Mixed martial arts
Mixed martial arts is a full-contact combat sport that allows striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from various combat sports and martial arts. The first documented use of the term mixed martial arts was in a review of UFC 1 by television critic Howard Rosenberg in 1993; the term gained popularity when newfullcontact.com one of the largest websites covering the sport and republished the article. The question of who coined the term is subject to debate. During the early 20th century, various mixed-style contests took place throughout Japan, in the countries of the Four Asian Tigers. In Brazil, there was the sport of Vale Tudo, in which fighters from various styles fought with little to no rules; the Gracie family was known to promote Vale Tudo matches as a way to promote their own Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu style. An early high-profile mixed martial arts bout was Masahiko Kimura vs. Hélio Gracie in 1951, fought between judoka Masahiko Kimura and Brazilian jiu jitsu founder Hélio Gracie in Brazil.
In the West, the concept of combining elements of multiple martial arts was popularized by Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do during the late 1960s to early 1970s. A precursor to modern MMA was the 1976 Muhammad Ali vs. Antonio Inoki bout, fought between boxer Muhammad Ali and wrestler Antonio Inoki in Japan, where it inspired the foundation of Pancrase in 1993 and Pride Fighting Championships in 1997. In 1980, CV Productions, Inc. created the first regulated MMA league in the United States, called Tough Guy Contest, renamed Battle of the Superfighters. The company sanctioned ten tournaments in Pennsylvania. However, in 1983 the Pennsylvania State Senate passed a bill prohibiting the sport. In 1993, the Gracie family brought Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, developed in Brazil from the 1920s, to the United States by founding the Ultimate Fighting Championship MMA promotion company; the company held an event with no rules due the influence of Art Davie and Rorion Gracie attempting to replicate Vale Tudo fights that existed in Brazil, would implement a different set of rules, which differed from other leagues which were more in favour of realistic fights.
Promoted as a competition to find the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat, competitors from different fighting styles were pitted against one another in contests with few rules. Individual fighters incorporated multiple martial arts into their style. MMA promoters were pressured to adopt additional rules to increase competitors' safety, to comply with sport regulations and to broaden mainstream acceptance of the sport. Following these changes, the sport has seen increased popularity with a pay-per-view business that rivals boxing and professional wrestling. In Ancient Greece, there was a sport called pankration, which featured a combination of grappling and striking skills similar to those found in modern MMA. Pankration was formed by a combination of the established wrestling and boxing traditions and, in Olympic terms, first featured in the 33rd Olympiad in 648 BC. All strikes and holds were allowed with the exception of gouging, which were banned; the fighters, called pankratiasts, fought until someone could not continue or signaled submission by raising their index finger.
According to E. Norman Gardiner,'No branch of athletics was more popular than the pankration.' From its origins in Ancient Greece, pankration was passed on to the Romans. In Ancient China, combat sport appeared in the form of Leitai, a no-holds-barred mixed combat sport that combined Chinese martial arts and wrestling. There is evidence of similar mixed combat sports in Ancient Egypt and Japan; the mid-19th century saw the prominence of the new sport savate in the combat sports circle. French savate fighters wanted to test their techniques against the traditional combat styles of its time. In 1852, a contest was held in France between French savateurs and English bare-knuckle boxers in which French fighter Rambaud alias la Resistance fought English fighter Dickinson and won using his kicks. However, the English team still won the four other match-ups during the contest. Contests occurred in the late 19th to mid-20th century between French Savateurs and other combat styles. Examples include a 1905 fight between French savateur George Dubois and a judo practitioner Re-nierand which resulted in the latter winning by submission, as well as the publicized 1957 fight between French savateur and professional boxer Jacques Cayron and a young Japanese karateka named Mochizuki Hiroo which ended when Cayron knocked Hiroo out with a hook.
No-holds-barred fighting took place in the late 1880s when wrestlers representing style of Catch wrestling and many others met in tournaments and music-hall challenge matches throughout Europe. In the USA, the first major encounter between a boxer and a wrestler in modern times took place in 1887 when John L. Sullivan heavyweight world boxing champion, entered the ring with his trainer, wrestling champion William Muldoon, was slammed to the mat in two minutes; the next publicized encounter occurred in the late 1890s when future heavyweight boxing champion Bob Fitzsimmons took on European wrestling champion Ernest Roeber. In September 1901, Frank "Paddy" Slavin, a contender for Sullivan's boxing title, knocked out future world wrestling champion Frank Gotch in Dawson City, Canada; the judo-practitioner Ren-nierand, who gained fame after defeating George Dubois, would fight again in another similar contest, which he lost to Ukrainian Catch wrestler Ivan Poddubny. Another early example of mixed martial arts was Bartitsu, which Edward William Barton-Wright founded i
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Dream: Japan GP Final
Dream: Japan GP Final known as Dream Japan GP – 2011 Bantamweight Japan Tournament Final, was a mixed martial arts event held by Fighting and Entertainment Group's mixed martial arts promotion Dream. The event took place on July 2011 at the Ariake Coliseum in Tokyo, Japan; the Kenji Osawa-Keisuke Fujiwara fight was planned as a qualifier for the worldwide Dream bantamweight Grand Prix that year. Willamy Freire suffered a hand injury during training, he was replaced with Drew Fickett. Todd Duffee was scheduled to face Nick Gaston at this event, but was forced out of the bout due to an undisclosed injury. Hayato Sakurai was scheduled to fight Marius Žaromskis at this event, however an unspecified leg injury forced him out of the bout. Žaromskis instead faced Eiji Ishikawa at a catchweight of 79 kg
Dream 17 was a mixed martial arts event held by Fighting and Entertainment Group's mixed martial arts promotion Dream. The event took place on September 2011 at the Saitama Super Arena in Saitama, Japan. Contrary to previous events, Dream used the card to launch a new rule change: the use of three, five-minute rounds; this event featured the opening round in Dream's World Bantamweight Grand Prix
DREAM.4 Middle Weight Grandprix 2008 2nd Round was a mixed martial arts event held by FEG's mixed martial arts promotion DREAM. The event took place on June 15, 2008 at Yokohama Arena in Yokohama, featuring the second round of the promotion's Middleweight tournament, with winners advancing to the Dream 6: Middleweight Grand Prix 2008 Final Round at the Saitama Super Arena on September 23, 2008. During the evening's intermission, a draw was held in the ring to determine the matchups for the July 21, 2008 Dream Lightweight GP Final in Osaka; the random selection set Eddie Alvarez against Tatsuya Kawajiri in the first semifinal. The DREAM.4 attracted a crowd of 14,037 to the Yokohama Arena and was broadcast live in Japan on SkyPerfect TV Pay-Per-View, in the United States on HDNet Fights. Dream List of Dream champions 2008 in DREAM Melvin Manhoef replaced Kiyoshi Tamura due to injuries Tamura incurred in his 1st round match. Manhoef had won a reserve bout against Dae Won Kim at Dream 3 to earn his spot in the 2nd round.
Mirko "Cro Cop" Filipović was scheduled to compete against Ralek Gracie in a grappling match, but had to pull out due to injury
Dream 13 was a mixed martial arts event held by Fighting and Entertainment Group's mixed martial arts promotion Dream. The event took place on Monday, March 22, 2010 at the Yokohama Arena in Japan; the event aired live in North America on HDNet. This event marked the beginning of co-promotion between US organization Strikeforce; the event would mark the return of KJ Noons to Mixed Martial Arts in his first fight since 2008. While not announced, Tim Sylvia was planning on participating in this event. However, Dream officials tried to change his opponent two weeks before the bout was planned to take place. Marius Žaromskis was in discussions to defend his Dream Welterweight Championship against Kiyoshi Tamura at this event, but would instead appear at Dream 15 on May 30, 2010. KJ Noons and Andre Amade both weighed in at more than the 70 kg Lightweight limit and agreed to fight at 72 kg. Dream List of Dream champions 2010 in DREAM
Dream.2 Middle Weight Grandprix 2008 1st Round was a mixed martial arts event promoted by Dream. It took place on Tuesday, April 29, 2008 at the Saitama Super Arena in Japan; the event hosted the opening round of the promotion's Middleweight Grand Prix. All bouts were conducted in an 84 kilograms weight class; the evening's Main Event featured Kazushi Sakuraba of Japan and Brazilian kyokushin karateka Andrews Nakahara. It was broadcast live across Japan on the SkyPerfect pay-per-view; the Middleweight champion was determined in Dream 6. Replacement = ** --> The 8th Opening Round match was held between Katsuyori Shibata and Jason "Mayhem" Miller at Dream 3. The match between Melvin Manhoef and Ralek Gracie was rumored as the 8th match, only Manhoef participated in the Grand Prix reserve bout against Dae Won Kim at Dream 3. A bout between Frank Trigg and Ronaldo Souza was scheduled, however Trigg cited a breakdown in communication between him and Dream officials, which led to the bout being canceled.
Andrews Nakahara and Ian Murphy made their mixed martial arts debut at this event. Yoshihiro Akiyama was scheduled to participate at the event, however he had to withdraw due to injuries suffered during his bout with Kazuo Misaki at Yarennoka! Kiyoshi Tamura dropped out of the quarter-finals citing a broken hand from his bout with Masakatsu Funaki. Many believe though the real reason was his reluctance to fight Kazushi Sakuraba, his old wrestling mentor and competitor. Dream List of Dream champions 2008 in DREAM