Doreen Edith Dominy Valiente was an English Wiccan, responsible for writing much of the early religious liturgy within the tradition of Gardnerian Wicca. An author and poet, she published five books dealing with Wicca and related esoteric subjects. Born to a middle-class family in Surrey, Valiente began practicing magic while a teenager. Working as a translator at Bletchley Park during the Second World War, she married twice in this period. Developing her interest in occultism after the war, she began practicing ceremonial magic with a friend while living in Bournemouth. Learning of Wicca, in 1953 she was initiated into the Gardnerian tradition by its founder, Gerald Gardner. Soon becoming the High Priestess of Gardner's Bricket Wood coven, she helped him to produce or adapt many important scriptural texts for Wicca, such as The Witches Rune and the Charge of the Goddess, which were incorporated into the early Gardnerian Book of Shadows. In 1957, a schism resulted in Valiente and her followers leaving Gardner in order to form their own short-lived coven.
After investigating the Wiccan tradition of Charles Cardell, she was initiated into Raymond Howard's Coven of Atho in 1963. She went on the following year to work with Robert Cochrane in his coven, the Clan of Tubal Cain, although she broke from this group. Eager to promote and defend her religion, she played a leading role in both the Witchcraft Research Association and the Pagan Front during the 1960s and 1970s; that latter decade saw her involve herself in far right politics as well as becoming a keen ley hunter and proponent of Earth mysteries. As well as writing articles on esoteric topics for various magazines, from the 1960s onward she authored a number of books on the subject of Wicca, as well as contributing to the publication of works by Wiccan friends Stewart Farrar, Janet Farrar, Evan John Jones. In these works she became an early advocate of the idea that anyone could practice Wicca without requiring initiation by a pre-existing Wiccan, while contributing to and encouraging research into the religion's early history.
Living in Brighton during these years, she was a member of the Silver Malkin coven and worked with Ron Cook, both her partner and initiate. In her final years she served as patron of the Sussex-based Centre for Pagan Studies prior to her death from pancreatic cancer. Valiente's magical artefacts and papers were bequeathed to her last High Priest, John Belham-Payne, who donated them to a charitable trust, the Doreen Valiente Foundation, in 2011. Having had a significant influence in the history of Wicca, she is revered in the Wiccan community as "the Mother of Modern Witchcraft", has been the subject of two biographies. Valiente was born Doreen Edith Dominy on 4 January 1922 in the London outer suburb of Colliers Wood, Surrey, her father, Harry Dominy, was a civil engineer, he lived with her mother Edith in Colliers Wood. Harry came from a Methodist background and Edith from a Congregationalist one, however Doreen was never baptised, as was the custom of the time, due to an argument that Edith had had with the local vicar.
Doreen claimed that she had not had a close or affectionate relationship with her parents, whom she characterised as conventional and focused on social climbing. During her childhood they moved to Horley in Surrey, it was there, according to her account, that she had an early spiritual experience while staring at the moon. From there her family moved to the West Country and to the New Forest. In either late 1934 or 1935, Doreen's mother left her father and took her to live with maternal relatives in Southampton. Valiente first began practicing magic aged 13, performing a spell to prevent her mother being harassed by a co-worker, her early knowledge of magical practices may have derived from books that she found in the local library. Her parents sent her to a convent school, she left it at the age of 15, refusing to return. She had wanted to go to art school, but instead gained employment in a factory, before moving on to work as a clerk and typist at the Unemployment Assistance Board. During the Second World War, she became a Foreign Office Civilian Temporary Senior Assistant Officer, in this capacity working as a translator at Bletchley Park.
In relation to this work, she was sent to South Wales, it was there, in the town of Barry, that she met Joanis Vlachopolous, a Greek seaman in the Merchant Navy. Entering a relationship, they were married in East Glamorgan on 31 January 1941. However, in June 1941 he was serving aboard the Pandias when it was sunk by a U-boat off of the West African coast. Widowed, during 1942 and 1943 Valiente had a number of short-term jobs in Wales, which were a cover for intelligence work. After October 1943 she was transferred to the intelligence service's offices in Berkeley Street in the Mayfair area of London, where she was involved in message decryption. In London she met and entered into a relationship with Casimiro Valiente, a Spaniard who had fled from the Spanish Civil War, where he had fought on the side of the Spanish Republican Army before joining the French Foreign Legion, where he was wounded at the Battle of Narvik and evacuated to England, they were married on 29 May 1944 at St Pancras Registry Office.
The couple moved to Bournemouth – where Doreen's mother was living – and here Casimiro worked as a chef. Valiente would say that both she and her husband suffered racism after the war because of their foreign associations. Developing an interest in occultism, she began practicing ceremonial magic with
History of Wicca
The history of Wicca documents the rise of the Neopagan religion of Wicca and related witchcraft-based Neopagan religions. Wicca originated in the early twentieth century, when it developed amongst secretive covens in England who were basing their religious beliefs and practices upon what they read of the historical Witch-Cult in the works of such writers as Margaret Murray, it was subsequently popularised in the 1950s by a number of figures, in particular Gerald Gardner, who claimed to have been initiated into the Craft – as Wicca is known – by the New Forest coven in 1939. Gardner's form of Wicca, the Gardnerian tradition, was spread by both him and his followers like the High Priestesses Doreen Valiente, Patricia Crowther and Eleanor Bone into other parts of the British Isles, into other, predominantly English-speaking, countries across the world. In the 1960s, new figures arose in Britain who popularised their own forms of the religion, including Robert Cochrane, Sybil Leek and Alex Sanders, organisations began to be formed to propagate it, such as the Witchcraft Research Association.
It was during this decade that the faith was transported to the United States, where it was further adapted into new traditions such as Feri, 1734 and Dianic Wicca in the ensuing decades, where organisations such as the Covenant of the Goddess were formed. From the 1970s onward, books began to be published by such figures as Paul Huson, Scott Cunningham, Stewart and Janet Farrar which encouraged self-initiation into the Craft, leading to a boost in the number of adherents and the development of traditions. With the rising popularity of Wicca, it was used as a partial basis for witchcraft-based American films and television shows, further increasing its profile amongst younger people, in the 1990s. Since the early 1990s, historians have published studies and research into the history of Wicca, including the American Aidan Kelly and the Britons Ronald Hutton and Philip Heselton. During the 16th and 17th centuries, a widespread moral panic took place across Europe and the American colonies; the social and political turmoil following periods of widespread crop failure and disease, led to numerous men and women being accused of practicing malevolant witchcraft, which resulted in the witch trials in the early modern period.
The accused were put on trial and alleged to be witches who worshiped the Devil and committed acts of diabolism that included the cannibalism of children and desecration of the Eucharist. Between 40,000 and 60,000 people were executed for witchcraft during this period. Most scholars agree that the witch trials were the result of isolated incidents of hysteria in remote peasant communities. While many of the accused confessed to various acts of magic and Satanism, all did so under threat of torture, historians agree that there is no evidence any of the victims of the trials were practicing any real magic or any non-Christian religious or magical practices. An alternative explanation for the early modern witch trials, known as the Witch-cult hypothesis, was proposed by the German Professor Karl Ernst Jarcke in 1828. Jarcke's hypothesis claimed that the victims of the early modern witch trials were not innocents caught up in a moral panic, but members of a unknown pan-European pagan religion which had pre-dated Christianity, been persecuted by the Christian Church as a rival religion, driven underground, where it had survived in secret until being revealed in the confessions of those accused in the witch trials.
This idea was endorsed by German historian Franz Josef Mone and French historian Jules Michelet. In the late 19th century, variations on this hypothesis were adopted by two Americans, Matilda Joslyn Gage and Charles Leland, the latter of whom promoted it in his 1899 book Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches; the witch-cult hypothesis' most prominent and influential advocate was the English Egyptologist Margaret Murray, who promoted it in a series of books – most notably 1921's The Witch-Cult in Western Europe and 1933's The God of the Witches. Murray's books were the sources of many well-known motifs which have been incorporated into Wicca; the idea that covens should have 13 members was developed by Murray, based on a single witness statement from one of the witch trials, as was her assertion that covens met on the cross-quarter days four times per year. Murray was interested in ascribing naturalistic or religious ceremonial explanations to some of the more fantastic descriptions found in witch trial testimony.
Murray suggested, based in part on the work of James Frazer in The Golden Bough, that the witches accused in the early modern trials were not in fact Satanists, but worshiped a pre-Christian god associated with forests and the natural world. Murray identified this god as Janus, who she described as a "Horned God" of the wilds in order to explain descriptions of a horned Satan provided by witch trial confessions; because those accused of witchcraft described witches meetings as involving sexual orgies with Satan, she suggested that a male priest representing Dianus would have been present at each coven meeting, dressed in horns and animals skins, who engaged in sexual acts with the gathered women. Murray further interpreted descriptions of sexual intercourse with Satan as being cold and painful to mean that the priest would use artificial implements on the witches when he became too exhausted to continue. Unlike most modern forms of religious witchcraft, Murray's conception of the witch-cult was therefore patriarchal.
In her hypothesis, witches worshiped a single god, though a female figure in a role known as "the Maiden" would be present at coven gatherings, Murray did not consider her to represent a goddess. In th
Trance is an abnormal state of wakefulness in which a person is not self-aware and is either altogether unresponsive to external stimuli but is capable of pursuing and realizing an aim, or is selectively responsive in following the directions of the person who has induced the trance. Trance states may unbidden; the term trance may be associated with hypnosis, magic and prayer. It may be related to the earlier generic term, altered states of consciousness, no longer used in "consciousness studies" discourse. Trance in its modern meaning comes from an earlier meaning of "a dazed, half-conscious or insensible condition or state of fear", via the Old French transe "fear of evil", from the Latin transīre "to cross", "pass over"; this definition is now obsolete. Wier, in his 1995 book, Trance: from magic to technology, defines a simple trance as a state of mind being caused by cognitive loops where a cognitive object repeats long enough to result in various sets of disabled cognitive functions. Wier represents all trances as taking place on a dissociated trance plane where at least some cognitive functions such as volition are disabled.
With this definition, hypnosis and charisma are seen as being trance states. In Wier's 2007 book, The Way of Trance, he elaborates on these forms, adds ecstasy as an additional form and discusses the ethical implications of his model, including magic and government use which he terms "trance abuse". John Horgan in Rational Mysticism explores the neurological mechanisms and psychological implications of trances and other mystical manifestations. Horgan incorporates literature and case-studies from a number of disciplines in this work: chemistry, psychology and theology; the following are some examples of trance states: Enchantment: a psychological state induced by a magical incantation A state of mind in which consciousness is fragile and voluntary action is poor or missing A state resembling deep sleep Capture: attract. In a general way, the entranced conditions thus defined are divided into varying degrees of a negative, unconscious state, into progressive gradations of a positive, illumining condition.
A state of hyper or enhanced suggestibility. An induced or spontaneous sleep-like condition of an altered state of consciousness, thought by certain people to permit the subject's physical body to be utilized by disembodied spirits or entities as a means of expression An altered state of awareness induced via hypnosis in which unconscious or dissociated responses to suggestion are enhanced in quality and increased in degree A state induced by the use of hypnosis. Trance conditions include all the different states of mind, emotions and daydreams that human beings experience. All activities which engage a human involve the filtering of information coming into sense modalities, this influences brain functioning and consciousness. Therefore, trance may be understood as a way for the mind to change the way it filters information in order to provide more efficient use of the mind's resources. Trance states may be accessed or induced by various modalities and is a way of accessing the unconscious mind for the purposes of relaxation, healing and inspiration.
There is an extensive documented history of trance as evidenced by the case-studies of anthropologists and ethnologists and associated and derivative disciplines. Hence trance may be perceived as endemic to a Human Universal. Principles of trance are being documented as are methods of trance induction. Benefits of trance states are being explored by scientific inquiry. Many traditions and rituals employ trance. Trance has a function in religion and mystical experience. Castillo states that: "Trance phenomena result from the behavior of intense focusing of attention, the key psychological mechanism of trance induction. Adaptive responses, including institutionalized forms of trance, are'tuned' into neural networks in the brain and depend to a large extent on the characteristics of culture. Culture-specific organizations exist in the structure of individual neurons and in the organizational formation of neural networks."Hoffman states that: "Trance is still conventionally defined as a state of reduced consciousness, or a somnolent state.
However, the more recent anthropological definition, linking it to'altered states of consciousness', is becoming accepted."Hoffman asserts that: "...the trance state should be discussed in the plural, because there is more than one altered state of consciousness different from everyday consciousness." According to Hoffman, pilgrims visited the Temple of Epidaurus, an asclepeion, in Greece for healing sleep. Seekers of healing would make pilgrimage and be received by a priest who would welcome and bless them; this temple housed an ancient religious ritual promoting dreams in the seeker that endeavored to promote healing and the so
Gerald Gardner (Wiccan)
Gerald Brosseau Gardner known by the craft name Scire, was an English Wiccan, as well as an author and an amateur anthropologist and archaeologist. He was instrumental in bringing the Contemporary Pagan religion of Wicca to public attention, writing some of its definitive religious texts and founding the tradition of Gardnerian Wicca. Born into an upper-middle-class family in Blundellsands, Gardner spent much of his childhood abroad in Madeira. In 1900, he moved to colonial Ceylon, in 1911 to Malaya, where he worked as a civil servant, independently developing an interest in the native peoples and writing papers and a book about their magical practices. After his retirement in 1936, he travelled to Cyprus, penning the novel A Goddess Arrives before returning to England. Settling down near the New Forest, he joined an occult group, the Rosicrucian Order Crotona Fellowship, through which he said he had encountered the New Forest coven into which he was initiated in 1939. Believing the coven to be a survival of the pre-Christian witch-cult discussed in the works of Margaret Murray, he decided to revive the faith, supplementing the coven's rituals with ideas borrowed from Freemasonry, ceremonial magic and the writings of Aleister Crowley to form the Gardnerian tradition of Wicca.
Moving to London in 1945, he became intent on propagating this religion, attracting media attention and writing about it in High Magic's Aid, Witchcraft Today and The Meaning of Witchcraft. Founding a Wiccan group known as the Bricket Wood coven, he introduced a string of High Priestesses into the religion, including Doreen Valiente, Lois Bourne, Patricia Crowther and Eleanor Bone, through which the Gardnerian community spread throughout Britain and subsequently into Australia and the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Involved for a time with Cecil Williamson, Gardner became director of the Museum of Magic and Witchcraft on the Isle of Man, which he ran until his death. Gardner is internationally recognised as the "Father of Wicca" among the Pagan and occult communities, his claims regarding the New Forest coven have been scrutinised, with Gardner being the subject of investigation for historians and biographers Aidan Kelly, Ronald Hutton and Philip Heselton. Gardner's family was wealthy and upper middle class, running a family firm, Joseph Gardner and Sons, which described itself as "the oldest private company in the timber trade within the British Empire."
Specialising in the import of hardwood, the company had been founded in the mid-18th century by Edmund Gardner, an entrepreneur who would subsequently become a Freeman of Liverpool. Gerald's father, William Robert Gardner had been the youngest son of Joseph Gardner, after whom the firm had been renamed, who with his wife Maria had had five sons and three daughters. In 1867, William had been sent to New York City, in order to further the interests of the family firm. Here, he had met Louise Burguelew Ennis, the daughter of a wholesale stationer. After a visit to England, the couple returned to the US, where they settled in Mott Haven, Morrisania in New York State, it was here that their first child, Harold Ennis Gardner, was born in 1870. At some point in the next two years they moved back to England, by 1873 settling into The Glen, a large Victorian house in Blundellsands in Lancashire, north-west England, developing into a wealthy suburb of Liverpool, it was here that their second child, Robert "Bob" Marshall Gardner, was born in 1874.
In 1876 the family moved into one of the neighbouring houses, Ingle Lodge, it was here that the couple's third son, Gerald Brosseau Gardner, was born on Friday 13 June 1884. A fourth child, Francis Douglas Gardner, was born in 1886. Gerald would see Harold, who went on to study Law at the University of Oxford, but saw more of Bob, who drew pictures for him, Douglas, with whom he shared his nursery; the Gardners employed an Irish nursemaid named Josephine "Com" McCombie, entrusted with taking care of the young Gerald. Gardner suffered with asthma from a young age, having particular difficulty in the cold Lancashire winters, his nursemaid offered to take him to warmer climates abroad at his father's expense in the hope that this condition would not be so badly affected. Subsequently, in summer 1888, Gerald and Com travelled via London to Nice in the south of France. After several more years spent in the Mediterranean, in 1891 they went to the Canary Islands, it was here that Gardner first developed his lifelong interest in weaponry.
From there, they went on to Accra in the Gold Coast. Accra was followed by a visit to Funchal on the Portuguese colony of Madeira. According to Gardner's first biographer, Jack Bracelin, Com was flirtatious and "clearly looked on these trips as manhunts", viewing Gardner as a nuisance; as a result, he was left to his own devices, which he spent going out, meeting new people and learning about foreign cultures. In Madeira, he began collecting weapons, many of which were remnants from the Napoleonic Wars, displaying them on the wall of his hotel room; as a result of his illness and these foreign trips, Gardner never attended school, or gained any formal education. He taught himself to read by looking at copies of The Strand Magazine but his writing betrayed his poor education all his life, with eccentric spelling and grammar. A voracious reader, one
Wicca termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement. It was developed in England during the first half of the 20th century and was introduced to the public in 1954 by Gerald Gardner, a retired British civil servant. Wicca draws upon a diverse set of ancient pagan and 20th-century hermetic motifs for its theological structure and ritual practices. Wicca has no central authority figure, its traditional core beliefs and practices were outlined in the 1940s and 1950s by Gardner and Doreen Valiente, both in published books as well as in secret written and oral teachings passed along to their initiates. There are many variations on the core structure, the religion grows and evolves over time, it is divided into a number of diverse lineages and denominations, referred to as traditions, each with its own organisational structure and level of centralisation. Due to its decentralized nature, there is some disagreement over what constitutes Wicca; some traditions, collectively referred to as British Traditional Wicca follow the initiatory lineage of Gardner and consider the term Wicca to apply only to similar traditions, but not to newer, eclectic traditions.
Wicca is duotheistic, worshipping a Goddess and a God. These are traditionally viewed as the Horned God, respectively; these deities may be regarded in a henotheistic way, as having many different divine aspects which can in turn be identified with many diverse pagan deities from different historical pantheons. For this reason, they are sometimes referred to as the "Great Goddess" and the "Great Horned God", with the adjective "great" connoting a deity that contains many other deities within their own nature; these two deities are sometimes viewed as facets of a greater pantheistic divinity, regarded as an impersonal force or process rather than a personal deity. While duotheism or bitheism is traditional in Wicca, broader Wiccan beliefs range from polytheism to pantheism or monism to Goddess monotheism. Wiccan celebrations encompass both the cycles of the Moon, known as Esbats and associated with the Goddess, the cycles of the Sun, seasonally based festivals known as Sabbats and associated with the Horned God.
An unattributed statement known as the Wiccan Rede is a popular expression of Wiccan morality, although it is not universally accepted by Wiccans. Wicca involves the ritual practice of magic, though it is not always necessary. Scholars of religious studies classify Wicca as a new religious movement, more as a form of modern Paganism. Cited as the largest, best known, most influential, most extensively academically studied form of Paganism, within the movement it has been identified as sitting on the former end of the eclectic to reconstructionist spectrum. Several academics have categorised Wicca as a form of nature religion, a term, embraced by many of its practitioners. However, given that Wicca incorporates the practice of magic, several scholars have referred to it as a "magico-religion". Wicca is a form of Western esotericism, more a part of the esoteric current known as occultism. Although recognised as a religion by academics, some evangelical Christians have attempted to deny it legal recognition as such, while some Wiccan practitioners themselves eschew the term "religion" – associating the latter purely with organised religion – instead favouring "spirituality" or "way of life".
Although Wicca as a religion is distinct from other forms of contemporary Paganism, there has been much "cross-fertilization" between these different Pagan faiths. The terms wizard and warlock are discouraged in the community. In Wicca, denominations are referred to as traditions, while non-Wiccans are termed cowans; when the religion first came to public attention, it was called "Witchcraft". For instance, Gerald Gardner—the man regarded as the "Father of Wicca"—referred to it as the "Craft of the Wise", "witchcraft", "the witch-cult" during the 1950s. There is no evidence that he called it "Wicca", although he did refer to the collective community of Pagan Witches as "the Wica"; as a name for the religion, "Wicca" developed in Britain during the 1960s. It is not known who invented the term "Wicca" in reference to the religion, although one possibility is that it might have been Gardner's rival Charles Cardell, referring to it as the "Craft of the Wiccens" by 1958; the first recorded use of the word "Wicca" appears in 1962, it had been popularised to the extent that several British practitioners founded a newsletter called The Wiccan in 1968.
Although pronounced differently, the Modern English term "Wicca" is derived from the Old English wicca and wicce, the masculine and feminine term for witch, used in Anglo-Saxon England. By adopting it for modern usage, Wiccans were both symbolically cementing their connection to the ancient, pre-Christian past, adopting a self-designation that would be less controversial than "Witchcraft". In early sources "Wicca" referred to the entirety of the religion rather than specific traditions. In ensuing decades, members of certain traditions – those known as British Traditional Wicca – began claiming that only they should be termed "Wiccan", that other forms of the religion must not use it. From the late 1980s onwards various books propagating Wicca were published that again used the former, broader definition of the word. Thus, by the 1980s, there were two competing de
Ancient Greek art
Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which nude male figures were the focus of innovation. The rate of stylistic development between about 750 and 300 BC was remarkable by ancient standards, in surviving works is best seen in sculpture. There were important innovations in painting, which have to be reconstructed due to the lack of original survivals of quality, other than the distinct field of painted pottery. Greek architecture, technically simple, established a harmonious style with numerous detailed conventions that were adopted by Roman architecture and are still followed in some modern buildings, it used a vocabulary of ornament, shared with pottery and other media, had an enormous influence on Eurasian art after Buddhism carried it beyond the expanded Greek world created by Alexander the Great. The social context of Greek art included radical political developments and a great increase in prosperity.
The earliest art by Greeks is excluded from "ancient Greek art", instead known as Aegean art. The art of ancient Greece is divided stylistically into four periods: the Geometric, Archaic and Hellenistic; the Geometric age is dated from about 1000 BC, although in reality little is known about art in Greece during the preceding 200 years, traditionally known as the Greek Dark Ages. The 7th century BC witnessed the slow development of the Archaic style as exemplified by the black-figure style of vase painting. Around 500 BC, shortly before the onset of the Persian Wars, is taken as the dividing line between the Archaic and the Classical periods, the reign of Alexander the Great is taken as separating the Classical from the Hellenistic periods. From some point in the 1st century BC onwards "Greco-Roman" is used, or more local terms for the Eastern Greek world. In reality, there was no sharp transition from one period to another. Forms of art developed at different speeds in different parts of the Greek world, as in any age some artists worked in more innovative styles than others.
Strong local traditions, the requirements of local cults, enable historians to locate the origins of works of art found far from their place of origin. Greek art of various kinds was exported; the whole period saw a steady increase in prosperity and trading links within the Greek world and with neighbouring cultures. The survival rate of Greek art differs starkly between media. We have huge quantities of pottery and coins, much stone sculpture, though more Roman copies, a few large bronze sculptures. Missing are painting, fine metal vessels, anything in perishable materials including wood; the stone shell of a number of temples and theatres has survived, but little of their extensive decoration. By convention, finely painted vessels of all shapes are called "vases", there are over 100,000 complete surviving pieces, giving unparalleled insights into many aspects of Greek life. Sculptural or architectural pottery very painted, are referred to as terracottas, survive in large quantities. In much of the literature, "pottery" means only painted vessels, or "vases".
Pottery was the main form of grave goods deposited in tombs as "funerary urns" containing the cremated ashes, was exported. The famous and distinctive style of Greek vase-painting with figures depicted with strong outlines, with thin lines within the outlines, reached its peak from about 600 to 350 BC, divides into the two main styles reversals of each other, of black-figure and red-figure painting, the other colour forming the background in each case. Other colours were limited to small areas of white and larger ones of a different purplish-red. Within the restrictions of these techniques and other strong conventions, vase-painters achieved remarkable results, combining refinement and powerful expression. White ground technique allowed more freedom in depiction, but did not wear well and was made for burial. Conventionally, the ancient Greeks are said to have made most pottery vessels for everyday use, not for display. Exceptions are the large Archaic monumental vases made as grave-markers, trophies won at games, such as the Panathenaic Amphorae filled with olive oil, pieces made to be left in graves.
In recent decades many scholars have questioned this, seeing much more production than was thought as made to be placed in graves, as a cheaper substitute for metalware in both Greece and Etruria. Most surviving pottery consists of vessels for storing, serving or drinking liquids such as amphorae, hydria, libation bowls and perfume bottles for the toilet and cups. Painted vessels for serving and eating food are much less common. Painted pottery was affordable by ordinary people, a piece "decently decorated with about five or six figures cost about two or three days' wages". Miniatures were produced in large numbers for use as offerings at temples. In the Hellenistic period a wider range of pottery was produced, but most of it is of little artistic importance. In earlier periods quite small Greek cities produced pottery for their own locale. These