House of Lords
The House of Lords known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, members of the House of Lords are appointed; the membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England. Of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. However, they include some hereditary peers including four dukes. Membership was once an entitlement of all hereditary peers, other than those in the peerage of Ireland, but under the House of Lords Act 1999, the right to membership was restricted to 92 hereditary peers.
Since 2008, only one of them is female. While the House of Commons has a defined number of seats membership, the number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed; the House of Lords is the only upper house of any bicameral parliament in the world to be larger than its lower house. The House of Lords scrutinises bills, it reviews and amends Bills from the Commons. While it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, except in certain limited circumstances, it can delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider their decisions. In this capacity, the House of Lords acts as a check on the House of Commons, independent from the electoral process. Bills can be introduced into the House of Commons. While members of the Lords may take on roles as government ministers, high-ranking officials such as cabinet ministers are drawn from the Commons; the House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library. The Queen's Speech is delivered in the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament.
In addition to its role as the upper house, until the establishment of the Supreme Court in 2009, the House of Lords, through the Law Lords, acted as the final court of appeal in the United Kingdom judicial system. The House has a Church of England role, in that Church Measures must be tabled within the House by the Lords Spiritual. Today's Parliament of the United Kingdom descends, in practice, from the Parliament of England, though the Treaty of Union of 1706 and the Acts of Union that ratified the Treaty in 1707 and created a new Parliament of Great Britain to replace the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland; this new parliament was, in effect, the continuation of the Parliament of England with the addition of 45 MPs and 16 Peers to represent Scotland. The House of Lords developed from the "Great Council"; this royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics and representatives of the counties of England and Wales. The first English Parliament is considered to be the "Model Parliament", which included archbishops, abbots, earls and representatives of the shires and boroughs of it.
The power of Parliament grew fluctuating as the strength of the monarchy grew or declined. For example, during much of the reign of Edward II, the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, the shire and borough representatives powerless. In 1569, the authority of Parliament was for the first time recognised not by custom or royal charter, but by an authoritative statute, passed by Parliament itself. During the reign of Edward II's successor, Edward III, Parliament separated into two distinct chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords; the authority of Parliament continued to grow, during the early 15th century both Houses exercised powers to an extent not seen before. The Lords were far more powerful than the Commons because of the great influence of the great landowners and the prelates of the realm; the power of the nobility declined during the civil wars of the late 15th century, known as the Wars of the Roses. Much of the nobility was killed on the battlefield or executed for participation in the war, many aristocratic estates were lost to the Crown.
Moreover, feudalism was dying, the feudal armies controlled by the barons became obsolete. Henry VII established the supremacy of the monarch, symbolised by the "Crown Imperial"; the domination of the Sovereign continued to grow during the reigns of the Tudor monarchs in the 16th century. The Crown was at the height of its power during the reign of Henry VIII; the House of Lords remained more powerful than the House of Commons, but the Lower House continued to grow in influence, reaching a zenith in relation to the House of Lords during the middle 17th century. Conflicts between the King and the Parliament led to the English Civil War during the 1640s. In 1649, after the defeat and execution of King Charles I, the Commonwealth of England was declared, but the nation was under the overall control of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, S
Krambambula is an alcoholic mix drink or cocktail that consists of red wine and various kinds of liquor, including gin, vodka, or rum. There are many different recipes. Commercially produced versions may be available in some areas. In recent years, a Krambambula vodka drink flavoured with honey and spices similar to mead has been commercially popularized as the national drink of Belarus; the name was adopted by Krambambula, a Belarusian folk rock band. The name is derived from the Old High German word Kranawitu or chranawita and from the Rotwelsch word Blamp. A red-colored cherry liqueur called Krambambuli was produced by a distillery in Danzig established by Ambrosius Vermöllen, a Mennonite immigrant from De Lier in Holland, who received Danzig citizenship on 6 July 1598. In 1704 the production moved to new premises in the Breitgasse lane marked with the animal symbol of a salmon on the façade; the distillery produced the famous Danziger Goldwasser liquer. In the jargon of German student fraternities, the word Krambambuli was used to identify various drinks such as mulled wine and Feuerzangenbowle.
The popularity of the word was associated to a large degree with Der Krambambulist, a commercium song with a prologue and 102 verses, published in Halle in 1745 by the privy councillor Christoph Friedrich Wedekind under the pseudonym Crescentius Coromandel. The song was included in the Allgemeines Deutsches Kommersbuch and was translated into Russian by Nikolay Yazykov in the 19th century. Der Lachs liquers were perpetuated by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in his play Minna von Barnhelm, premiered in 1767, they are mentioned in The Broken Jug by Heinrich von Kleist. Krambambuli is the title of a story written by Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach in 1883 about a dog named after the beverage brand, filmed several times. A strong krambambulya made with vodka and beer is mentioned in the 1875 comedy Wolves and Sheep by Alexander Ostrovsky. Medovukha Krambambula marketed by BELPI - Belarusian Beverages
Cannes is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival and Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity; the city is known for its association with the rich and famous, its luxury hotels and restaurants, for several conferences. On 3 November 2011 it played host to the G20 organisation of industrialised nations. By the 2nd century BC, the Ligurian Oxybii established a settlement here known as Aegitna. Historians are unsure; the area was a fishing village used as a port of call between the Lérins Islands. In 69 AD, it became the scene of violent conflict between the troops of Vitellius. In the 10th century, the town was known as Canua; the name may derive from "canna," a reed. Canua was the site of a small Ligurian port, a Roman outpost on Le Suquet hill, suggested by Roman tombs discovered here. Le Suquet housed an 11th-century tower which overlooked swamps. Most of the ancient activity protection, was on the Lérins Islands and the history of Cannes is tied to the history of the islands.
An attack by the Saracens in 891, who remained until the end of the 10th century, devastated the country around Canua. The insecurity of the Lérins islands forced the monks to settle at the Suquet. Construction of a castle in 1035 fortified the city by known as Cannes, at the end of the 11th century construction was started on two towers on the Lérins islands. One took a century to build. Around 1530, Cannes detached from the monks who had controlled the city for hundreds of years and became independent. During the 18th century, both the Spanish and British tried to gain control of the Lérins Islands but were chased away by the French; the islands were controlled by many, such as Jean-Honoré Alziary, the Bishop of Fréjus. They had many different purposes: at the end of the 19th century, one served as hospital for soldiers wounded in the Crimean War. Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux bought land at the Croix des Gardes and constructed the villa Eleonore-Louise, his work to improve living conditions attracted the English aristocracy, who built winter residences.
At the end of the 19th century, several railways were completed, which prompted the arrival of streetcars. In Cannes, projects such as the Boulevard Carnot and the rue d'Antibes were carried out. After the closure of the Casino des Fleurs, a luxury establishment was built for the rich winter clientele, the Casino Municipal next to the pier Albert-Edouard; this casino was demolished and replaced by the new Palace in 1979. In the 20th century, new luxury hotels such as the Carlton, Martinez, JW Marriott Cannes were built; the city was modernised with a sports centre, a post office, schools. There were fewer German tourists after the First World War but more Americans. Winter tourism gave way to summer tourism and the summer casino at the Palm Beach was constructed; the city council had the idea of starting an international film festival shortly before World War II. The first opened on 20 September 1946. Cannes has a Mediterranean climate and the city enjoys 11 hours of sunshine per day during summer, while in winter the weather is mild.
Both seasons see a low rainfall and most rain occurs during October and November, when 110 mm falls. Cannes summers are long and warm, with summer daytime temperatures hitting 30 °C, while average temperatures are about 25 °C. Temperatures remain high from June to the busiest time of the year. Mean temperatures drop below 10 °C for only three months of the year; the spring and autumn are warm, although more suited to those who prefer cooler weather. The area around Cannes has developed into a high-tech cluster; the technopolis of Sophia Antipolis lies in the hills beyond Cannes. The Film Festival is a major event for the industry which takes place every year during the month of May. In addition, Cannes hosts other major annual events such as the MIPIM, MIPTV, MIDEM, Cannes Lions, the NRJ Music Awards. There is an annual television festival in the last week in September; the economic environment is based on tourism, business fairs and aviation. Cannes has 6,500 companies, of which 3,000 are traders and service providers.
In 2006, 421 new companies were registered. Cannes hosts the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, headquarters of Thales Alenia Space, the first European satellite manufacturer; the Promenade de la Croisette is the waterfront avenue with palm trees. La Croisette is known for picturesque beaches, cafés and boutiques. Le Suquet, the old town, provides a good view of La Croisette; the fortified tower and Chapel of St Anne house the Musée de la Castre. A distinctive building in Cannes is the Russian Orthodox church; the Musée d'Art et d'Histoire de Provence houses artifacts from prehistoric to present, in an 18th-century mansion. The Musée de la Castre has objects from Peruvian relics and Mayan pottery. Other venues include the Musée de la Marine, Musée de la Mer, Musée de la Photographie and Musée International de la Parfumerie. Cannes of the 19th century can still be seen in its grand villas, built to reflect the wealth and standing of their owners and inspired by anything from medieval castles to Roman villas.
They are not open to the public. Lord Brougham's Italianate Villa Eléonore Louise was built between 1835 and 1839. Known as the Quartier des Anglais, this
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Clan Mackinnon or Clan Fingon is a Highland Scottish clan associated with the islands of Mull and Skye, in the Inner Hebrides. Popular tradition gives the clan a Dalriadic Gaelic origin; the 19th-century historian W. F. Skene named the clan as one of the seven clans of Siol Alpin, who according to Skene could all trace their ancestry back to Alpin, father of Cináed mac Ailpín. Popular tradition has been until to consider Cináed mac Ailpín the first King of Scots and a Gael, however recent research speculates Cináed was a Pictish king and even a Pict himself. Sir Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk speculated that Clan Mackinnon belonged to the kindred of Saint Columba, noting the Mackinnon Arms bore the hand of the saint holding the Cross, the several Mackinnon abbots of Iona; the Mackinnon clan took part in the thirty years war with neighbouring clans such as MacKay, McFarlane. Early history states that the Mackinnon clan was one of the most powerful clans in highland Scotland. Though little is known of the early history of the clan, it is to have served under the Lords of the Isles.
After the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles in 1493 the clan would have gained some independence, was at various times allied or at war with neighbouring clans such as the MacLeans and the MacDonalds. The clan supported the Jacobites in the 17th and 18th centuries, tradition has the chief of the clan aiding in the escape of Bonnie Prince Charlie in his flight to France; because of their support for the last Jacobite rebellion the Mackinnon chiefs lost the last of their ancient clan lands. According to legend, the castle of Dunakin, near Kyleakin, was built by a Norwegian princess known as Saucy Mary, who married Findanus the claimed ancestor of Clan Mackinnon; the princess was to have collected the tolls of ships sailing through the narrows between the castle and the mainland, though Norse ships were exempt from her toll. To ensure that her taxes were paid a chain was stretched across the kyle. On her death she was buried beneath a cairn on Beinn na Caillich; the clan are supposed to have defeated the Vikings at Goir a' Bhlair, on the eastern slopes of Beinn na Cailleach above Broadford.
The surname Mackinnon is an Anglicisation of the Gaelic Mac Fhionghuin, a patronymic form of the Gaelic personal name meaning "fair born" or "fair son". This personal name appears in the genitive form as Finguni. In the Annals of the Four Masters, a Fínghin, described as "anchorite and Bishop of Iona", is recorded as dying in 966. Middle Irish forms of the name are Finnguine, while the Modern Irish is Findgaine; these names are thought to derive from the prehistoric Gaelic Vindo-gonio-s. The Anglicised Mackinnon can derive from the Gaelic Mac Ionmhuinn, a similar patronymic name meaning "son of the beloved one". In consequence some "Mackinvens" have Anglicised their name to Love or Low, although fewer people with these surnames derive their name this way, most have no connection with the Mackinnons. According to the Collins Scottish Clan & Family Encyclopedia the Mackinnons gave shelter to Robert the Bruce when he was a fugitive escaping to Carrick. After Bruce's victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 the Mackinnons were rewarded with land on the Isle of Skye.
The Mackinnon chiefs lived at Dunringall Castle and were styled "of Strathardale". Little is known of the early history of the clan; the 19th-century historian William Forbes Skene gave the clan a descent linked to the clans of Siol Alpin. He claimed that the Finguine who appears in the MS 1450 was the brother of the Anrias of whom the Clan Gregor claim descent from in about 1130; because of the clan's early association with the Lords of the Isles there is no trace of early history of the Mackinnons as an independent clan. On the forfeiture of the last Lord of the Isles in the 1490s the clan at last gained some independence, though the Clan Mackinnon was always a minor clan and never gained any great power. According to Skene, the MS 1450 proved. Skene maintained; the genealogy within the manuscript is as follows: Niall, son of Colum, son of Gillabrigde, son of Eogan, son of Gillabrigde, son of Saineagain, son of Finlaeie, son of Finguine, from whom sprung clanfinguin, son of Cormac, son of Airbertaig, son of Muircheach, son of Fearchair oig.
According to the historian Donald Gregory the first authentic record of the clan is found in an indenture between John of Islay, Lord of the Isles and the Lord of Lorn, in 1354. In the indenture, Lorn agreed to hand over the Isle of Mull and other lands, if the castle of Cairn na Burgh, located on Cairn na Burgh Mòr in the Treshnish Isles, was not delivered into the keeping of any of Clan Finnon. Sometime after the death of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles, in 1386, John Mór rebelled against his elder brother Domhnall, in an attempt to take the Lordship of the Isles for himself. According to a manuscript relating the history of the MacDonalds, written in the 17th century, it was Finnon, known as the Green Abbot, "a subtle and wicked councillor", who persuaded John Mór to revolt against his brother, it further states that the eloquent Green Abbot persuaded the MacLeans and MacLeods of Harris to aid in John Mór's revolt, acquire islands for themselves. Though assisted by his allies, John Mor was defeated, by 1395 had fled to Ireland.
John Mór was pardoned by his brother, though the MacDonald history states that the Green Abbot's kinsman, the Mackinnon chief, was
Skye, or the Isle of Skye, is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. The island's peninsulas radiate from a mountainous centre dominated by the Cuillin, the rocky slopes of which provide some of the most dramatic mountain scenery in the country. Although it has been suggested that the Gaelic Sgitheanach describes a winged shape there is no definitive agreement as to the name's origins; the island has been occupied since the Mesolithic period, its history includes a time of Norse rule and a long period of domination by Clan MacLeod and Clan Donald. The 18th century Jacobite risings led to the breaking up of the clan system and subsequent Clearances that replaced entire communities with sheep farms, some of which involved forced emigrations to distant lands. Resident numbers declined from over 20,000 in the early 19th century to just under 9,000 by the closing decade of the 20th century. Skye's population increased by 4 per cent between 1991 and 2001.
About a third of the residents were Gaelic speakers in 2001, although their numbers are in decline, this aspect of island culture remains important. The main industries are tourism, agriculture and forestry. Skye is part of the Highland Council local government area; the island's largest settlement is Portree, its capital, known for its picturesque harbour. There are links to various nearby islands by ferry and, since 1995, to the mainland by a road bridge; the climate is mild and windy. The abundant wildlife includes red deer and Atlantic salmon; the local flora are dominated by heather moor, there are nationally important invertebrate populations on the surrounding sea bed. Skye has provided the locations for various novels and feature films and is celebrated in poetry and song; the first written references to the island are Roman sources such as the Ravenna Cosmography, which refers to Scitis and Scetis, which can be found on a map by Ptolemy. One possible derivation comes from skitis, an early Celtic word for winged, which may describe how the island's peninsulas radiate out from a mountainous centre.
Subsequent Gaelic-, Norse- and English-speaking peoples have influenced the history of Skye. Various etymologies have been proposed, such as the "winged isle" or "the notched isle" but no definitive solution has been found to date. In the Norse sagas Skye is called Skíð, for example in the Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar and a skaldic poem in the Heimskringla from c. 1230 contains a line that translates as "the hunger battle-birds were filled in Skye with blood of foemen killed". The island was referred to by the Norse as Skuy, Skýey or Skuyö; the traditional Gaelic name is An t-Eilean Sgitheanach, An t-Eilean Sgiathanach being a more recent and less common spelling. In 1549 Donald Munro, High Dean of the Isles, wrote of "Sky": "This Ile is callit Ellan Skiannach in Irish, to say in Inglish the wyngit Ile, be reason it has mony wyngis and pointis lyand furth fra it, throw the dividing of thir foirsaid Lochis." But the meaning of this Gaelic name is unclear. Eilean a' Cheò, which means island of the mist, is a poetic Gaelic name for the island.
At 1,656 square kilometres, Skye is the second-largest island in Scotland after Harris. The coastline of Skye is a series of peninsulas and bays radiating out from a centre dominated by the Cuillin hills. Malcolm Slesser suggested that its shape "sticks out of the west coast of northern Scotland like a lobster's claw ready to snap at the fish bone of Harris and Lewis" and W. H. Murray, commenting on its irregular coastline, stated that "Skye is sixty miles long, but what might be its breadth is beyond the ingenuity of man to state". Martin Martin, a native of the island, reported on it at length in a 1703 publication, his geological observations included a note that: There are marcasites black and white, resembling silver ore, near the village Sartle: there are in the same place several stones, which in bigness, shape, &c. resemble nutmegs, many rivulets here afford variegated stones of all colours. The Applesglen near Loch-Fallart has agate growing in it of different colours. Stones of a purple colour flow down the rivulets here after great rains.
The Black Cuillin, which are composed of basalt and gabbro, include twelve Munros and provide some of the most dramatic and challenging mountain terrain in Scotland. The ascent of Sgùrr a' Ghreadaidh is one of the longest rock climbs in Britain and the Inaccessible Pinnacle is the only peak in Scotland that requires technical climbing skills to reach the summit; these hills make demands of the hill walker that exceed any others found in Scotland and a full traverse of the Cuillin ridge may take 15–20 hours. The Red Hills to the south are known as the Red Cuillin, they are composed of granite that has weathered into more rounded hills with many long scree slopes on their flanks. The highest point of these hills is one of only two Corbetts on Skye; the northern peninsula of Trotternish is underlain by basalt, which provides rich soils and a variety of unusual rock features. The Kilt Rock is named after the tartan-like patterns in the 105 metres cliffs; the Quiraing is a spectacular series of rock pinnacles on the eastern side of th
Alcohol by volume
Alcohol by volume is a standard measure of how much alcohol is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage. It is defined as the number of millilitres of pure ethanol present in 100 mL of solution at 20 °C; the number of millilitres of pure ethanol is the mass of the ethanol divided by its density at 20 °C, 0.78924 g/mL. The ABV standard is used worldwide; the International Organization of Legal Metrology has tables of density of water–ethanol mixtures at different concentrations and temperatures. In some countries, e.g. France, alcohol by volume is referred to as degrees Gay-Lussac, although there is a slight difference since the Gay-Lussac convention uses the International Standard Atmosphere value for temperature, 15 °C. Mixing two solutions of alcohol of different strengths causes a change in volume. Mixing pure water with a solution less than 24% by mass causes a slight increase in total volume, whereas the mixing of two solutions above 24% causes a decrease in volume; the phenomenon of volume changes due to mixing dissimilar solutions is called "partial molar volume".
Water and ethanol are both polar solvents. When water is added to ethanol, the smaller water molecules are attracted to the ethanol's hydroxyl group, each molecule alters the polarity field of the other; the attraction allows closer spacing between molecules than is found in non-polar mixtures. Thus, ABV is not the same. Volume fraction, used in chemistry, is defined as the volume of a particular component divided by the sum of all components in the mixture when they are measured separately. To make a 50% v/v ethanol solution, for example, you would measure 50 mL of ethanol and separately measure 50 mL of water mix the two together; the resulting volume of solution will not measure 100 mL due to the change of volume on mixing. Details about typical amounts of alcohol contained in various beverages can be found in the articles about them. Another way of specifying the amount of alcohol is alcohol proof, which in the United States is twice the alcohol-by-volume number; this may lead to confusion over similar products bought in varying regions that have different names on country specific labels.
For example, Stroh rum, 80% ABV is advertised and labeled as Stroh 80 when sold in Europe, but is named Stroh 160 when sold in the United States. In the United Kingdom proof is 1.75 times the number. For example, 40% abv is 80 proof in the US and 70 proof in the UK. However, since 1980, alcohol proof in the UK has been replaced by ABV as a measure of alcohol content. In the United States, a few states regulate and tax alcoholic beverages according to alcohol by weight, expressed as a percentage of total mass; some brewers print the ABW on beer containers on low-point versions of popular domestic beer brands. One can use the following equation to convert between ABV and ABW: A B V × 0.78924 = A B W × density of beverage at 20 C in g/mL At low ABV, the alcohol percentage by weight is about 4/5 of the ABV. However, because of the miscibility of alcohol and water, the conversion factor is not constant but rather depends upon the concentration of alcohol. 100% ABW is equivalent to 100% ABV. During the production of wine and beer, yeast is added to a sugary solution.
During fermentation, the yeasts produce alcohol. The density of sugar in water is greater than the density of alcohol in water. A hydrometer is used to measure the change in specific gravity of the solution before and after fermentation; the volume of alcohol in the solution can be estimated. There are a number of empirical formulae which brewers and winemakers use to estimate the alcohol content of the liquor made; the simplest method for wine has been described by English author C. J. J. Berry: A B V = / 7.36 The calculation for beer is: A B V = 133.62 × However, many brewers use the following formula which uses a different constant: A B V = 131.25 It is derived in this manner: A B V = ρ