Draughts or Checkers is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces. Draughts developed from alquerque; the name derives from the verb to move. The most popular forms are English draughts called American checkers, played on an 8×8 checkerboard. There are many other variants played on 8×8 boards. Canadian checkers and Singaporean/Malaysian checkers are played on a 12×12 board. English draughts was weakly solved in 2007 by the team of Canadian computer scientist Jonathan Schaeffer. From the standard starting position, both players can guarantee a draw with perfect play. Draughts is played on opposite sides of the gameboard. One player has the dark pieces. Players alternate turns. A player may not move an opponent's piece. A move consists of moving a piece diagonally to an adjacent unoccupied square. If the adjacent square contains an opponent's piece, the square beyond it is vacant, the piece may be captured by jumping over it.
Only the dark squares of the checkered board are used. A piece may move only diagonally into an unoccupied square; when presented, capturing is mandatory in most official rules, although some rule variations make capturing optional. In all variants, the player without pieces remaining, or who cannot move due to being blocked, loses the game. Uncrowned pieces move one step diagonally forwards, capture an opponent's piece by moving two consecutive steps in the same line, jumping over the piece on the first step. Multiple enemy pieces can be captured in a single turn provided this is done by successive jumps made by a single piece. In English draughts men can jump only forwards; when a man reaches the kings row, it becomes a king, is marked by placing an additional piece on top of the first man, acquires additional powers including the ability to move backwards and capture backwards. Like men, a king can make successive jumps in a single turn provided that each jump captures an enemy man or king.
In international draughts, kings move any distance along unblocked diagonals, may capture an opposing man any distance away by jumping to any of the unoccupied squares beyond it. Because jumped pieces remain on the board until the turn is complete, it is possible to reach a position in a multi-jump move where the flying king is blocked from capturing further by a piece jumped. Flying kings are not used in English draughts. In most non-English languages, draughts is called dame, damas, or a similar term that refers to ladies; the pieces are called men, stones, "peón" or a similar term. In these languages, the queen in chess or in card games is called by the same term as the kings in draughts. A case in point includes the Greek terminology, in which draughts is called "ντάμα", one term for the queen in chess. Column draughts is a kind of draughts, known in Russia since the beginning of the nineteenth century, in which the game is played according to the usual rules of draughts, but with the difference that the beaten draught is not removed from the playing field, is captured under the beating figure.
The resulting towers move around the board as a whole, "obeying" the upper draught. When taking the tower, only the upper draught is removed from it. If on the top there is a draught of other color than removed as a result of fight, the tower becomes a tower of the rival. Rules of moves of draughts and kings correspond to the rules of Russian draughts. Russian Wikipedia article on Russian Column draughts The World Championship in English draughts began in 1840; the winners in men's have been from the United Kingdom, United States and most Italy. The women's championship in English draughts started in 1993; the women's winners have been from Ireland and Ukraine. The World Championship in international draughts began in 1885 in France, since 1948 has been organized by the World Draughts Federation, it occurs every two years. In years following the tournament, the World Title match takes place; the men's championship has had winners from the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, Senegal and Russia. The first Women's World Championship was held in 1973.
The World Junior Championship has been played since 1971. European Championships have been held since 1965 and 2000. Other official World Championships began as follows: Brazilian draughts, in 1985. Blue and Gray: On a 9×9 board, each side has 17 guard pieces that move and jump in any direction, to escort a captain piece which races to the center of the board to win. Cheskers: A variant invented by Solomon Golomb; each player begins with a bishop and a camel, men reaching the back rank promote to a bishop, camel, or king. Damath: A variant utiliz
Clark Lawrence Anderson is an internist and immunologist. He is Professor Emeritus in the Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Ohio, United States. Anderson studied medicine and biochemistry at the University of Chicago after a grounding in the liberal arts at Brown University and the University of Arizona. Upon being drafted as a physician into the Army during the Vietnam War, he served three years in Germany and continued postgraduate education in internal medicine at the University of Colorado. Subsequent to postdoctoral research in immunochemistry with Richard Farr, Percy Minden, Howard Grey at the National Jewish Hospital in Denver, CO, he joined the faculty at the University of Rochester in 1977. Anderson is married to Carole Ann Anderson, administrator in higher education, former dean of the OSU College of Nursing, the College of Dentistry, the Graduate School; the couple has three daughters. Anderson's academic career, funded continuously for more than 40 years by R01 grants from the National Institutes of Health, has focused on how Immunoglobulin G antibodies mediate their cell biological effects through the family of Fcγ receptors.
His research contributions to biomedicine and immunology fall into four major groups: 1. The Fcγ Receptor family of molecules. Anderson's early work on identifying and characterizing the high affinity FcγRI and low affinity FcγRII for IgG on human monocytes and other cells was aided by his development of monoclonal antibodies to both of these receptors, mab 32.2 to the former in collaboration with Michael Fanger and Paul Guyre, mab IV.3 to the latter in collaboration with R. John Looney. To facilitate the clinical application of these antibodies, Anderson enabled the establishment by Fanger and Guyre of Medarex, Inc. a biotech company since acquired by Bristol-Myers Squibb for 2.4 billion $US. Further studies by Anderson showed FcRI to be associated with the FcRγ chain, that both receptors upon clustering mediated intracellular kinase cascades that triggered various biological effects; this early work catalyzed an avalanche of studies that have allowed the elaboration of the FcγR family of proteins, now known to consist of several genes, over 20 transcripts, at least 9 expressed protein receptors.
2. IgG turnover mediated by the neonatal Fc receptor Anderson, reading the published work of others describing IgG deficiency in the beta2-microglobulin knock out mouse, realized that this strain was IgG deficient not because of low IgG production but because of rapid IgG degradation due to an FcRn deficiency, he formally affirmed this explanation by measuring the serum IgG decay rate in this KO strain. Brambell’s prediction of the 1960s was thus confirmed, that a single Fc receptor served both to transport IgG across the placenta and to divert IgG from degradation; this high affinity characteristic of IgG for FcRn is exploited by the drug industry to prolong the lifespan of protein drugs. 3. Albumin homeostasis mediated by FcRn. Anderson observed in vitro in detergent solution that albumin co-purified with a soluble variant of FcRn in equimolar proportions, realized that FcRn prolongs the half-life of albumin as it does IgG, thus explaining the lengthy lifespan of albumin in humans and lab animals.
He formally affirmed this conclusion analyzing albumin decay in b2m and FcRn KO mouse strains, showed that the two ligands bound to FcRn at different sites, that the stoichiometric ratio of the IgG:FcRn:albumin interaction was 2:1:1, that comparison of the published sequences of FcRn in many species suggested that albumin bound to FcRn near the A peptide pocket, that the site on albumin responsible for interaction was the III domain. Co-crystal studies by others have confirmed these conclusions. Kinetic studies indicate that the evolution of FcRn was a great boon to metabolic economy: Were it not for the presence of FcRn the mouse would require a liver twice as large and an immune system five times larger to maintain albumin and IgG concentrations The albumin-FcRn interaction described by Anderson has been exploited by the pharmaceutical industry to prolong the lifespan of protein drugs. 4. The removal of small particles from blood by liver sinusoidal endothelium Anderson serendipitously observed that an astonishingly high fraction of the body’s FcγRIIb was expressed in the sinusoidal endothelium of the liver.
This receptor earlier had been studied only as an inhibitory molecule of the immune system. Rigorously exploring this observation, his laboratory found that 70% of the total body content of FcγRIIb is expressed in the sinusoidal endothelium, his lab demonstrated in mice that HIV particles, in the absence of antibody opsonization, are taken up from blood and degraded by the liver sinusoidal endothelium at a rate of 100 million per minute. These cells take up other viruses and
Nekselø is a small Danish island in the Kattegat off the west coast of Zealand in the Bay of Sejrø. Nekselø is part of Kalundborg Municipality; as of 1 January 2010, it has a population of 20. Nekselø consists of an impressive row of hills which culminates at a height of 41 meters at Elmebjerg and Gadebjerg; the cliffs on the west coast are characterised by bushes shaped by the winds. On the east coast, there are coastal meadows and grasslands with woodlands in between, presenting a variety of tree species; the island is a popular venue for tourists. There are ferry connections. Cars are not allowed on the island; because of its special nature, the entire island was listed in 1951. Human traffic is prohibited outside the official nature paths from 1 April to 15 July, when birds are breeding. Sejerø List of islands of Denmark Nekselø Official homepage of the residents association
Morris Daniel "Mo" McHone is a former coach for the Sioux Falls Skyforce, a professional team in the NBA Development League. He is a former NBA basketball coach and assistant coach. McHone served as an assistant coach for the San Antonio Spurs for several seasons under coach Stan Albeck, replacing him in 1983 when Albeck took a job with the New Jersey Nets. However, McHone only lasted 31 games, was fired midway through the season after posting an 11-20 record, he was replaced by then-GM Bob Bass. McHone served as an assistant coach for the Cleveland Cavaliers during the 1979–80 season, under head coach George Karl during the 1985–86 season, he served as an assistant coach for the Detroit Pistons and the Los Angeles Clippers. McHone has coached for several teams in the Continental Basketball Association and NBA D-League, has served as head coach of the United States Men's National Basketball Team for several stints. McHone is best known for his multiple stints as coach of the Sioux Falls Skyforce, both in the Continental Basketball Association and the NBA D-League.
He coached the team from 1995-1999 in the CBA, twice in the D-League, winning the CBA Championship in 1996. He has a combined 180-124 record with the Skyforce. However, in August 2012 the Skyforce appointed Joel Abelson as the 15th Head coach of the franchise. In between his time with the Skyforce, he was named Director of Basketball Development for the Austin Toros of the NBA Development League. NBA Development League bio BasketballReference.com: Morris McHone
"Chuck Versus Agent X" is the 22nd episode of the fourth season of the American action-comedy television series Chuck, the 76th overall episode of the series. The episode was directed by Robert Duncan McNeill, it aired on May 2, 2011. In the episode, Chuck Bartowski's bachelor party turns up some uninvited guests. Meanwhile, Ellie Bartowski-Woodcomb discovers the true identity of Agent X while investigating her father Stephen's computer. "Chuck Versus Agent X" received positive reviews from critics. According to the Nielsen ratings system, it drew 4.097 million viewers, the second-lowest number in Chuck's history, after "Chuck Versus the Family Volkoff". It had a 2.5/4 share among all households and 1.4/4 share among those aged 18–49. As Chuck Bartowski contemplates confronting his sister Ellie about her secret research into their late father Stephen's laptop and his fiancée Sarah Walker prepare for their bachelor and bachelorette parties. At her bachelorette party, hosted by Ellie, Sarah is notified by General Diane Beckman that Stephen's laptop is being tracked by Volkoff Industries agents Riley and Jasmine, due to the imprisonment of international arms dealer Alexei Volkoff, are now under the leadership of Volkoff's daughter Vivian.
Thinking that Riley and Jasmine are going to arrive at Ellie's apartment, Sarah tells Ellie that Chuck knows Ellie lied to him and still has the laptop. However and Sarah realize that the laptop has been mistakenly taken by Ellie's husband Devon Woodcomb to Chuck's bachelor party. Meanwhile, despite Chuck and his guests' belief that Devon was hosting Chuck's bachelor party in Las Vegas, they are taken to Las Vecas National Park; as some of the guests attempt to escape the camping trip, they are ambushed by Riley's mercenaries, who are tracking the laptop Devon unknowingly brought with him. Chuck and his friends escape; when Chuck returns, he and Ellie tell each other the truth, with Ellie revealing that she is still investigating her father's research, Chuck revealing that he is still a CIA agent. Chuck brings Ellie to Castle and demonstrates martial arts skills from the Intersect; when Chuck claims to be Agent X, the first human Intersect, Ellie informs him that, according to the laptop, someone had uploaded the Intersect to their brain before Chuck's birth.
After Chuck repairs the computer, they find a redacted file on British scientist Hartley Winterbottom. Chuck and John Casey travel to Winterbottom's home in Somerset, UK, confront Winterbottom's mother, who blames the CIA for corrupting her son. However, Chuck is revealed to be Stephen Bartowski's son, earning her trust, as Hartley and Stephen were once colleagues and close friends; when Riley and Jasmine arrive with an assault team, Mrs. Winterbottom sends Chuck and Sarah to retrieve Hartley's "spy will" while she and Casey fight back the assault team; when they run out of ammunition, Mrs. Winterbottom sets a trap that explodes and kills Jasmine and the assault team; when Ellie, Sarah and Morgan Grimes return to the Castle, open Hartley's spy will, they discover a photograph of Volkoff, realizing that Volkoff is Agent X - Hartley. Startled, the team reads the files on his last mission; the personality and knowledge of Volkoff was uploaded into the prototype Intersect by Stephen Bartowski and downloaded into the mind of Hartley so he could use it as a cover.
However, the prototype Intersect was so unstable that the Volkoff personality pushed out and replaced Hartley’s own identity. Subsumed by his new identity Hartley, as Volkoff, established his criminal empire. With the realization, Casey closes the spy will and orders everyone to keep quiet about this, since the information about CIA creating its "own worst enemy" was hidden and buried to ensure secrecy, that they will be most eliminated if anything is told. However, Ellie objects and dedicates herself to help Volkoff restore his identity, to which Chuck agrees. Casey grudgingly and reluctantly supports them, before sealing the will in a secret safe deep in the Castle. "Chuck Versus Agent X" was one of many episodes to be directed by producer Robert Duncan McNeill, was written by Phil Klemmer and Craig DiGregorio. It aired in the United States on May 2, 2011, on NBC as the 22nd episode of Chuck's fourth season and the 76th episode overall. Chuck cast members revealed at the 2011 Chicago Comic & Entertainment Expo that the season would include a "funny, camping-themed" bachelor party episode featuring Casey, Big Mike, the fictional band Jeffster!.
The cast confirmed that Ray Wise would reprise his role of Alexei Volkoff's lawyer, Riley. India de Beaufort guest starred as Jasmine, Millicent Martin as Hartley Winterbottom's mother. Sarah Lancaster revealed to IGN that the Snakes of Toluca Lake, the strippers which Ellie hires for Sarah, were played by the real-life Hollywood Men. Lancaster enjoyed filming the scene, which took hours to perform due to Yvonne Strahovski's discomfort. Strahovski stated that the men became "bolder" with each take moving closer to her. Principal photography for "Chuck Versus Agent X" ended on April 10. Series co-creator Chris Fedak stated in a interview that the inspiration for Volkoff's true identity being a gun-shy British scientist was Timothy Dalton's portrayal of Gregory Tuttle, Volkoff's guise as Mary Elizabeth Bartowski's MI6 handler, in his f
A slug is a gastropod mollusk without a shell or with a small internal shell. Slug or slugs may refer to: Slug, a counterfeit coin Slug, a solid ballistic projectile Slug, an accessory to a diesel-electric locomotive Slug or blank, a piece of bar stock ready to be machined into a finished part Slug, a short name given in newspaper editing to articles that are in production Slug, a piece of spacing material used in typesetting to space paragraphs Slug, a user- and SEO-friendly short text used in a URL to identify and describe a resource Slug, a villain in the Marvel Comics universe Lord Slug, the main antagonist of the fourth Dragon Ball Z movie Slugs, based on the Shaun Hutson novel Slugs, German film Slug, an American noise rock band Slug, a British art-rock band Slugs, the backing group of Doug and the Slugs, a Canadian pop music group "Slug", a 1995 song by Passengers "Slug", a bonus song on the 1990 compilation album All the Stuff Volume Two by The Ramones SLUG Magazine, Salt Lake Under Ground magazine Slugs, a 1982 novel by Shaun Hutson The Slug, a pop culture blog for the defunct web portal asap Slug, a unit of mass in the Imperial system Grex, an aggregation of amoebae Slug, a nickname for the Linksys NSLU2 Slugs, an open-source autopilot system oriented toward inexpensive autonomous aircraft Slug, another name for Chinese handball Slugs, a nickname of the Buffalo Sabres National Hockey League team - see List of ice hockey nicknames Slugs, a nickname for the UC Santa Cruz Banana Slugs, the sports teams of the University of California, Santa Cruz Slug, an underground rapper best known as a member of the hip-hop group Atmosphere Ray Jordon, Australian cricketer, nicknamed Slug Steve Russell, American computer scientist, creator of the early video game Spacewar!, nicknamed Slug Slug Signorino and designer Michele Signorino, most notable for his cartoons in The Straight Dope Casimir Witucki, American National Football League player, nicknamed Slug "Slug road", a colloquial name for the A957 roadway in eastern Scotland, UK Slug, a synonym for punch The Slug, a derogatory nickname for The Cloud, Auckland, a multi-purpose event venue in Auckland, New Zealand Slugger Slugging, a carpooling