Dravidan (1989 film)
Dravidan is a 1989 Tamil film starring Sathyaraj and Suparna Anand. This was Sathyaraj's 99th film, it was released on a Diwali day along with his 100th film Vaathiyaar Veettu Pillai. The film was the remake of Malayalam blockbuster Aryan starring Mohanlal directed by Priyadarshan; the film generated curiosity as two of his movies got released on the same festival day. The film received negative reviews and fail to repeat success achieved by original one. Sathyaraj Vidhyashree Ambika Suparna Anand Jaishankar Sharat Saxena Jaiganesh Goga Kapoor Hareesh Nizhalgal Ravi S. S. Chandran Somayajulu Vijayakumar Vinu Chakravarthy Rajyalakshmi Devilalitha Srividya Soundtrack was composed by M. S. Viswanathan. Yen Indha Kelvi - TM Soundarrajan Dhool Kelappudhu - Vani Jayaram Anbe Vaa - Mano, Suja Radhakrishnan Netriyil - SPB, Sunandha The film was a critical as well as commercial failure at the box office
Dravidian studies is the academic field devoted to the Dravidian languages and culture. It is a subset of South Asian studies; the 16th to 18th century missionaries who wrote Tamil grammars or lexica include Henrique Henriques, Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg and Constantino Giuseppe Beschi. The recognition that the Dravidian languages were a phylogenetic unit separate from Indo-European dates to 1816, was presented by F. W. Ellis, Collector of Madras, at the College of Fort St. George; the 19th century contributors to the field of Dravidology were: The noted Dravidologists from the twentieth century are: The Dravidian University at Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh has created Chairs in the names of Western and Dravidian scholars to encourage research in individual Dravidian languages as well as comparative Dravidian studies: Bishop Caldwell's Chair for Dravidian Studies C. P. Brown's Chair for Telugu Studies Kittel Chair for Kannada Studies Constantine Beschi Chair for Tamil Studies Gundert Chair for Malayalam Studies.
Indology Proto-Dravidian Elamo-Dravidian Robert Caldwell, Comparative Grammar of Dravidian Languages. Bhadriraju Krishnamurti; the Dravidian Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521771110. Thomas R. Trautmann and nations: the Dravidian proof in colonial Madras, University of California Press, 2006, ISBN University of California Press, 2006. Murray Barnson Emeneau. Dravidian Studies: Selected Papers. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120808584. Dravidian studies in the Netherlands, IIAS newsletter Extracts from T. R. Sesha Iyengar's "Dravidian India" by Dr. Samar Abbas, Bhubaneshwar, 4/8/2003 Literary Contributions of select list of Tamil Scholars from Overseas Roja Muthiah Research Library
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam is a regional political party formed by Tamil film actor Vijayakanth in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, along the lines of the regional Dravidian parties, on 14 September 2005 at Madurai. The party head office is in Chennai; this party contested in all 234 seats in the state elections in May 2006 with Vijayakanth contesting in Vridhachalam. The party polled 30 lakh votes. All the candidates of the DMDK, with the sole exception of Vijayakanth, lost the elections in 2006. In by-elections to Madurai Central assembly constituency, DMDK secured around 17,000 votes, 2,000 votes less than All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. DMDK was able to secure a large number of seats in Local Body elections. Vijaykanth and his party contested in the 2009 Lok Sabha polls as an independent party in all 39 constituencies in the state, winning no seats; the party won 29 seats in the 2011 assembly election and became the official opposition party with Vijayakanth as the Opposition Leader.
DMDK contested all 39 seats independently in Tamil Nadu in the 15th Lok Sabha election and lost all of them. The party, made strong inroads in the heartland of Pattali Makkal Katchi; the party polled 30.73 lakh votes of the total of 3.02 crore valid votes polled in the state representing a vote share of 10.09%. This is higher than the 8.38% vote share polled by him during the 2006 assembly election. It polled more than one lakh votes in nine constituencies, more than 75,000 in 19 constituencies and more than 50,000 in 35 constituencies including Puducherry. Though his party did not win any seat, it appears to have made the difference between winning and losing for several candidates by having a vote share larger than the margin of victory. Except LK Sudhish and Austin in Kanyakumari and K Pandiarajan in Virudhunagar constituency, none of the other candidates had a standing of their own and observers believe the votes polled by him indicate the public support for his candidacy. DMDK had remained unaligned and contested all the previous elections independently until 2011 election.
In an effort — claimed by the party — to defeat the ruling Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, it allied with Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam front in a decision made on 25 February 2011. It won 29 of the 41 seats contested making it a second largest party in Tamil Nadu next only to its ally ADMK pushing DMK to third position. Thus, the party became the official opposition party with Vijayakanth becoming the opposition leader; the large victory earned recognition and a permanent election symbol from the election commission. On 21 February 2016 Vijayakanth lost leader of opposition post after 8 DMDK party MLA's resigned. DMDK fought Lok Sabha Election through an alliance with BJP led NDA. MDMK, PMK, KMDK and IJK led. In the NDA alliance, this party is the one with highest number of seats. Despite of big hype, the party lost all 14 seats to AIADMK candidates, but this is the first time in 52 years that DMK alliance was pushed to third place by the number of seats and this election had given the confidence to most parties that future of Tamil Nadu lies in coalition government.
For the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly election, 2016, the DMDK has decided to contest the polls along with the People's Welfare Front – an alliance of four parties including CPI, CPI, Vaiko’s MDMK and Thol Thirumavalavan’s Dalit party VCK, as known as Captain Vijayakanth Alliance The DMDK performed poorly in the election by not winning a single constituency and losing deposit in majority of its places. DMDK witnessed a vote swing of -5.8% from 2011 General elections. DMDK is contesting lok sabha elections with All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam -Bharatiya Janata Party front in Tamil Nadu for the upcoming Lok Sabha polls. After several rounds of talks with different political parties, atlast DMDK got four seats in the NDA alliance; the move comes after the DMDK’s attempts to make an alliance with the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, which has entered into a pre-poll alliance with the Congress and several others, failed. Captain Vijayakanth wants to prove his vote bank strength in this election.
On March 18th 2019, Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam has announced its list of four candidates for the Lok Sabha elections. Azhagarsamy will contest polls from Virudhunagar, LK Sudhish from Kallakurichi, Ilankovan from Tiruchi and Mohan Raj from Azhagapuram. Vijaykanth's interview to rediff.com தேமுதிக Official Facebook Link
The Self-Respect Movement is a South Asian movement with the aim of achieving a society where backward castes have equal human rights, encouraging backward castes to have self-respect in the context of a caste-based society that considered them to be a lower end of the hierarchy. It was founded in 1925 by S. Ramanathan who invited E. V. Ramasamy to head the movement in Tamil Nadu, India against Brahminism; the movement was influential not just in Tamil Nadu, but overseas in countries with large Tamil populations, such as Malaysia and Singapore. Among Singapore Indians, groups like the Tamil Reform Association, leaders such as Thamizhavel G. Sarangapani were prominent in promoting the principles of the Self-Respect Movement among the local Tamil population through schools and publications. A number of political parties in Tamil Nadu, such as Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam owe their origins to the Self-respect movement, the latter a 1972 breakaway from the DMK.
Both parties are populist with a social democratic orientation. Periyar was convinced that if man developed self respect, he would automatically develop individuality and would refuse to be led by the nose by schemers. One of his most known quotes on Self-Respect was, "we are fit to think of'self-respect' only when the notion of'superior' and'inferior' caste is banished from our land". Periyar did not expect personal or material gain out of this movement, he used to recall in a casual manner that as a human being, he was obligated to this duty, as it was the right and freedom to choose this work. Thus, he opted to engage himself in promoting the movement. Periyar declared that the Self-Respect Movement alone could be the genuine freedom movement, political freedom would not be fruitful without individual self-respect, he remarked that the so-called'Indian freedom fighters' were showing disrespect of self-respect, this was an irrational philosophy. Periyar observed that political freedom as conceived by nationalists such as Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru and others did not cover individual self-respect.
To him neither revival of the original spirit of Hindu religion and ancient traditions which formed part of Gandhi's conception of freedom, nor complete liberation from the British rule, considered by Nehru to be the meaning of freedom or both of them together could ensure individual self-respect or the eradication of social ills from Indian society. In his opinion, the task of fulfilling the need for self-respect would have to be faced whatever be the extent of political freedom gained. Pointing out that the British monarch in a sovereign independent nation had no freedom to marry a person of his choice and had to abdicate his kingdom, Periyar raised a question whether Gandhi's vision of freedom or Nehru's concept of independence contained an iota of individual self-respect. Periyar believed that self-respect was as valuable as life itself and its protection is a birthright and not swaraj, he described the movement as Arivu Vidutalai Iyakkam. The terms tan-maanam or suya mariyadai meaning'self-respect' are traceable in ancient Tamil literature considered a virtue of high valor in Tamil society.
Periyar once claimed that to describe the ideology of his movement, no dictionary or language in the entire world could provide a word better than or equal to suya mariyadai. Started as a movement to promote rational behavior, the Self-Respect Movement acquired much wider connotation within a short period of time. Periyar, speaking with M. K. Reddy at the First Self-Respect Conference held in 1929, explained the significance of self-respect and its principles; the main principles of the Self-Respect Movement in society were to be: no kind of inequality among people. Equality with stress on economic and social equality formed the central theme of the Self-Respect Movement and was due to Periyar's determination to fight the inequalities ingrained in the caste system as well as certain religious practices. Working on the theme of liberating the society from the baneful social practices perpetrated in the name of dharma and karma, Periyar developed the idea of establishing this movement as the instrument for achieving his objective.
Tamil Brahmins were held responsible by followers of Periyar for direct or indirect oppression of lower-caste people and resulted in attacks on Brahmins, among other causes, started a wave of mass-migration of the Brahmin population. Periyar, in regard to a DK member's attempt to assassinate Rajagopalachari, "expressed his abhorrence of violence as a means of settling political differences", but many suggest. One of the major sociological changes introduced through the self-respect movement was the self-respect marriage system, whereby marriages were conducted without being officiated by a Brahmin priest. Periyar had regarded the conventional marriages as mere financial arrangements and caused great debt through dowry; the Self-Respect movement encouraged inter-caste marriages, replacing arranged marriages by love marriages that are not constrained by caste. It was argued by the proponents of self-respect marr
Indian martial arts
Indian martial arts refers to the fighting systems of the Indian subcontinent. A variety of terms are used for the English phrases “Indian martial arts” deriving from Dravidian sources. While they may seem to imply specific disciplines, by Classical times they were used generically for all fighting systems. Among the most common terms today, śastra-vidyā, is a compound of the words śastra and vidyā. Dhanurveda derives from the words for bow and knowledge, the “science of archery” in Puranic literature applied to martial arts in general; the Vishnu Purana text describes dhanuveda as one of the traditional eighteen branches of “applied knowledge” or upaveda, along with shastrashastra or military science. A term, yuddha kalā, comes from the words yuddha meaning fight or combat and kalā meaning art or skill; the related term śastra kalā refers to armed disciplines. Another term, yuddha-vidyā or “combat knowledge”, refers to the skills used on the battlefield, encompassing not only actual fighting but battle formations and strategy.
Martial arts are learnt and practiced in the traditional akharas. While it is only a theory as of now, it should be noted that Shaolin Kung Fu could be of Indian origin, it has been found in many historical scripts of the Gupta period, that the Indian Emperor Chandragupta Vikramaditya and his army travelled to Tibetan China and afterwards, returned to India, at the same time period as when Shaolin Kung Fu began. An Indus valley civilization seal show two men spearing one another in a duel which seem to be centered on a woman. A statue of a spear thrower was excavated from an Indus valley site. Dhanurveda, a section found in the Vedas contains references to martial arts. Indian epics contain the earliest accounts of combat, both bare-handed. Most deities of the Hindu-Buddhist pantheon are armed with their own personal weapon, are revered not only as master martial artists but as originators of those systems themselves; the Mahabharata tells of fighters armed only with daggers besting lions, describes a prolonged battle between Arjuna and Karna using bows, trees and fists.
Another unarmed battle in the Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. The oldest recorded organized unarmed fighting art in the Indian subcontinent is malla-yuddha or combat-wrestling, codified into four forms in the Vedic Period. Stories describing Krishna report that he sometimes engaged in wrestling matches where he used knee strikes to the chest, punches to the head, hair pulling, strangleholds. Based on such accounts, Svinth traces press-ups and squats used by Indian wrestlers to the pre-classical era. In Sanskrit literature the term dwandwayuddha referred to a duel, such that it was a battle between only two warriors and not armies. Epics describe the duels between deities and god-like heroes as lasting a month or more; the malla-yuddha between Bhima and Jarasandha lasts 27 days. The dwandayuddha between Parasurama and Bhishma lasts for 30 days, while that between Krishna and Jambavan lasts for 28 days.
The dwandwayudda between Bali and Dundubhi, a demon in the form of a water buffalo, lasts for 45 days. The Manusmriti tells that if a warrior's topknot comes loose during such a fight or duel, the opponent must give him time to bind his hair before continuing; the Charanavyuha authored by Shaunaka mentions four upaveda. Included among them are archery and military sciences, the mastery of, the duty of the warrior class. Kings belonged to the kshatria class and thus served as heads of the army, they practiced archery, wrestling and swordsmanship as part of their education. Examples include such rulers as Siddhartha Rudradaman; the Chinese monk Xuanzang writes that the emperor Harsha was light on his feet despite his advancing age and managed to dodge and seize an assailant during an assassination attempt. Many of the popular sports mentioned in the Vedas and the epics have their origins in military training, such as boxing, chariot-racing, horse-riding and archery. Competitions were held not just as a contest of the players' prowess but as a means of finding a bridegroom.
Arjuna and Siddhartha Gautama all won their consorts in such tournaments. In the 3rd century, elements from the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, as well as finger movements in the nata dances, were incorporated into the fighting arts. A number of Indian fighting styles remain connected to yoga and performing arts; some of the choreographed sparring in kalaripayat can be applied to dance and kathakali dancers who knew kalaripayat were believed to be markedly better than other performers. Until recent decades, the chhau dance was performed only by martial artists; some traditional Indian classical dance schools still incorporate martial arts as part of their exercise regimen. Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD; the Akananuru and Purananuru describe the use of spears, shields and silambam in the Sangam era. The word kalari appears in the Akam to describe both a battlefield and combat arena; the word kalari tatt denoted a martial feat.
Each warrior in the Sangam era received regular military training in target practice and horse riding. They specialized
Dravidian people or Dravidians, are speakers of any of the Dravidian languages. There are around 245 million native speakers of Dravidian languages. Dravidian speakers form the majority of the population of South India and are natively found in India, Afghanistan, the Maldives and Sri Lanka. Proto-Dravidian may have been spoken in the Indus civilization, suggesting a "tentative date of Proto-Dravidian around the early part of the third millennium," where-after it branched into various Dravidian languages. South Dravidian I and South Dravidian II split around the eleventh century BCE, with the other major branches splitting off at around the same time; the origins of the Dravidians are a "very complex subject of research and debate." They may have been indigenous to the Indian subcontinent, but origins in, or influence from, West-Asia have been proposed. Their origins are regarded to be connected with the Indus Valley Civilisation, from where people and language spread east- and southwards after the demise of the Indus Valley Civilisation early 2nd century BCE, concurrently with Indo-Aryan speakers, with whom they intensively interacted.
From these interactions and migrations arose the socalled "Hindus synthesis," after 500 BCE. The third century BCE onwards saw the development of large Dravidian empires. Medieval Tamil guilds and trading organisations like the "Ayyavole and Manigramam" played an important role in the Southeast Asia trade, and the cultural Indianisation of the region. Dravidian visual art is dominated by stylised Temple architecture in major centres, the production of images of stone and bronze sculptures; the sculptures dating from the Chola period has become notable as a symbol of Hinduism. The origin of the Sanskrit word drāviḍa is the word tamiẓ; the Sanskrit word drāviḍa is used to denote the geographical region of South India. In Prakrit, words such as "Damela", "Dameda", "Dhamila" and "Damila," which evolved from "Tamila," could have been used to denote an ethnic identity. Epigraphic evidence of an ethnic group termed as such is found in ancient India where a number of inscriptions have come to light datable from the 6th to the 5th century BCE mentioning Damela or Dameda persons.
The Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga ruler Kharavela refers to a Tmira samghata dated to 150 BCE. It mentions that the league of Tamil kingdoms had been in existence for 113 years by that time. In Amaravati in present-day Andhra Pradesh there is an inscription referring to a Dhamila-vaniya datable to the 3rd century CE. Another inscription of about the same time in Nagarjunakonda seems to refer to a Damila. A third inscription in Kanheri Caves refers to a Dhamila-gharini. In the Buddhist Jataka story known as Akiti Jataka there is a mention to Damila-rattha. Thamizhar is etymologically related to the language spoken by Tamil people. Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miz > tam-iz'self-speak', or'one's own speech'. Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iz, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", "-iz" having the connotation of "unfolding sound". Alternatively, he suggests a derivation of tamiz < tam-iz < *tav-iz < *tak-iz, meaning in origin "the proper process." The term Thamizhar was derived from the name of the ancient people Tamilar > Tamila > Damila > Dramila > Dravida.
While the English word Dravidian was first employed by Robert Caldwell in his book of comparative Dravidian grammar based on the usage of the Sanskrit word drāviḍa in the work Tantravārttika by Kumārila Bhaṭṭa, the word drāviḍa in Sanskrit has been used to denote geographical regions of Southern India as whole. Some theories concern the direction of derivation between tamiẓ and drāviḍa; the modern word Dravidian is devoid of any ethnic significance, is only used to classify a linguistic family of the referred group. The largest-Dravidian ethnic groups are the Telugus from Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, the Tamils from Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka and Singapore, the Kannadigas from Karnataka, the Malayalis from Kerala, the Tulu people from Karnataka. Certain communities of Marathis from Maharashtra are considered as Scytho-Dravidians; the most spoken Dravidian languages are Telugu, Kannada, Brahui, Tulu and Coorg. There are three subgroups within the Dravidian language family: North Dravidian, Central Dravidian, South Dravidian, matching for the most part the corresponding regions in the Indian subcontinent.
Dravidian grammatical impact on the structure and syntax of Indo-Aryan languages is considered far greater than the Indo-Aryan grammatical impact on Dravidian. Some linguists explain this anomaly by arguing that Middle Indo-Aryan and New Indo-Aryan were built on a Dravidian substratum. There are hundreds of Dravidian loanwords in Indo-Aryan languages, vice versa. According to David McAlpin and his Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis, the Dravidian languages were brought to India by immigration into India from Elam, located in present-day southwestern Iran. In the 1990s, Renfrew and Cavalli-Sforza have argued that Proto-Dravidian was brought to India by farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent, but more Heggerty and Renfrew noted that "McAlpin's analysis of the language data, thus his claims, remain far from orthodoxy", adding that Fuller finds no relation of Dravidian language with other languages, thus assumes it to be native to India. Renfrew and Bahn conclude that several scenarios are compatible with the data, that "the linguistic jury is still muc
Brahmin is a varna in Hinduism specialising as priests and protectors of sacred learning across generations. The traditional occupation of Brahmins was that of priesthood at the Hindu temples or at socio-religious ceremonies and rite of passage rituals such as solemnising a wedding with hymns and prayers. Theoretically, the Brahmins were the highest ranking of the four social classes. In practice, Indian texts suggest that Brahmins were agriculturalists, warriors and have held a variety of other occupations in the Indian subcontinent; the earliest inferred reference to "Brahmin" as a possible social class is in the Rigveda, occurs once, the hymn is called Purusha Sukta. According to this hymn in Mandala 10, Brahmins are described as having emerged from the mouth of Purusha, being that part of the body from which words emerge; this Purusha Sukta varna verse is now considered to have been inserted at a date into the Vedic text as a charter myth. Stephanie Jamison and Joel Brereton, a professor of Sanskrit and Religious studies, state, "there is no evidence in the Rigveda for an elaborate, much-subdivided and overarching caste system", "the varna system seems to be embryonic in the Rigveda and, both and a social ideal rather than a social reality".
Ancient texts describing community-oriented Vedic yajna rituals mention four to five priests: the hotar, the adhvaryu, the udgatar, the Brahmin and sometimes the ritvij. The functions associated with the priests were: The Hotri recites invocations and litanies drawn from the Rigveda; the Adhvaryu is the priest's assistant and is in charge of the physical details of the ritual like measuring the ground, building the altar explained in the Yajurveda. The adhvaryu offers oblations; the Udgatri is the chanter of hymns set to melodies and music drawn from the Samaveda. The udgatar, like the hotar, chants the introductory and benediction hymns; the Brahmin recites from the Atharvaveda. The Ritvij is the chief operating priest. According to Kulkarni, the Grhya-sutras state that Yajna, dana pratigraha are the "peculiar duties and privileges of brahmins"; the term Brahmin in Indian texts has signified someone, good and virtuous, not just someone of priestly class. Both Buddhist and Brahmanical literature, states Patrick Olivelle define "Brahmin" not in terms of family of birth, but in terms of personal qualities.
These virtues and characteristics mirror the values cherished in Hinduism during the Sannyasa stage of life, or the life of renunciation for spiritual pursuits. Brahmins, states Olivelle, were the social class; the Dharmasutras and Dharmasatras text of Hinduism describe the expectations and role of Brahmins. The rules and duties in these Dharma texts of Hinduism, are directed at Brahmins; the Gautama's Dharmasutra, the oldest of surviving Hindu Dharmasutras, for example, states in verse 9.54–9.55 that a Brahmin should not participate or perform a ritual unless he is invited to do so, but he may attend. Gautama outlines the following rules of conduct for a Brahmin, in Chapters 8 and 9: Be always truthful Teach his art only to virtuous men Follow rules of ritual purification Study Vedas with delight Never hurt any living creature Be gentle but steadfast Have self-control Be kind, liberal towards everyoneChapter 8 of the Dharmasutra, states Olivelle, asserts the functions of a Brahmin to be to learn the Vedas, the secular sciences, the Vedic supplements, the dialogues, the epics and the Puranas.
The text lists eight virtues that a Brahmin must inculcate: compassion, lack of envy, tranquility, auspicious disposition and lack of greed, asserts in verse 9.24–9.25, that it is more important to lead a virtuous life than perform rites and rituals, because virtue leads to achieving liberation. The Dharma texts of Hinduism such as Baudhayana Dharmasutra add charity, refraining from anger and never being arrogant as duties of a Brahmin; the Vasistha Dharmasutra in verse 6.23 lists discipline, self-control, truthfulness, Vedic learning, erudition and religious faith as characteristics of a Brahmin. In 13.55, the Vasistha text states that a Brahmin must not accept weapons, poison or liquor as gifts. The Dharmasastras such as Manusmriti, like Dharmsutras, are codes focussed on how a Brahmin must live his life, their relationship with a king and warrior class. Manusmriti dedicates 1,034 verses, the largest portion, on laws for and expected virtues of Brahmins, it asserts, for example, A well disciplined Brahmin, although he knows just the Savitri verse, is far better than an undisciplined one who eats all types of food and deals in all types of merchandise though he may know all three Vedas.
John Bussanich states that the ethical precepts set for Brahmins, in ancient Indian texts, are similar to Greek virtue-ethics, that "Manu's dharmic Brahmin can be compared to Aristotle's man of practical wisdom", that "the virtuous Brahmin is not unlike the Platonic-Aristotelian philosopher" with the difference that the latter was not sacerdotal. According to Abraham Eraly, "Brahmin as a varna hardly had any presence in historical records before the Gupta Empire era", when Buddhism dominated the land. "No Brahmin, no sacrifice, no ritualistic act of any kind even once, is referred to" in any Indian texts between third century BCE and