The Diadochi were the rival generals and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC. The Wars of the Diadochi mark the beginning of the Hellenistic period from the Mediterranean to the Indus River Valley. An army on campaign changes its leadership at any level for replacement of casualties and distribution of talent to the current operations; the institution of the Hetairoi gave the Macedonian army a flexible capability in this regard. There were no fixed ranks of Hetairoi; the Hetairoi were a fixed pool of de facto general officers, without any or with changing de jure rank, whom Alexander could assign where needed. They were from the nobility, many related to Alexander. A parallel flexible structure in the Persian army facilitated combined units. Staff meetings to adjust command structure were nearly a daily event in Alexander's army, they created an ongoing expectation among the Hetairoi of receiving an important and powerful command, if only for a short term.
At the moment of Alexander's death, all possibilities were suspended. The Hetairoi vanished with Alexander, to be replaced instantaneously by the Diadochi, men who knew where they had stood, but not where they would stand now; as there had been no definite ranks or positions of Hetairoi, there were no ranks of Diadochi. They expected appointments. For purposes of this presentation, the Diadochi are grouped by their rank and social standing at the time of Alexander's death; these were their initial positions as Diadochi. They are not significant or determinative of what happened next. In Hellenistic times the title Diadoch was the lowest in a system of official rank titles, it was first used in the 19th century to denote the immediate successors of Alexander. Craterus was an infantry and naval commander under Alexander during his conquest of Persia. After the revolt of his army at Opis on the Tigris River in 324, Alexander ordered Craterus to command the veterans as they returned home to Macedonia.
Antipater, commander of Alexander's forces in Greece and regent of the Macedonian throne in Alexander's absence, would lead a force of fresh troops back to Persia to join Alexander while Craterus would become regent in his place. When Craterus arrived at Cilicia in 323 BC, news reached him of Alexander's death. Though his distance from Babylon prevented him from participating in the distribution of power, Craterus hastened to Macedonia to assume the protection of Alexander's family; the news of Alexander's death caused the Greeks to rebel in the Lamian War. Craterus and Antipater defeated the rebellion in 322 BC. Despite his absence, the generals gathered at Babylon confirmed Craterus as Guardian of the Royal Family. However, with the royal family in Babylon, the Regent Perdiccas assumed this responsibility until the royal household could return to Macedonia. Antipater was Alexander's father, a role he continued under Alexander; when Alexander left Macedon to conquer Persia in 334 BC, Antipater was named Regent of Macedon and General of Greece in Alexander's absence.
In 323 BC, Craterus was ordered by Alexander to march his veterans back to Macedon and assume Antipater's position while Antipater was to march to Persia with fresh troops. Alexander's death that year, prevented the order from being carried out; when Alexander's generals gathered in Babylon to divide the empire between themselves, Antipater was confirmed as General of Greece while the roles of Regent of the Empire and Guardian of the Royal Family were given to Perdiccas and Craterus, respectively. Together, the three men formed the top ruling group of the empire; the Somatophylakes were the seven bodyguards of Alexander. Satraps were the governors of the provinces in the Hellenistic empires; the Epigoni were the sons of the Argive heroes who had fought in the first Theban war. In the 19th century the term was used to refer to the second generation of Diadochi rulers. Without a chosen successor, there was immediately a dispute among Alexander's generals as to whom his successor should be. Meleager and the infantry supported the candidacy of Alexander's half-brother, while Perdiccas, the leading cavalry commander, supported waiting until the birth of Alexander's unborn child by Roxana.
A compromise was arranged – Arrhidaeus should become King, should rule jointly with Roxana's child, assuming that it was a boy. Perdiccas himself would become Regent of the entire Empire, Meleager his lieutenant. Soon, Perdiccas had Meleager and the other infantry leaders murdered, assumed full control; the other cavalry generals who had supported Perdiccas were rewarded in the partition of Babylon by becoming satraps of the various parts of the Empire. Ptolemy received Egypt. Macedon and the rest of Greece were to be under the joint rule of Antipater, who had governed them for Alexander, Craterus, Alexander's most able lieutenant, while Alexander's old secretary, Eumenes of Cardia, was to receive Cappadocia and Paphlagonia. In the east, Perdiccas left Alexander's arrangements intact – Taxiles and Porus governed over their kingdoms in India.
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Naqsh-e Rustam is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods. It lies a few hundred meters from Naqsh-e Rajab, with a further four Sassanid rock reliefs, three celebrating kings and one a high priest. Naqsh-e Rustam is the necropolis of the Achaemenid dynasty, with four large tombs cut high into the cliff face; these have architectural decoration, but the facades include large panels over the doorways, each similar in content, with figures of the king being invested by a god, above a zone with rows of smaller figures bearing tribute, with soldiers and officials. The three classes of figures are differentiated in size; the entrance to each tomb is at the center of each cross, which opens onto a small chamber, where the king lay in a sarcophagus. Well below the Achaemenid tombs, near ground level, are rock reliefs with large figures of Sassanian kings, some meeting gods, others in combat.
The most famous shows the Sassanian king Shapur I on horseback, with the Roman Emperor Valerian bowing to him in submission, Philip the Arab holding Shapur's horse, while the dead Emperor Gordian III, killed in battle, lies beneath it. This commemorates the Battle of Edessa in 260 AD, when Valerian became the only Roman Emperor, captured as a prisoner of war, a lasting humiliation for the Romans; the placing of these reliefs suggests the Sassanid intention to link themselves with the glories of the earlier Achaemenid Empire. The oldest relief at Naqsh-e Rustam dates back to c. 1000 BC. Though it is damaged, it depicts a faint image of a man with unusual head-gear, is thought to be Elamite in origin; the depiction is part of a larger mural, most of, removed at the command of Bahram II. The man with the unusual cap gives the site its name, Naqsh-e Rustam, because the relief was locally believed to be a depiction of the mythical hero Rustam. Four tombs belonging to Achaemenid kings are carved out of the rock face at a considerable height above the ground.
The tombs are sometimes known after the shape of the facades of the tombs. The entrance to each tomb is at the center of each cross, which opens onto a small chamber, where the king lay in a sarcophagus; the horizontal beam of each of the tomb's facades is believed to be a replica of a Persepolitan entrance. One of the tombs is explicitly identified, by an accompanying inscription, as the tomb of Darius I; the other three tombs are believed to be those of Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, Darius II respectively. The order of the tombs in Naqsh-e Rustam follows: Darius II, Artaxerxes I, Darius I, Xerxes I; the matching of the other kings to tombs is somewhat speculative. A fifth unfinished one might be that of Artaxerxes III, who reigned at the longest two years, but is more that of Darius III, the last king of the Achaemenid Dynasts; the tombs were looted following the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire by Alexander the Great. An inscription by Darius I, from c.490 BCE referred to as the "DNa inscription" in scholarly works, appears in the top left corner of the facade of his tomb.
It mentions the conquests of his various achievements during his life. Its exact date is not known. Like several other inscriptions by Darius, the territories controlled by the Achaemenid Empire are listed, in particular the areas of the Indus and Gandhara in India, referring to the Achaemenid occupation of the Indus Valley. Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is a 5th-century B. C Achaemenid square tower; the structure is a copy of a sister building at Pasargadae, the "Prison of Solomon". It was built either by Darius I when he moved to Persepolis, by Artaxerxes II or Artaxerxes III; the building at Pasargadae is a few decades older. There are four inscriptions in three languages from the Sasanian period on the lower exterior walls, they are considered among the most important inscriptions from this period. Several theories exist regarding the purpose of the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht structure. Seven over-life sized rock reliefs at Naqsh-e Rustam depict monarchs of the Sassanid period, their approximate dates range from 225 to 310 AD, they show subjects including investiture scenes and battles.
The founder of the Sassanid Empire is seen being handed the ring of kingship by Ohrmazd. In the inscription, which bears the oldest attested use of the term Iran, Ardashir admits to betraying his pledge to Artabanus V, but legitimizes his action on the grounds that Ohrmazd had wanted him to do so; the word ērān is first attested in the inscriptions that accompany the investiture relief of Ardashir I at Naqsh-e Rustam. In this bilingual inscription, the king calls himself "Ardashir, king of kings of the Iranians"; this is the most famous of the Sassanid rock reliefs, depicts the victory of Shapur I over two Roman emperors and Philip the Arab. Behind the king stands Kirtir, the mūbadān mūbad, the most powerful of the Zoroastrian Magi dur
The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. Seleucus received Babylonia and from there expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near-eastern territories. At the height of its power, the Empire included central Anatolia, the Levant and what is now Kuwait and parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan; the Seleucid Empire became a major center of Hellenistic culture – it maintained the preeminence of Greek customs where a Greek political elite dominated in the urban areas. The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by immigration from Greece. Seleucid expansion into Anatolia and Greece halted abruptly in the early 2nd century BC after decisive defeats at the hands of the Roman army. Seleucid attempts to defeat their old enemy. Having come into conflict in the East with Chandragupta Maurya of the Maurya Empire, Seleucus I entered into an agreement with Chandragupta whereby he ceded vast territory west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern-day Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan and offered his daughter in marriage to the Maurya Emperor to formalize the alliance.
Antiochus III the Great attempted to project Seleucid power and authority into Hellenistic Greece, but his attempts were thwarted by the Roman Republic and by Greek allies such as the Kingdom of Pergamon, culminating in a Seleucid defeat at the 190 BC Battle of Magnesia. In the subsequent Treaty of Apamea in 188 BC, the Seleucids were compelled to pay costly war reparations and relinquished claims to territories west of the Taurus Mountains; the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia conquered much of the remaining eastern part of the Seleucid Empire in the mid-2nd century BC, while the independent Greco-Bactrian Kingdom continued to flourish in the northeast. However, the Seleucid kings continued to rule a rump state from Syria until the invasion by Armenian king Tigranes the Great in 83 BC and their ultimate overthrow by the Roman general Pompey in 63 BC. Contemporary sources, such as a loyalist degree from Ilium, in Greek language define the Seleucid state both as an empire and as a kingdom.
Seleucid rulers were described as kings in Babylonia. Starting from the 2nd century BC, ancient writers referred to the Seleucid ruler as the King of Syria, Lord of Asia, other designations, he refers to either Alexander Balas or Alexander II Zabinas as a ruler. Alexander, who conquered the Persian Empire under its last Achaemenid dynast, Darius III, died young in 323 BC, leaving an expansive empire of Hellenised culture without an adult heir; the empire was put under the authority of a regent in the person of Perdiccas, the territories were divided among Alexander's generals, who thereby became satraps, at the Partition of Babylon, all in that same year. Alexander's generals jostled for supremacy over parts of his empire. Ptolemy, a former general and the satrap of Egypt, was the first to challenge the new system. Ptolemy's revolt led to a new subdivision of the empire with the Partition of Triparadisus in 320 BC. Seleucus, "Commander-in-Chief of the Companion cavalry" and appointed first or court chiliarch received Babylonia and, from that point, continued to expand his dominions ruthlessly.
Seleucus established himself in Babylon in 312 BC, the year used as the foundation date of the Seleucid Empire. The rise of Seleucus in Babylon threatened the eastern extent of Antigonus I territory in Asia. Antigonus, along with his son Demetrius I of Macedon, unsuccessfully led a campaign to annex Babylon; the victory of Seleucus ensured his claim of legitimacy. He ruled not only Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire, as described by Appian:Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia,'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Parthia, Arabia, Sogdia, Arachosia and other adjacent peoples, subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander; the whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus. In the region of Punjab, Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya Empire in 321 BC. Chandragupta conquered the Nanda Empire in Magadha, relocated to the capital of Pataliputra.
Chandragupta redirected his attention back to the Indus and by 317 BC he conquered the remaining Greek satraps left by Alexander. Expecting a confrontation, Seleucid marched to the Indus, it is said that Chandragupta himself fielded an army of 9,000 war elephants. Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast territory, sealed in a treaty, west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern day Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. According to Appian: He [Sel
Athura called Assyria, was a geographical area within the Achaemenid Empire in Upper Mesopotamia from 539 to 330 BC as a military protectorate state. Although sometimes regarded as a satrapy, Achaemenid royal inscriptions list it as a dahyu, a concept interpreted as meaning either a group of people or both a country and its people, without any administrative implication, it incorporated the territories of Neo-Assyrian Empire corresponding to what is now northern Iraq in the upper Tigris, the middle and upper Euphrates, modern-day northeastern Syria and part of south-east Anatolia. However and the Sinai Peninsula were separate Achaemenid territories; the Neo-Assyrian Empire collapsed after a period of violent civil wars, followed by an invasion by a coalition of some of its former subject peoples, the Iranian peoples and Cimmerians in the late seventh century BC, culminating in the Battle of Nineveh, Assyria had fallen by 609 BC. Between 609 and 559 BC, former Assyrian territories were divided between the Median Empire to the east and the Neo-Babylonian Empire to the west.
Both parts were subsumed into the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BC, it has been argued that they constituted the satrapies of Media and Aθurā, respectively. In Herodotus' account the Ninth Tributary District comprised "Babylonia and the rest of Assyria" and excluded Eber-Nari. Despite a few rebellions, Aθurā functioned as an important part of the Achaemenid Empire and its inhabitants were given the right to govern themselves throughout Achaemenid rule and Old Aramaic was used diplomatically by the Achaemenids. Known for their combat skills, Assyrian soldiers constituted the main heavy infantry of the Achaemenid military. Due to the major destruction of Assyria during the fall of its empire, some early scholars described the area as an "uninhabited wasteland." Other Assyriologists, such as John Curtis and Simo Parpola, have disputed this claim, citing how Assyria would become one of the wealthiest regions among the Achaemenid Empire. This wealth was due to the land's great prosperity for agriculture that the Achaemenids used for 200 years.
In contrast to the policy of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the Achaemenid Persians did not intervene in the internal affairs of their ruling satrapies as long as they continued the flow of tribute and taxes back to Persia. Between the mid 14th centuries and late 11th century BC, again between the late 10th and late 7th centuries BC, the respective Middle Assyrian Empire and Neo-Assyrian Empire dominated the Middle East militarily, culturally and politically, the Persians and their neighbours the Medes, Parthians and Manneans were vassals of Assyria and paid tribute. In the late 7th century BC, the Assyrian empire descended into a period of civil war in 626 BC, which drastically weakened it, led to a number of its former subject peoples; the Battle of Nineveh in 612 BC left Assyria destroyed for years to come. The Assyrians continued to fight on, with the aid of another of their former vassals, Egypt who feared the rise of these new powers. A costly but victorious Battle at Megiddo against the forces of Judah allowed the Egyptians to advance to the rescue, only to be defeated by the Babylonian-Median-Scythian alliance.
Harran, the new Assyrian capital, was taken in 609 BC, thus ending the empire. Despite this, part of the remnants of the former Assyrian army continued to fight on, along with Egypt, until final defeat at Carchemish in 605 BC. Babylonian rule did not last long. In 539, Cyrus the Great defeated the Babylonian King Nabonidus, took Babylon and made it, along with Assyria, into provinces of the Persian Empire; the former major Assyrian capitals of Nineveh, Dur Sharrukin and Kalhu were only sparsely populated during Achaemenid rule. Most Assyrian settlement was in smaller cities and villages at plain level, in the mountains, or on mounds such as Tell ed-Darim. However, according to more recent Assyriologists such as Georges Roux, cities such as Arrapkha and Arbela remained intact, Ashur was to revive. Despite many of the Assyrian cities being left in ruins from the battles that led to the fall of its empire in the 7th century BC, rural Assyria was prosperous according to the Greek scholar Xenophon.
After passing Kalhu and Nineveh and the Greeks turned north-west, following the east bank of the Tigris River. He described rural Assyria as:..there was an abundance of corn in the villages, found a palace, with many villages round about it... In these villages they remained for three days, not only for the sake of the wounded, but because they had provisions in abundance – flour and great stores of barley, collected for horses, all these supplies having been gathered together by the acting satrap of the district; the testimony is an example of the rich agricultural resources of Assyria's region and the existence of a satrap's palace. It is not known where this palace was located, but Layard suggest it may have been near Zakho. An inscription found in Egypt, written by Arsames, describes Assyrian cities that obtained administrative centres under Achaemenid rule: Lair: Assyrian Lahiru, by the Diyala Valley Arzuhina: Tell Chemchemal, 40 kilometers east of Kirkuk Arbela Halsu: Location unknown Matalubash: Assyrian Ubaše (Te
Satrapy of Armenia
The Satrapy of Armenia (Armenian: Սատրապական Հայաստան Satrapakan Hayastan. Its capitals were Tushpa and Erebuni. After the collapse of the Kingdom of Urartu, the region was placed under the administration of the Median Empire and the Scythians; the territory was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire, which incorporated it as a satrapy, thus named it the land of "Armina". The Orontid Dynasty, or known by their native name, Eruandid or Yervanduni, was a hereditary dynasty of ancient Armenia, the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu. Historians state that the dynasty was of Iranian origin, suggest, albeit not that it held dynastic familial linkages to the ruling Achaemenid dynasty. Throughout their existence, the Orontids stressed their lineage from the Achaemenids in order to strengthen their political legitimacy. Members of the dynasty ruled Armenia intermittently during the period spanning from the 6th to at least the 2nd centuries BC, first as client kings or satraps of the Median and Achaemenid empires and after the collapse of the Achaemenid empire, as rulers of an independent kingdom, as kings of Sophene and Commagene, which succumbed to the Roman Empire.
The Orontids established their supremacy over Armenia around the time of the Scythian and Median invasion in the 6th century BC. Its founder was Orontes I Sakavakyats, his son, Tigranes Orontid, killed Media's king. Moses of Chorene called him "the wisest, most powerful and bravest of Armenian kings." From 553 BC to 521 BC, Armenia was a subject kingdom of the Achaemenid Empire, but when Darius I was king, he decided to conquer Armenia. He sent an Armenian named Dâdarši to stop a revolt against Persian rule replacing him with the Persian general, who defeated the Armenians in 521 BC. Around the same time, another Armenian by the name of Arakha, son of Haldita, claimed to be the son of the last king of Babylon and renamed himself Nebuchadnezzar IV, his rebellion was short was suppressed by Intaphrenes, Darius' bow carrier. After the Battle of Gaugamela, Orontes III was able to regain independence for Armenia, but in 201 BC, Armenia was conquered by Artashes, a general from the Seleucid Empire, said to be a member of Orontid dynasty.
The last Orontid king Orontes IV was killed, but the Orontids continued to rule in Sophene and Commagene until the 1st century BC. In two inscriptions of king Antiochus I of Commagene on his monument at Mount Nemrut, Orontes I, is reckoned as an ancestor of the Orontids ruling over Commagene, who traced back their family to Darius the Great. Orontid Dynasty Urartu Achaemenid Empire Kingdom of Armenia