American Idol (season 10)
The tenth season of American Idol premiered on January 19, 2011 and concluded on May 25, 2011, on the Fox television network. The show underwent a number of changes from the ninth season, including the return of Nigel Lythgoe as executive producer. Randy Jackson returned as judge for his tenth season while Jennifer Lopez and Steven Tyler joined the judging panel following the departures of Simon Cowell, Kara DioGuardi and Ellen DeGeneres. Interscope Records, part of Universal Music Group, replaced Sony Music Entertainment as Idol's official partner record label. Interscope's Chairman Jimmy Iovine, a songwriter and producer, was named as the in-house mentor to work with the contestants on a weekly basis, he was supported by associated producers Rodney Jerkins, Alex da Kid, Tricky Stewart, Don Was, will.i.am, Timbaland, who all helped the contestants tailor their song choices to their chosen genre of performance, while producing arrangements for the contestants and offering original material to be performed.
Ray Chew replaced leader of Idol's live band. Programming changes affecting viewership included a revision in the days of broadcast from Tuesdays and Wednesdays to Wednesdays and Thursdays; the show opened up an option for viewers to cast their votes online through Facebook, allowing 50 votes per account. Specific changes in the competition itself included extending extra rounds and a final solo round, while returning the judges' wild card choice; the show additionally lowered the age of eligibility to 15 years. More contestants made it to Hollywood in season 10 than in previous seasons. On May 25, 2011, after 122.4 million votes were cast for the finale, Scotty McCreery was crowned the winner of the tenth season of American Idol, making him the youngest male winner at 17 years and seven months old, the second youngest winner behind season 6 winner Jordin Sparks. Season 10 was the first season where 11 contestants went on tour instead of 10. Eight contestants from this season were signed to record labels.
The signed artists are Scotty McCreery, Lauren Alaina, Haley Reinhart, James Durbin, Casey Abrams, Stefano Langone, Pia Toscano and Naima Adedapo. Simon Cowell, a judge since the first episode of the first season, announced on January 11, 2010 that he would not be returning as a judge for this season in order to focus on launching the American version of his hit British singing competition The X Factor. Ellen DeGeneres announced her departure on July 29, 2010, after judging for only one season, because she felt the show was not the "right fit" for her. Kara DioGuardi announced on September 3, 2010, that she would not return this season. On September 22, 2010, it was announced that Jennifer Lopez and Steven Tyler would join the judging panel. There were a number of other major changes in season ten, from the judges to the format of the show itself including the opening intro, which used the "Hall of Idols". Nigel Lythgoe returned as the executive producer, Ray Chew has been hired as the show's new musical director, replacing Rickey Minor, who left the show along with vocal coach Dorian Holley to become the musical director of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno.
Peisha McPhee, mother of season 5's runner-up Katharine McPhee, joined as one of the vocal coaches. In this season, online voting was offered for the first time for fans with Facebook accounts; the Season 10 saw a return to the process of singers singing two songs each on performance nights starting earlier in the season, three songs each starting on Top 3 night. Extra rounds were added in the Hollywood phase of the competition which would narrow the contestants down to sixty potential finalists; those who made the final sixty were taken to Las Vegas in an extra round where they were asked to sing songs from The Beatles, a further solo round in Los Angeles. It was planned that 20 contestants would be left by the end of the Hollywood rounds, however, 24 contestants were chosen instead for the semifinal, they would perform in two groups of twelve in a semi-final sudden death round where ten finalists – five girls and five boys – would be voted in by the viewers; the judges were given three wild card picks.
Nigel Lythgoe had suggested significant format changes that would replace the following semifinal, with contestants having "to make the best music video, to promote themselves, to work with a band and dancers for an awards show-style performance." However, the plans were shelved. Despite previous reports that Idol producers had axed the weekly music theme, the themes remained. At the end of the ninth season, Sony Music Entertainment's affiliation to Idol ended; the partnership was superseded by a new deal with Universal Music Group, meaning that the winner would now be signed to Interscope Records. Interscope's sister labels, A&M Records and Geffen Records, would be involved in promoting and distributing the albums of the show's finalists. Chairman of the Interscope-Geffen-A&M label group, Jimmy Iovine, worked directly with contestants this season as the in-house mentor. Additionally, a team of Universal Music-associated producers and songwriters, such as Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins and Alex da Kid worked alongside the contestants to help them take on original arrangement and material.
Some suggested changes, such as allowing the finalists to release music while the season is still in progress rather than waiting to record an album, were not implemented, although music were released somewhat earlier than previous seasons. The judges were Steven Tyler, Jennifer Lopez, Randy Jackso
Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage and blues rock movements. It is typified by a heavy use of aggressive vocals, distorted electric guitars, bass guitar and accompanied with keyboards. Hard rock developed into a major form of popular music in the 1970s, with notable bands such as AC/DC, the Who, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Aerosmith and Van Halen. During the 1980s, some hard rock bands moved away from their hard rock roots and more towards pop rock, while others began to return to a hard rock sound. Established bands made a comeback in the mid-1980s and it reached a commercial peak in the 1980s, with glam metal bands like Bon Jovi and Def Leppard and the rawer sounds of Guns N' Roses, which followed up with great success in the part of that decade. Hard rock began losing popularity with the commercial success of R&B, hip-hop, urban pop and Britpop in the 1990s. Despite this, many post-grunge bands adopted a hard rock sound and in the 2000s there came a renewed interest in established bands, attempts at a revival, new hard rock bands that emerged from the garage rock and post-punk revival scenes.
Out of this movement came garage rock bands like the White Stripes, the Strokes, Interpol and on, the Black Keys. In the 2000s, only a few hard rock bands from the 1970s and 1980s managed to sustain successful recording careers. Hard rock is a form of aggressive rock music; the electric guitar is emphasised, used with distortion and other effects, both as a rhythm instrument using repetitive riffs with a varying degree of complexity, as a solo lead instrument. Drumming characteristically focuses on driving rhythms, strong bass drum and a backbeat on snare, sometimes using cymbals for emphasis; the bass guitar works in conjunction with the drums playing riffs, but providing a backing for the rhythm and lead guitars. Vocals are growling, raspy, or involve screaming or wailing, sometimes in a high range, or falsetto voice. Hard rock has sometimes been labelled cock rock for its emphasis on overt masculinity and sexuality and because it has been predominantly performed and consumed by men: in the case of its audience white, working-class adolescents.
In the late 1960s, the term heavy metal was used interchangeably with hard rock, but began to be used to describe music played with more volume and intensity. While hard rock maintained a bluesy rock and roll identity, including some swing in the back beat and riffs that tended to outline chord progressions in their hooks, heavy metal's riffs functioned as stand-alone melodies and had no swing in them. Heavy metal took on "darker" characteristics after Black Sabbath's breakthrough at the beginning of the 1970s. In the 1980s it developed a number of subgenres termed extreme metal, some of which were influenced by hardcore punk, which further differentiated the two styles. Despite this differentiation, hard rock and heavy metal have existed side by side, with bands standing on the boundary of, or crossing between, the genres; the roots of hard rock can be traced back to the 1950s electric blues, which laid the foundations for key elements such as a rough declamatory vocal style, heavy guitar riffs, string-bending blues-scale guitar solos, strong beat, thick riff-laden texture, posturing performances.
Electric blues guitarists began experimenting with hard rock elements such as driving rhythms, distorted guitar solos and power chords in the 1950s, evident in the work of Memphis blues guitarists such as Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson, Pat Hare, who captured a "grittier, more ferocious electric guitar sound" on records such as James Cotton's "Cotton Crop Blues". Other antecedents include Link Wray's instrumental "Rumble" in 1958, the surf rock instrumentals of Dick Dale, such as "Let's Go Trippin'" and "Misirlou". In the 1960s, American and British blues and rock bands began to modify rock and roll by adding harder sounds, heavier guitar riffs, bombastic drumming, louder vocals, from electric blues. Early forms of hard rock can be heard in the work of Chicago blues musicians Elmore James, Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" which made it a garage rock standard, the songs of rhythm and blues influenced British Invasion acts, including "You Really Got Me" by the Kinks, "My Generation" by the Who, "Shapes of Things" by the Yardbirds, "Inside Looking Out" by the Animals, " Satisfaction" by the Rolling Stones.
From the late 1960s, it became common to divide mainstream rock music that emerged from psychedelia into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies. In contrast, hard rock was most derived from blues rock and was played louder and with more intensity. Blues rock acts that pioneered the sound included Cream, the Jimi Hendrix Experience, the Jeff Beck Group. Cream, in songs like "I Feel Free" combined blues rock with pop and psychedelia in the riffs and guitar solos of Eric Clapton. Jimi Hendrix produced a form of blues-influenced psychedelic rock, which combined elements of jazz and rock and roll. From 1967 Jeff Beck brought lead guitar to new heights of technical virtuosity and moved blues rock in the direction of heavy rock with his band, the Jeff Beck Group. Dave Davies of the Kinks, Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones, Pete Townshend of the Who, Hendrix and Beck all pioneered the use of new guitar effects like phasing and distortion.
The Beatles began producing songs in the new
Mansfield is a town in Tolland County, United States. The population was 26,543 at the 2010 census. Mansfield was incorporated in October 1702 in Hartford County; the community was named after the original owner of the town site. When Windham County was formed on 12 May 1726, Mansfield became part of that county. A century at a town meeting on 3 April 1826, selectmen voted to ask the General Assembly to annex Mansfield to Tolland County; that occurred the following year. The town of Mansfield contains the community of Storrs, home to the main campus of the University of Connecticut and the associated Connecticut Repertory Theatre; the first silk mill in the United States was constructed in Mansfield and financed by pilgrim descendent, William Fisk. The town, along with neighboring Willimantic, played an important role in the manufacture of thread and other textiles. Though nothing but foundation remains of the mill, Mansfield has held onto several other historic landmarks. A intact gristmill, dating to 1835, the Gurleyville Gristmill is the only one of its kind in Connecticut.
Built on the Fenton River, this stone grist mill remains intact with the original equipment. There are tours available May through October; the adjacent miller's house is the birthplace of former CT governor Wilbur L. Cross. More recent yet rare nonetheless, the Mansfield Drive-in, a drive-in movie theater, Lucky Strike Lanes, a duckpin bowling alley, are among the last of their breed in the nation; the Mansfield Training School and Hospital, situated on more than 1,000 acres and encompassing 85 buildings, was operated by the Connecticut Department of Mental Retardation until its closure, after legal challenges, in 1993. Four years the former director and a once staunch advocate of the school declared, "The Mansfield Training School is closed: the swamp has been drained." Since the site has been allowed to deteriorate, though the University of Connecticut has been finding uses for and fixing up many of the buildings. The school, with its eerie overturned wheelchairs and neo-classical hospital, remains a magnet for adventurous locals, the police, amateur photographers.
Located directly across U. S. Route 44 from the Mansfield Training School is the Donald T. Bergin Correctional Institution, which closed in August 2011; the Level 2 facility housed 1,000 inmates. It served as a pre-release center for inmates who were approaching the end of their sentence or a period of supervised community placement. Development has increased in recent years, leading to the imposition of a temporary moratorium on new subdivisions, as well as additional land acquisition. Mansfield enjoys a moderate amount of protected open space, notably Mansfield Hollow State Park, eight town parks and preserves, numerous Joshua's Trust properties, in addition to university holdings. Three large farms operate within Mansfield, including Mountain Dairy, producing and processing milk under the stewardship of one family since 1871. In contrast to many municipalities, Mansfield is pursuing a program of smart growth through the construction of a livable downtown. On the Northeastern edge of town, the playwright and producer Willard Mack owned a large estate.
Mack permitted his other various friends and associates to board and breed their thoroughbreds on his property. One of these, boxing legend Jack Dempsey, made continual use of these facilities until Mack's death in the mid-1930s. During Mack's stewardship of this property, the famous Arabian Stallion "Broomstick", sire of numerous Kentucky Derby and Triple Crown winning thoroughbreds, was a temporary resident; the property has since been maintained by private owners. U. S. Route 6 passes through the southern part of Mansfield as an isolated stretch of divided highway, part of the planned but never realized interstate between Hartford and Providence, Rhode Island. Construction began midway between Providence, far removed from population centers; when opposition arose and complications developed, the project was shelved, with only stranded parts of the highway completed. Free community wireless Internet access is available at the Mansfield Community Center, the Mansfield Town Hall, the Mansfield Senior Center, the Mansfield Public Library.
Farwell Barn, Horsebarn Hill Rd. Mansfield Center Cemetery, jct. of Storrs and Cemetery Rds. Mansfield Center Historic District, Storrs Rd. Mansfield Hollow Historic District, 86-127 Mansfield Hollow Rd. Mansfield Training School and Hospital, jct. of Route 32 & U. S. Route 44 University of Connecticut Historic District-Connecticut Agricultural School Route 195/Storrs Rd. at North Eagleville Rd. Elijah Porter Barrows and writer. Jearl Miles Clark, Olympic runner who won gold in 1996 and 2000. Wilbur Lucius Cross, well-known literary critic and Governor of Connecticut from 1931 to 1939. Rivers Cuomo, lead singer/guitarist of the alternative rock band Weezer. Charles Davis, Associate Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court Benjamin Hanks, instrument maker, first maker of bronze cannons and church bells in America. Wally Lamb, author of She's Come Undone and I Know This Much is True. Dave Lindorff investigative columnist. George S. Moulton, Connecticut State Representative and State Senator. Charles Emory Smith, Postmaster General, US Ambassador to Russia and newspaper editor.
Peter Tork and musician, best known as a me
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
Bradley Ernest Whitford is an American musician, best known for serving as the rhythm and co-lead guitarist for the hard rock band Aerosmith. He has worked as a songwriter for the group, co-composing well-received tracks such as 1976's "Last Child". Whitford graduated from Reading Memorial High School in 1970. After attending the Berklee College of Music, Whitford played in local bands Cymbals of Resistance, Teapot Dome, Inc. and a band called Justin Thyme before joining Aerosmith in 1971, replacing original guitarist Ray Tabano. Aerosmith would go on to be one of the most successful bands of the 1970s. However, following a string of less successful albums in the late 1970s, Whitford left the band in 1981 to work on his own project with singer Derek St. Holmes called Whitford/St. Holmes; the project was dissolved after a sole self-titled album was released in 1981. Whitford toured with the Joe Perry Project, featuring former Aerosmith bandmate Joe Perry, before both Perry and Whitford rejoined Aerosmith in 1984.
In the mid-late 1980s, all band members completed drug rehabilitation, including Whitford, who completed programs to combat his alcohol abuse. Whitford continues to be an active member in Aerosmith. Whitford served as a producer for a well-known Boston band, the Neighborhoods, who were led by a rabid Aerosmith fan, David Minehan. When, in 1994, Whitford was forced to leave unexpectedly in the middle of an Asian tour due to family illness, Minehan was flown to Japan where he performed in Whitford's place for several days until Whitford returned. Whitford missed the start of Aerosmith's 2009 summer tour after requiring surgery as a result of a head injury sustained while getting out of his Ferrari, joining the tour after a month. In 2010, Whitford was announced as one of the guitarists to take part in the Experience Hendrix tour, playing songs performed and inspired by Jimi Hendrix along with other musicians such as Joe Satriani, Sacred Steel, Jonny Lang, Eric Johnson, Kenny Wayne Shepherd, Ernie Isley, Living Colour, Hubert Sumlin, Chris Layton, bassist Billy Cox.
Along with fellow Aerosmith guitarist Joe Perry, Whitford was included in the Guitar World book The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time in 2007. In 2013 played with Buddy Guy, Steven Tyler and Joe Perry on Evil Twin. In November 2015, Whitford/St. Holmes Reunited for a 10 show tour. While Joe Perry is Aerosmith's better known guitarist and the band's principal songwriter with Steven Tyler, Whitford has made significant contributions to the band's repertoire over the years; this includes co-writing Aerosmith's hit "Last Child" as well as some of Aerosmith's heaviest songs: "Nobody's Fault" and "Round and Round", playing lead guitar on "Sick as a Dog" and "Back In the Saddle", "Last Child", on the ballads "You See Me Crying" and "Home Tonight" He plays co-lead with Joe Perry on songs such as "Train Kept A-Rollin", "Lord of the Thighs" and "Love in an Elevator". The version of "Lord of the Thighs" on their 1978 live album Live! Bootleg in particular is his most famous soloing moment; when Aerosmith made their comeback in the late 1980s, Whitford continued to co-write tracks such as "Permanent Vacation" and "Hoodoo/Voodoo Medicine Man", plays occasional lead guitar on some more recent tracks as well as during many live performances.
Concerning his lesser role in the band's songwriting process, Whitford has said, "I don't consider myself a prolific writer. I can write music with other people. I can't create a song. It's difficult to do. That's why the people that can do it are few and far between. I'm not that type of a guy. More of a guitar player, more of the kind of who comes up with enough riffs and ideas to write a song, but to write lyrics and come up with a melody for it, it won't happen."Said Aerosmith lead singer Steven Tyler of the two guitarists, "Joe is self-taught and his playing comes from raw emotion. Not that Brad's doesn't, but his style is more schooled." Slash, lead guitarist of Guns N' Roses cites Brad Whitford as one of his heaviest influences, stating: "I identified with Joe Perry's image, both soundwise and visually....but I was totally into Brad Whitford's guitar solos, he had a more direct influence on the way I play than anybody realizes." Brad Whitford plays lead guitar, co-leads, or plays the guitar solo on the following Aerosmith songs "Dream On" from Aerosmith "Mama Kin" from Aerosmith "One Way Street" from Aerosmith "Same Old Song and Dance" from Get Your Wings "Lord of the Thighs" from Get Your Wings "Train Kept A-Rollin'" from Get Your Wings "Round and Round" from Toys in the Attic "You See Me Crying" Toys in the Attic "Back in the Saddle" from Rocks "Last Child" from Rocks "Sick as a Dog" from Rocks "Nobody's Fault" from Rocks "Home Tonight" from Rocks "Kings and Queens" from Draw the Line "The Hand that Feeds" from Draw the Line "Milk Cow Blues" from Draw the Line "Shela" from Done with Mirrors "The Hop" from Done with Mirrors "Hearts Done Time" from Permanent Vacation "Girl Keeps Coming Apart" from Permanent Vacation "Permanent Vacation" from Permanent Vacation "The Movie" from Permanent Vacation "Love in an Elevator" from Pump "Hoodoo/Voodoo Medicine Man" from Pump "Krawhitham" from Pandora's Box "Fever" from Get a Grip "Flesh" from Get a Grip "Walk on Down" (last solo during li