The hryvnia, sometimes hryvnya. The hryvnia is subdivided into 100 kopiyky, it is named after a measure of weight used in medieval Kievan Rus'. The currency of Kievan Rus' in the eleventh century was called grivna; the word is thought to derive from the Slavic griva. Ukrainian, Russian and Serbo-Croatian грива / griva, meaning "mane", it might have indicated something valuable worn around the neck made of silver or gold. Bulgarian and Serbian grivna; the word was used to describe silver or gold ingots of a certain weight. Ukrainian hryvenyk, Russian grivennik; the modern Ukrainian hryvnia is sometimes transliterated as hryvna, gryvna or grivna, due to its Russian language counterpart, гри́вна, pronounced grívna. However, the standard English name for the currency is hryvnia; the National Bank of Ukraine has recommended that a distinction be made between hryvnia and grívna in both historical and practical means. The nominative plural of hryvnia is hryvni, while the genitive plural is hryven’. In Ukrainian, the nominative plural form is used for numbers ending with 2, 3, or 4, as in dvi hryvni, the genitive plural is used for numbers ending with 5 to 9 and 0, for example sto hryven’.
An exception for this rule is numbers ending in 11, 12, 13 and 14 for which the genitive plural is used, for example, dvanadciat’ hryven’. The singular for the subdivision is копійка, the nominative plural is копійки and the genitive is копійок; the hryvnia sign is a cursive Ukrainian letter He, with a double horizontal stroke, symbolizing stability, similar to that used in other currency symbols such as the yen, euro or Indian rupee. The sign was encoded as U+20B4 in Unicode 4.1 and released in 2005. It is now supported by most systems. In Ukraine, if the hryvnia sign is unavailable, the Cyrillic abbreviation "грн." is used. A currency called hryvna was used in Kievan Rus'. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, the name of the new Ukrainian currency became hryvnia, a revised version of the Kievan Rus' hryvna; the designer was Heorhiy Narbut. The hryvnia replaced the karbovanets during the period 2–16 September 1996, at a rate of 1 hryvnia = 100,000 karbovantsiv.
The karbovanets was subject to hyperinflation in the early 1990s following the collapse of the USSR. To a large extent, the introduction of hryvnia was secretive. Hryvnia was introduced according to President's Decree dated 26 August 1996, published on August 29. During the transition period, September 2–16, both hryvnia and karbovanets were used in circulation, but merchants were required to give change only in hryvnias. All bank accounts were converted to hryvnia automatically. During the transition period, 97% of karbovanets were taken out of circulation, including 56% in the first 5 days of the currency reform. After 16 September 1996, the remaining karbovanets were allowed to be exchanged to hryvnias in banks; the hryvnia was introduced during the period when Victor Yushchenko was the chairman of National Bank of Ukraine. However, the first banknotes issued bore the signature of the previous National Bank chairman, Vadym Hetman, who resigned back in 1993, because the first notes had been printed as early as 1992 by the Canadian Bank Note Company, but it was decided to delay their circulation until the hyperinflation in Ukraine was brought under control.
On 18 March 2014, following its annexation by Russia, the new Republic of Crimea announced that the Ukrainian hryvina was to be dropped as the region's currency in April 2014. The Russian rouble became an "official" currency in annexed Crimea on 21 March 2014; until 1 June 2014, the hryvnia could be used for cash payments only. By contrast, the hryvnia remains the predominant currency in the conflicted raions of Donbass, i. e. in the secessionist areas of Donetsk and Lugansk. No coins were issued for the first hryvnia. Coins were first struck in 1992 for the new currency but were not introduced until September 1996. Coins valued between 1 and 50 kopecks were issued. In March 1997, 1 hryvnia coins were added. Since 2004 several commemorative 1 hryvnia coins have been struck. In October 2012 the National Bank of Ukraine announced that it is examining the possibility of withdrawing the 1- and 2-kopeck coins from circulation; the coins had become too expensive to produce compared to their nominal value.
Due to actual reports 1- and 2-kopek coins are not produced anymore since 2013, but will remain in circulation. On 26 October 2012, the National Bank of Ukraine announced it is considering the introduction of a 2-hryvnia coin. Per July 1, 2016 12.4 billion coins with a face value of 1.4 billion UAH were in circulation. In 1996, the first series of hryvnia banknotes was introduced into circulation by the National Bank of Ukraine, they were dated 1992 and were in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 hryven'. The design of the banknotes was developed by Ukrainian artists Vasyl Borys Maksymov. One hryvnya banknotes were printed by the Canadian Bank Note Company in 1992. Two and ten hryvnya banknotes were printed two years later; until introduction into circulation the banknotes were kept in Canada. Banknotes of the first series in denominations of 50 and 100 hryven existed but were not introduced because
Galicia (Eastern Europe)
Galicia is a historical and geographic region between Central and Eastern Europe. It was once the small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine; the area, named after the medieval city of Halych, was first mentioned in Hungarian historical chronicles in the year 1206 as Galiciæ. In 1253 Prince Daniel of Galicia was crowned the King of Rus or King of Ruthenia following the Mongol invasion in Ruthenia. In 1352 the Kingdom of Poland annexed the Kingdom of Galicia and Volhynia as the Ruthenian Voivodeship; the nucleus of historic Galicia lies within the modern regions of western Ukraine: the Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk oblasts near Halych. In the 18th century, territories that became part of the modern Polish regions of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Subcarpathian Voivodeship and Silesian Voivodeship were added to Galicia, it covers much of such historic regions as Lesser Poland.
Galicia became contested ground between Poland and Ruthenia from medieval times, in the 20th century between Poland and Ukraine. In the 10th century, several cities were founded in Galicia, such as Volodymyr and Jaroslaw, whose names mark their connections with Grand Princes of Kiev. There is considerable overlap between Galicia and Podolia as well as between Galicia and south-west Ruthenia in a cross-border region inhabited by various nationalities. Andrew II, King of Hungary from 1205 to 1235, claimed the title Rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae – a Latinised version of the Slavic names Halych and Volodymyr, the major cities of the principality of Halych-Volhynia, which the Hungarians ruled from 1214 to 1221. Halych-Volhynia had cut a swathe as a mighty principality under the rule of Prince Roman the Great in 1170–1205. After the expulsion of the Hungarians in 1221, Ruthenians took back rule of the area. Roman's son Daniel of Galicia was crowned king of Halych-Volhynia in 1253. About 1247 Daniel of Galicia founded Lviv, named in honour of his son Leo I, who moved the capital northwestwards from Halych to Lviv in 1272.
The Ukrainian name Halych comes from the Khwalis or Kaliz who occupied the area from the time of the Magyars. They were called Khalisioi in Greek, Khvalis in Ukrainian; some historians speculated that the name had to do with a group of people of Thracian origin who during the Iron Age moved into the area after Roman conquest of Dacia in 106 CE and may have formed the Lypytsia culture with the Venedi people who moved in the region at the end of Le Tène period. The Lypytsia culture replaced the existing Thracian Hallstatt and Vysotske cultures. Connection with Celtic peoples explains the relation of the name "Galicia" to many similar place names found across Europe and Asia Minor, such as ancient Gallia or Gaul, the Iberian Peninsula's Galicia, Romanian Galați; some other scholars assert that the name Halych has Slavic origins – from halytsa, meaning "a naked hill", or from halka which means "jackdaw". Although Ruthenians drove out the Hungarians from Halych-Volhynia by 1221, Hungarian kings continued to add Galicia et Lodomeria to their official titles.
In 1349, in the course of the Galicia–Volhynia Wars, King Casimir III the Great of Poland conquered the major part of Galicia and put an end to the independence of this territory. Upon the conquest Casimir adopted the following title: Casimir by the grace of God king of Poland and Rus and heir of the land of Kraków, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Pomerania. [In Latin: Kazimirus, Dei gratia rex Polonie et Rusie, nec non Cracovie, Siradie, Cuiavie, et Pomeranieque Terrarum et Ducatuum Dominus et Heres. Following the death of Casimir in 1370, Poland entered into a personal union with Hungary and Ruthenia came under the rule of a Ruthenian lord, Vladislaus II of Opole, appointed by the King of Hungary. Galicia was ruled for short time by various Hungarian voivodes of Ruthenia. Under the Jagiellonian dynasty (Kings of Poland from 1386 to 1572, the Kingdom of Poland revived and reconstituted its territories. In place of historic Galicia there appeared the Ruthenian Voivodeship. In 1526, after the death of Louis II of Hungary, the Habsburgs inherited the Hungarian claims to the titles of the Kingship of Galicia and Lodomeria, together with the Hungarian crown.
In 1772 the Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, used those historical claims to justify her participation in the first partition of Poland. In fact, the territories acquired by Austria did not correspond to those of former Halych-Volhynia - the Russian Empire took control of Volhynia to the north-east, including the city of Volodymyr-Volynskyi – after which Lodomeria was named. On the other hand, much of Lesser Poland – Nowy S
The Ems Ukaz, or Ems Ukase, was a secret decree of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents. The ukaz forbade the import of Ukrainian publications and the staging of plays or lectures in Ukrainian, it was named after the city of Bad Ems, where it was promulgated. In the 1860s, a decade and a half after the Imperial Russian government had broken up the Brotherhood of Sts Cyril and Methodius in Kiev, exiled or arrested its founder Nikolay Kostomarov and other prominent figures, Ukrainian intellectuals were gaining further awareness of their cultural background. Hromada cultural associations started in a number of cities, Sunday schools started in the cities and towns; the new cultural movement was driven by publications in both Russian and Ukrainian, including journals and folkloristic monographs, elementary primers. In Osnova, Kostomarov published his influential article "Dve russkiye narodnosti".
Although Ukrainianism had been considered popular and somewhat chic in Russian cultural circles, a debate began at the time over its relation to the ideology of Russian Pan-Slavism—epitomized by a quotation of Pushkin: "will not all the Slavic streams merge into the Russian sea?"—and a rhetoric of criticism emerged. Conservative Russians called the Ukrainian movement a "Polish intrigue", while Polish commentators had been complaining that Ukrainianism had been used as a weapon against Polish culture in right-bank Ukraine. After the 1861 emancipation of the serfs in the Russian Empire, many landowners were unhappy with the loss of their serfs, while peasants were displeased with the terms of the emancipation. In this atmosphere of discontent, increasing reports reached the imperial government that Ukrainian leaders were plotting to separate from Russia; the 1863 January Uprising in Poland raised tensions around the issue of ethnic separatism in general further. Several Ukrainian activists were arrested, Sunday schools and hromadas were closed and their publication activities were suspended.
A new Ukrainian translation by Pylyp Morachevskyi of parts of the New Testament was vetted and passed by the Imperial Academy of Sciences, but rejected by the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox church, because it was considered politically suspect. In response, Interior Minister Count Pyotr Valuyev issued a decree through an internal document circulated to the censors on 18 July 1863, known as Valuyev's Circular; the Circular implemented a policy based on his opinion that "the Ukrainian language never existed, does not exist, shall never exist". It banned the publication of secular and religious books, on the premise that not only is the content of such publications questionable, but their existence implied the anti-imperial idea that a Ukrainian nation could exist. In the 1870s, the Kiev Hromada and the South-Western Branch of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society began to publish important works in Kiev, in Russian, about Ukrainian ethnography. Authors included Mykhailo Drahomanov, Volodymyr Antonovych, Ivan Rudchenko, Pavlo Chubynsky.
They held an Archaeological Congress in 1874, published in the Russian-language paper Kievskiy telegraf. A member of the Geographic Society, Mikhail Yuzefovich, sent two letters to St Petersburg warning of separatist activity. Tsar Alexander II appointed an Imperial Commission on Ukrainophile Propaganda in the Southern Provinces of Russia, which found evidence of a danger to the state, recommended extending the scope of the Valuyev decree. While enjoying a spa in Bad Ems, Germany, in May 1876, the Tsar signed what would come to be called the "Ems Ukaz", extending the publication ban to apply to all books and song lyrics in the "Little Russian dialect", to prohibit the importation of such materials. Public lectures and song performances in Ukrainian were forbidden, suspect teachers removed from teaching, dangerous organizations and newspapers shut down; the ukaz coincided with other actions against Ukrainian culture. Drahomanov and fellow activist Mykola Ziber were sacked from their posts at Kiev's University of St Vladimir, emigrated along with other cultural leaders such as Fedir Vovk and Serhiy Podolynsky.
The situation was exposed by professor Mykhailo Drahomanov at the 1878 Paris International Literary Congress. In 1881, the new Tsar Alexander III amended the ukaz. Ukrainian lyrics and dictionaries would be allowed, but the Kulishivka Ukrainian alphabet was still prohibited, such publications would have to write Ukrainian with Russian orthography; this usage was disparagingly called the Yaryzhka by some Ukrainians in reference to the Russian letter yery ⟨ы⟩. Performance of Ukrainian plays and humorous songs could be approved by local authorities, but Ukrainian-only theatres and troupes could not be established. Many illegal performances and publications were delivered through ingenuity and bribery, but Ukrainian cultural development ceased. After the Russian Revolution of 1905, the Imperial Academy of Sciences recommended that the ukaz's restrictions be lifted. Ukrainian-language newspapers began publication, Pr
Pavlo Hnatovych Zhytetsky was a Ukrainian linguist, philologist and literary historian. For a long time worked as a teacher of Russian language in Kiev, he was a member of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society, the Historical Society of Nestor the Chronicler, the Shevchenko Scientific Society, the Ukrainian Scientific Society in Kyiv a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, he became the first honorary member of that society in 1908. Pavlo Zhytetsky is regarded as one of the first historians of the literary Ukrainian language. Drahomanivka "Żytecki Pawło". Internetowa encyklopedia PWN. Retrieved 2007-03-18. Roman Senkus. "Zhytetsky, Pavlo". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Retrieved 2007-03-18
Vuk Stefanović Karadžić was a Serb philologist and linguist, the major reformer of the Serbian language. He deserves for his collections of songs, fairy tales, riddles, to be called the father of the study of Serbian folklore, he was the author of the first Serbian dictionary in the new reformed language. In addition, he translated the New Testament into the reformed form of the Serbian spelling and language, he was well known abroad and familiar to Jacob Grimm, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and historian Leopold von Ranke. Karadžić was the primary source for Ranke's Die serbische Revolution, written in 1829. Vuk Karadžić was born to parents Stefan and Jegda in the village of Tršić, near Loznica, in the Ottoman Empire, his family settled from Drobnjaci, his mother was born in Ozrinići, Nikšić His family had a low infant survival rate, thus he was named Vuk so that witches and evil spirits would not hurt him. Karadžić was fortunate to be a relative of Jevta Savić Čotrić, the only literate person in the area at the time, who taught him how to read and write.
Karadžić continued his education in the Tronoša Monastery in Loznica. As a boy he learned calligraphy there, using a reed instead of a pen and a solution of gunpowder for ink. In lieu of proper writing paper he was lucky. Throughout the whole region, regular schooling was not widespread at that time and his father at first did not allow him to go to Austria. Since most of the time while in the monastery Karadžić was forced to pasture the livestock instead of studying, his father brought him back home. Meanwhile, the First Serbian Uprising seeking to overthrow the Ottomans began in 1804. After unsuccessful attempts to enroll in the gymnasium at Sremski Karlovci, for which 19-year-old Karadžić was too old, Karadžić left for Petrinja where he spent a few months learning Latin and German. On, he left for Belgrade, now in the hands of the Revolutionary Serbia, in order to meet the respected scholar Dositej Obradović, ask him to support his studies. Obradović dismissed him. Disappointed, Karadžić left for Jadar and began working as a scribe for Jakov Nenadović.
After the founding of the Belgrade Higher School, Karadžić became one of its first students. Soon afterwards, he grew ill and left for medical treatment in Pest and Novi Sad, but was unable to receive treatment for his leg, it was rumored that Karadžić deliberately refused to undergo amputation, instead deciding to make do with a prosthetic wooden pegleg, of which there were several sarcastic references in some of his works. Karadžić returned to Serbia by 1810, as unfit for military service, he served as the secretary for commanders Ćurčija and Hajduk-Veljko, his experiences would give rise to two books. With the Ottoman defeat of the Serbian rebels in 1813, he left for Vienna and met Jernej Kopitar, an experienced linguist with a strong interest in secular slavistics. Kopitar's influence helped Karadžić with his struggle in reforming the Serbian language and its orthography. Another important influence was Sava Mrkalj. In 1814 and 1815, Karadžić published two volumes of Serbian Folk Songs, which afterwards increased to four to six, to nine tomes.
In enlarged editions, these admirable songs drew towards themselves the attention of all literary Europe and America. Goethe characterized some of them as "excellent and worthy of comparison with Solomon's Song of Songs." In 1824, he sent a copy of his folksong collection to Jacob Grimm, enthralled by The Building of Skadar which Karadžić recorded from singing of Old Rashko. Grimm translated it into German and the song admired for many generations to come. Grimm compared them with the noblest flowers of Homeric poetry, of The Building of Skadar he said: "one of the most touching poems of all nations and all times." The founders of the Romantic School in France, Charles Nodier, Prosper Mérimée, Gerard de Nerval, Claude Fauriel translated a goodly number of them, they attracted the attention of Russian Alexander Pushkin, Finnish national poet Johan Ludwig Runeberg, Czech Samuel Roznay, Pole Kazimierz Brodzinski, English writers Walter Scott, Owen Meredith, John Bowring, among others. Karadžić continued collecting song well into the 1830s.
He arrived in Montenegro in the fall of 1834. Infirm, he descended to the Bay of Kotor to winter there, returned in the spring of 1835, it was there that Karadžić met an aspiring littérateur, born in Risan. From on Vrčević became Karadžić's faithful and loyal collaborator who collected folk songs and tales and sent them to his address in Vienna for many years to come. Another diligent collaborator of Vuk Karadžić was another namesake from Boka Kotorska the Priest Vuk Popović. Both Vrčević and Popović were and unselfishly involved in the gathering of the ethnographic and lexical material for Karadžić. Other collaborators joined Karadžić, including Milan Đ. Milićević; the majority of Karadžić's works were banned from publishing in Serbia and Austria during the rule of Prince Miloš Obrenović. As observed from a political point of view, Obrenović saw the works of Karadžić as a potential hazard due to a number of apparent reasons, one of, the possibility that the content of some of the works, although purely poetic in nature, was capable of creating a certain sense of patriotism and a desire for freedom and independence, which likely might have driven the populace to take up
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of Eastern Europe, it is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro; the city's name is said to derive from the name of one of its four legendary founders. During its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity; the city existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the first East Slavic state.
Destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; the city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, proclaimed by the Red Army, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. Kiev is the traditional and most used English name for the city; the Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English. As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution; the early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ. The name is associated with that of the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia; the form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire. In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London; the English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv; this has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.
The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, several international organizations, Encarta encyclopedia, by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U. S. government, although'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv and Kyjiv are in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources like the BBC, The New York Times continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist and The Guardian. Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians
Ivan Yakovych Franko was a Ukrainian poet, writer and literary critic, interpreter, political activist, doctor of philosophy and the author of the first detective novels and modern poetry in the Ukrainian language. He was a political radical, a founder of the socialist and nationalist movement in western Ukraine. In addition to his own literary work, he translated the works of such renowned figures as William Shakespeare, Lord Byron, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Dante Alighieri, Victor Hugo, Adam Mickiewicz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller into Ukrainian, his translations appeared on the stage of the Ruska Besida Theatre. Along with Taras Shevchenko, he has had a tremendous impact on modern literary and political thought in Ukraine. Franko was born in the Ukrainian village of Nahuievychi located in the Austrian kronland of Galicia, today part of Drohobych Raion, Lviv Oblast, Ukraine; as a child he was baptized as Ivan by Father Yosyp Levytsky known as a poet and the author of the first Galician-Ruthenian Hramatyka and, exiled to Nahuyevychi for a "sharp tongue".
At home, Ivan was called Myron because of a local superstitious belief that naming a person by different name will dodge a death. Franko's family in Nahuyevychi was considered "well-to-do", with their own servants and 24 hectares of their own property. Franko senior was to be a Ukrainianized German colonist, or at least Ivan Franko himself believed; that statement is supported by Timothy Snyder who describes Yakiv Franko as a village blacksmith of German descent. Snyder however stated that Ivan Franko's mother was of Polish petty noble origin, while more detailed sources state that she came from an impoverished Ukrainian noble background, from the well-known Ukrainian noble family Kulchytsky and was remotely related to Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny. According to Yaroslav Hrytsak, Ivan Franko was of mixed German and Ukrainian ancestry. Ivan Franko attended school in the village Yasenytsia Sylna from 1862 until 1864, from there attended the Basilian monastic school in Drohobych until 1867, his father died before Ivan was able to graduate from the gymnasium, but his stepfather supported Ivan in continuing his education.
Soon, Franko found himself without parents after his mother died as well and the young Ivan stayed with unrelated people. In 1875, he graduated from the Drohobych Realschule, continued on to Lviv University, where he studied classical philosophy, Ukrainian language and literature, it was at this university that Franko began his literary career, with various works of poetry and his novel Petriï i Dovbushchuky published by the students' magazine Druh, whose editorial board he would join. A meeting with Mykhailo Drahomanov at Lviv University made a huge impression on Ivan Franko, it developed into a long political and literary association. Franko's own socialist writings and his association with Drahomanov led to his arrest in 1877, along with Mykhailo Pavlyk and Ostap Terletsky, among others, they were accused of belonging to a secret socialist organization. However, the nine months in prison did not discourage his political writing or activities. In prison Franko wrote the satire Smorhonska Akademiya.
After release, he studied the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, contributed articles to the Polish newspaper Praca and helped organize workers' groups in Lviv. In 1878 Franko and Pavlyk founded the magazine Hromads'kyi Druh. Only two issues were published. Franko published a series of books called Dribna Biblioteka from 1878 until his second arrest for arousing the peasants to civil disobedience in 1880. After three months in the Kolomyia prison, the writer returned to Lviv, his impressions of this exile are reflected in his novel Na Dni. Upon his release Franko was kept under police surveillance. At odds with the administration, Franko was expelled from Lviv University, an institution that would be renamed Ivan Franko National University of Lviv after the writer's death. Franko was an active contributor to the journal Svit in 1881, he wrote more than half excluding the unsigned editorials. That year, Franko moved to his native Nahuievychi, where he wrote the novel Zakhar Berkut, translated Goethe's Faust and Heine's poem Deutschland: ein Wintermärchen into Ukrainian.
He wrote a series of articles on Taras Shevchenko, reviewed the collection Khutorna Poeziya by Panteleimon Kulish. Franko worked for the journal Zorya, became a member of the editing board of the newspaper Dilo a year later, he married Olha Khoruzhynska from Kiev in May 1886, to whom he dedicated the collection Z vershyn i nyzyn, a book of poetry and verse. The couple for some time lived in Vienna, where Ivano Franko met with such people as Theodor Herzl and Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, his wife was to suffer from a debilitating mental illness due to the death of the first-born son, one of the reasons that Franko would not leave Lviv for treatment in Kiev in 1916, shortly before his death. In 1888, Franko was a contributor to the journal Pravda, along with his association with compatriots from Dnieper Ukraine, led to a third arrest in 1889. After this two-month prison term, he co-founded the Ruthenian-Ukrainian Radical Party with Mykhailo Drahomanov and Mykhailo Pavlyk. Fran