich m actress, Jørgen Kiilm actor Jesper Klein and entertainer Henry Lohmann, actor Lykke Nielsen m actress Svend Pri, badminton player Henrik Sandberg, film producer C. W. Schultz-Lorentzen Gunnar Strømvad, actor Paul Valjean, poet and musician Eva-Maria Wie* he, illustrator Oddicial website
Havneparken is a public park located directly on the waterfront in the district of Islands Brygge in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is one of the most popular places along the Copenhagen harbourfront. Located in a former dockland area, the park has retained a number of features from the area's industrial past, including disused railway tracks and an abandoned railway car used as an exhibition space, while am old ship hull turned upside-down serves as an idiosyncratic bandstand and pavilion; the park is the location of the Islands Brygge Cultural Centre and the Islands Brygge Harbour Bath. The first plans to transform the area into a park was conceived by local grassroots in 1978. In 1983-84, an area of 1 hectare, located just south of Langebro, was put at the disposal of Islands Brygge Local Council. In 1995, the park was extended with an additional 2,8 hectares of waterfront, located to the south of the original area. In 2002 a temporary harbour bath was constructed and the following year, it was replaced by a larger and permanent harbour bath.
Islands Brygge Cultural Centre is a community arts centre, located in the middle of the Harbour Park. It was built in 2000 as a replacement for an earlier cultural centre, demolished as part of the redevelopment of the northernmost part of the Islands Brygge neighbourhood; the centre arranges a multitude of cultural activities. Islandsbrygge Harbour Bath is a public swimming facility, located in the water off the northern part of the park. Built to the design of architects Julien de Smedt and Bjarke Ingels in 2003, it has a total of 5 pools and a capacity of 600 people. There are two pools dedicated to children, two 50 metre pools for swimming and a diving pool with three and five metre springboards. Pinen is a bandstand, constructed by resting; the ship is a former Limfjord ferry, "Pinen", built in 1954. It operated between the island Mors and the Salling Peninsula until 1978, when the Sallingsund Bridge was constructed. Pinen was torn down 2011 after 15 years of neglected repair. In the redevelopment of the area.
A number of existing industrial structures was preserved and incorporated into the design of the park. This was done to create a sense of place; the quayside still features the disused railway tracks and an old railway car contains an exhibition on the local history of the neighbourhood, rusty steel profiles have been left and now serves as pergolas, upon which Honeysuckle and Clematis are trained and bits of wall from now demolished buildings have been left. Havneparken is one of the most popular places in Copenhagen to enjoy good weather and the quayside serves as an esplanade popular with strollers. Apart from swimming at the harbour bath, the park contains facilities for a number of other sports; these include facilities for skateboarding and streetbasket as well as beach volleyball and pétanque. The park has a playground; the park is home to many open-air concerts, either performed at the bandstand or a variety of other locations. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Holmbladsgade is one of the most lively streets in the Amagerbro district of Copenhagen, connecting Amagerbrogade to Strandlodsvej on the east coast of Amager. The surrounding neighbourhood is variously referred to as Holmbladsgadekvarteret, Amagerbro or Sundby North; the street was known as Køhlertsvej and was access road to Køhlert's textile manufactury, founded in about 1770. Christianshavn Iron Foundry and Machine Factory built a large industrial complex at the road in the 1980s; the street received its current name in 1897 after Lauritz Peter Holmblad, a local industrialist and philanthropist, who had his home in the street until his death in 1890. Nathanael's Church was inaugurated in 1899 and over the next decades many apartment buildings sprung up along the street, which became part of a dense working-class neigobourhood. Many new industrial enterprises established in the street, including Holmblad's old glue factory, the Sadolin & Holmblad, which inaugurated a new factory at No. 70in 1903.
Other industrial establishments along the street was a meat-packing central, manufacturer of metal sheet goods and various storage buildings. Christianshavn Iron Foundry and Machine Factory existed under various names until the 1960s when the complex was taken over by a galvanization facility. Most of the industry disappeared towards the end of the century and many of its buildings were torn down to make way for modern ones; the iron foundry complex from the 1880s was demolished in 1979 and replaced by støberigården, built in the mid 1980s. Sadolin & Holmblad's building was demolished in 2001 and replaced by Sadolin Parken, a mixed-use development, inaugurated in 2004; the street became subject to a comprehensive gentrification programme in 1897. The initiative received the German Bilfinger Berger Award as an "exemplary urban development project". Nathanael's Church's was completed in 1899, its architect is Thorvald Jørgensen who designed the present Christiansborg Palace. The church took over Holmblad's villa, expanded and adapted in 1988 and is now known as Nathanaels Sognegård.
The oldest surviving building in the street is the low building from 1859 at No. 70. Dorte Mandrup designed two community centres in connection with the facelift of the area. Holmbladsgade Cultural Centre, a former warehouse associated with Holmblad's oil mill, was inaugurated in 2001 and contains the local Sundby Library as well as various other facilities for the local community. Prismen is a multifunctional sports and cultural venue. An appendage to the surrounding buildings,it has a characteristic angled form and a translucent skin of polycarbonate panels which contrasts the bricks of the surrounding buildings, let daylight into the building in the daytime and makes it glow at night. A series of luminary columns designed by Bjarne Schlæger was installed along the street in 2003; the horizontal lines represent Holmbladgade's side streets while the wavy lines represent Amager Beach on the coast at the far end of the street. The integrated lighting is intended to contribute a sense of place in the night time.
The detailing is in Tombac. Vintage and contemporary photos from Holmbladgade's north side Vintage and contemporary photos from Holmbladgade's south side Images of Golmbladsgade Community Centre on arkitekturbilleder.dk Holmbladsgade, Københavns Kommune