Dramatic structure

Dramatic structure is the structure of a dramatic work such as a play or film. Many scholars have analyzed dramatic structure, beginning with Aristotle in his Poetics; this article looks at Aristotle's analysis of the Greek tragedy and on Gustav Freytag's analysis of ancient Greek and Shakespearean drama. Northrup Frye offers a dramatic structure for the analysis of narratives: an inverted U-shaped plot structure for tragedies and a U-shaped plot structure for comedies. In his Poetics, the Greek philosopher Aristotle put forth the idea the play should imitate a single whole action. "A whole is what has a beginning and middle and end". He split the play into two parts: unravelling; the Roman drama critic Horace advocated a 5-act structure in his Ars Poetica: "Neue minor neu sit quinto productior actu fabula". The fourth-century Roman grammarian Aelius Donatus defined the play as a three part structure, the protasis and catastrophe). In 1863, around the time that playwrights like Henrik Ibsen were abandoning the 5-act structure and experimenting with 3 and 4-act plays, the German playwright and novelist Gustav Freytag wrote Die Technik des Dramas, a definitive study of the 5-act dramatic structure, in which he laid out what has come to be known as Freytag's pyramid.

Under Freytag's pyramid, the plot of a story consists of five parts: Exposition Rising action Climax Falling action Catastrophe, resolution, or revelation Many structural principles still in use by modern storytellers were explained by Aristotle in his Poetics. In the part that still exists, he analyzed the tragedy. A part analyzing the comedy is now lost. Aristotle stated that the tragedy should imitate a whole action, which means that the events follow each other by probability or necessity, that the causal chain has a beginning and an end. There is a central problem that the protagonist must face; the play has two parts: unravelling. During complication, the protagonist finds trouble as the knot is tied. Two types of scenes are of special interest: the reversal, which throws the action in a new direction, the recognition, meaning the protagonist has an important revelation. Reversals should happen as a necessary and probable cause of what happened before, which implies that turning points needs to be properly set up.

Complications should arise from a flaw in the protagonist. In the tragedy, this flaw will be his undoing. Freytag derives his five-part model from the conflict of man against man, the hero and his adversary; the action of the drama and the grouping of characters is therefore in two parts: the hero's own deeds and those of his antagonist, which Freytag variously describes as "play and counter-play" or "rising and sinking". The greater the rise, the greater the fall of the vanquished hero; these two contrasting parts of the drama must be united by a climax, to which the action rises and from which the action falls away. Either the play or the counter-play can maintain dominance over the second part. Freytag is indifferent as to. A drama is divided into five parts, or acts, which some refer to as a dramatic arc: exposition, rising action, falling action, catastrophe. Freytag extends the five parts with three moments or crises: the exciting force, the tragic force, the force of the final suspense; the exciting force leads to the rising action, the tragic force leads to the falling action, the force of the final suspense leads to the catastrophe.

Freytag considers the exciting force to be necessary but the tragic force and the force of the final suspense are optional. Together, they make the eight component parts of the drama. Freytag's Pyramid can help writers organize their thoughts and ideas when describing the main problem of the drama, the rising action, the climax and the falling action. Although Freytag's analysis of dramatic structure is based on five-act plays, it can be applied to short stories and novels as well, making dramatic structure a literary element; the setting is fixed in a particular place and time, the mood is set, characters are introduced. A backstory may be alluded to. Exposition can be conveyed through dialogues, characters' asides, background details, in-universe media, or the narrator telling a back-story. An exciting force or inciting event begins after the exposition, building the rising action in one or several stages toward the point of greatest interest; these events are the most important parts of the story since the entire plot depends on them to set up the climax and the satisfactory resolution of the story itself.

The climax is the turning point. If things were going well for the protagonist, the plot will turn against them revealing the protagonist's hidden weaknesses. If the story is a comedy, the opposite state of affairs will ensue, with things going from bad to good for the protagonist requiring the protagonist to draw on hidden inner strengths. During the falling action, the hostility of the counter-party beats upon the soul of the hero. Freytag lays out two rules for this stage: the number of characters be limited as much as possible, the number of scenes through which the hero falls should be fewer than in the rising movement; the falling action may contain a moment of final suspense: Although

Shrine of the Holy Relics

The Shrine of the Holy Relics in Maria Stein, Ohio is the second largest collection of relics in the United States. It is a part of the historic Maria Stein Convent. Father Francis de Sales Brunner, the missionary who led the Society of the Precious Blood, was a collector of relics, he was responsible for the first collection of relics in Maria Stein. Over the 19th century other relics were added to the core collection as a way of protecting them from the continuous strife of 19th-century Italy. In 1892 a separate "relic chapel" was established in which Sisters of the Most Precious Blood conducted a continuous vigil; the collection of relics is the second largest in the United States with 1,100 relics, exceeded in number of relics only by Saint Anthony's Chapel in the Troy Hill neighborhood of Pittsburgh with five thousand. Relics include body parts from objects that belonged to a saint; the Sacred Heart Relic Chapel is a kaleidoscope of color, 18th- and 19th-century German carving, relics distributed throughout.

The "relic chapel" is connected to a larger chapel that in turn is the central feature of an interesting 19th century brick convent. A 2007 segment on National Public Radio describes this unique collection of relics; these relics include a splinter of the true cross and a splinter of bone from St. Peregrine, the patron saint of patients with cancer. Built in 1846, the shrine was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976; the Heritage Museum on the second floor of the convent showcases life during the early years of the community. Today southern Mercer County is predominantly Catholic, a reflection of 19th-century immigration patterns. Maria Stein Catholic Church and Rectory Maria Stein Shrine

Nitrocellulose slide

A nitrocellulose slide is a glass microscope slide, coated with nitrocellulose, used to bind biological material protein, for colorimetric and fluorescence detection assays. For this purpose, a nitrocellulose slide is considered to be superior to glass, because it binds a great deal more protein, protects the tertiary structure of the protein. Nitrocellulose slides have a thin, opaque film of nitrocellulose on a standard 25mm × 75 mm glass microscope slide; the film is sensitive to contact, to foreign material. A nitrocellulose slide is different from a nitrocellulose membrane, which filters protein from solution, but that it serves a similar goal: to detect the presence and/or concentration level of certain biological material. Nitrocellulose slides are used in proteomics to do protein microarrays with automated systems that print the slides and record results. Microarrays of cell analytes, arrays of cell lysate, antibody microarrays, tissue printing, etc. are possible with the slide. Due to their high surface roughness, conventional white nitrocellulose films scatter and reflect large amounts of excitation and emission light during the fluorescence detection in the microarray scanner.

In addition, nitrocellulose exhibits a natural autofluorescence at the detection wavelengths used. Both these factors lead to a high background fluorescent signal from these membrane slides. To overcome this problem, a new process has been developed to generate black membranes that absorb the scattered light reducing the background auto-fluorescence and thus offering a low and homogenous auto-fluorescence to achieve a improved dynamic range; these slides are commercially available through Schott AG. Conventional white nitrocellulose films continue to be the dominant surface for many protein microarray applications because the claims above have not proved relevant to end user requirements. Regardless, nitrocellulose slide manufacturers like Grace Bio-Labs continue to develop new nitrocellulose surfaces to further optimize their use in protein microarrays. A method for protein quantitation on nitrocellulose coated glass slides uses near-IR fluorescent detection with quantum dots. Traditional porous nitrocellulose signal to noise is limited by auto-fluorescence of the nitrocellulose at the respective required wavelengths of excitation and emission for standard organic fluorescent detection probes.

Near IR detection probes are excited and read at emission wavelengths outside the range of nitrocellulose fluorescence