A sniper is a military/paramilitary marksman who operates to maintain effective visual contact with and engage enemy targets from concealed positions or at distances exceeding the target's detection capabilities. Snipers have specialized training and are equipped with high-precision rifles and high-magnification optics, feed information back to their units or command headquarters. In addition to marksmanship and long range shooting, military snipers are trained in a variety of tactical techniques: detection and target range estimation methods, field craft, special reconnaissance and observation and target acquisition; the verb "to snipe" originated in the 1770s among soldiers in British India in reference to shooting snipes, considered an challenging game bird for hunters. The agent noun "sniper" appears by the 1820s; the term sniper was first attested in 1824 in the sense of the word "sharpshooter". A somewhat older term is "sharp shooter", a calque of 18th-century German Scharfschütze, in use in British newspapers as early as 1801.
Different countries use different military doctrines regarding snipers in military units and tactics. A sniper's primary function in modern warfare is to provide detailed reconnaissance from a concealed position and, if necessary, to reduce the enemy's fighting ability by shooting high-value targets and in the process pinning down and demoralizing the enemy. Typical sniper missions include managing intelligence information they gather during reconnaissance and surveillance, target acquisition for air-strikes and artillery, assist employed combat force with fire support and counter-sniper tactics, killing enemy commanders, selecting targets of opportunity, destruction of military equipment, which tend to require use of anti-materiel rifles in the larger calibers such as the.50 BMG, like the Barrett M82, McMillan Tac-50, Denel NTW-20. Soviet- and Russian-derived military doctrines include squad-level snipers. Snipers have been demonstrated as useful by US and UK forces in the recent Iraq campaign in a fire support role to cover the movement of infantry in urban areas.
Military snipers from the US, UK, other countries that adopt their military doctrine are deployed in two-man sniper teams consisting of a shooter and spotter. A common practice is for a spotter to take turns in order to avoid eye fatigue. In most recent combat operations occurring in large densely populated towns, such as Fallujah, two teams would be deployed together to increase their security and effectiveness in an urban environment. A sniper team would be armed with its long-range weapon and a shorter-ranged weapon in case of close contact combat; the German doctrine of independent snipers and emphasis on concealment, developed during the Second World War, has been most influential on modern sniper tactics, is used throughout Western militaries. Sniper rifles are classified as crew-served. A sniper team consists of a combination of one or more shooters with force protection elements and support personnel: such as a spotter or a flanker. Within the Table of Organization and Equipment for both the United States Army and the U.
S. Marine Corps, the operator of the weapon has an assistant trained to fulfill multiple roles, in addition to being sniper-qualified in the operation of the weapon; the shooter fires the shot while the spotter assists in observation of targets, atmospheric conditions and handles ancillary tasks as immediate security of their location, communication with other parties. A flanker's task is to observe areas not visible to the sniper or spotter and assist with the team's perimeter and rear security, therefore flankers are armed with an assault rifle or battle rifle. Both spotter and flanker carry associated equipment; the spotter detects and assigns targets and watches for the results of the shot. Using a spotting scope or a rangefinder, the spotter will read the wind by using physical indicators and the mirage caused by the heat on the ground. In conjunction with the shooter, the spotter will make calculations for distance, angle shooting, mil dot related calculations, correction for atmospheric conditions and leads for moving targets.
It is not unusual for the spotter to be equipped with a notepad and a laptop computer for performing these calculations. Law enforcement snipers called police snipers, military snipers differ in many ways, including their areas of operation and tactics. A police sharpshooter is part of a police operation and takes part in short missions. Police forces deploy such sharpshooters in hostage scenarios; this differs from a military sniper. Sometimes as part of a SWAT team, police snipers are deployed alongside negotiators and an assault team trained for close quarters combat; as policemen, they are trained to shoot only as a last resort, when there is a direct threat to life. Police snipers operate at much shorter ranges than military snipers under 100 meters and sometimes less than 50 meters. Both types of snipers do make difficult shots under pressure, perform one-shot kills. Police units that are unequipped for tactical operations may rely on
(What's the Story) Morning Glory?
Morning Glory? is the second studio album by English rock band Oasis, released on 2 October 1995 by Creation Records. It was produced by the group's guitarist Noel Gallagher; the structure and arrangement style of the album were a significant departure from the group's previous record Definitely Maybe. Gallagher's compositions were more focused in balladry and placed more emphasis on huge choruses, with the string arrangements and more varied instrumentation on the record contrasting with the rawness of the group's debut album. Morning Glory? was the group's first album with drummer Alan White, who replaced Tony McCarroll. The record propelled Oasis from being a crossover indie act to a worldwide rock phenomenon, according to various critics, was a significant record in the timeline of British indie music; the band's most commercially successful release, Morning Glory? sold a record-breaking 347,000 copies in its first week on sale, spent 10 weeks at number one on the UK Albums Chart, reached number four in the US Billboard 200.
Singles from the album were successful in Britain and Australia: "Some Might Say" and "Don't Look Back in Anger" reached number one in the UK. Although a commercial smash, the record received lukewarm reviews from mainstream music critics. In the ensuing years, critical opinion towards the album reversed, it is now considered a seminal record of both the Britpop era and the 1990s in general, appears on several lists of the greatest albums in rock music. At the 1996 Brit Awards, the album won Best British Album. Over several months in 1995 and 1996, the band performed an extensive world tour in support of the album. Among the most notable of these concerts were back-to-back nights at Earls Court in London in November 1995, which were the biggest indoor gigs in Europe at the time, they performed two "homecoming" gigs at Maine Road in Manchester in April 1996. In August of that year, the band played to 80,000 people over two nights at Balloch Country Park at Loch Lomond in Scotland, before two performances a week at Knebworth House to a combined crowd of 250,000 people.
At the 2010 Brit Awards, Morning Glory? was named the greatest British album since 1980. It is purported to have sold over 27.4 million worldwide, although several sources claim that it has sold over 31.2 million copies worldwide. Making it one of the best-selling albums of all time; as of October 2018, it is the UK's forth-best-selling album of all time, having sold over 5.1 million copies, was the UK's best-selling album of the 1990s. In May 1995, in the wake of the critical and commercial success of their 1994 debut album, Definitely Maybe, Oasis began recording Morning Glory at Rockfield Studios in Wales, with Owen Morris and Noel Gallagher producing. By the time they were finished in June 1995, Oasis were on the brink of becoming one of the most popular bands in the UK: the August 1995 Battle of Britpop incident in which Oasis and Blur had a chart battle over their singles "Roll with It", "Country House", would propel them to mainstream awareness; the band recorded the album quickly: early on, averaging one song every twenty-four hours.
However, tension arose between songwriter Noel Gallagher and his younger brother, lead singer Liam, when Noel wanted to sing lead vocals on either "Wonderwall" or "Don't Look Back in Anger". The younger Gallagher considered this tantamount to a temporary exile from his own group; the issue dissipated momentarily as Noel was pleased with Liam's vocal take of "Wonderwall". However, tension returned due to Liam's strained attempts to sing the high notes on "Champagne Supernova"; when Noel subsequently took his turn to record his vocals for "Don't Look Back in Anger", Liam went to a local pub and came back accompanied by a crowd of people, including music journalist John Robb, producing the band Cable in nearby studio Monnow Valley, Wales whilst recording was still underway. After an altercation with Cable that infuriated his brother, the siblings began fighting viciously, the session was abandoned and recording was suspended; when the Gallagher brothers were reconciled three weeks the group spent another two weeks working on the album, followed by post-production work in London.
Despite the friction involved between the Gallagher brothers, Owen Morris reflected in 2010 that: "The sessions were the best, least fraught, most creative time I've had in a recording studio. I believe people can hear when music is dishonest and motivated by the wrong reasons. Morning Glory, for all its imperfection and flaws, is dripping with love and happiness." Paul Weller joined them in the studio and provided lead guitar and backing vocals for "Champagne Supernova", harmonica for the two untitled tracks known as "The Swamp Song". Noel wrote the last song for the album, "Cast No Shadow", on the train. Morris claimed the album was recorded at a pace of one song a day. "Some Might Say" proved problematic to record: the backing track was recorded in one take after Noel Gallagher and Morris drunkenly listened to the demo and decided the new version was played too fast, Noel woke the rest of the band to re-record it. The backing track was faster than intended, with what Morris described as "a bad speed up during the first three bars of the first chorus", but the take
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League is an annual club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations and contested by top-division European clubs. It is one of the most prestigious tournaments in the world and the most prestigious club competition in European football, played by the national league champions of the strongest UEFA national associations. Introduced in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup, more known as the European Cup, it was a straight knockout tournament open only to the champion club of each national championship; the competition took on its current name in 1992, adding a round-robin group stage and allowing multiple entrants from certain countries. It has since been expanded, while most of Europe's national leagues can still only enter their champion, the strongest leagues now provide up to five teams. Clubs that finish next-in-line in their national league, having not qualified for the Champions League, are eligible for the second-tier UEFA Europa League competition.
In its present format, the Champions League begins in late June with four knockout qualifying rounds and a play-off round. The 6 surviving teams enter the group stage; the 32 teams are drawn into eight groups of four teams and play each other in a double round-robin system. The eight group winners and eight runners-up proceed to the knockout phase that culminates with the final match in May; the winner of the Champions League qualifies for the FIFA Club World Cup. The competition has been won by 22 clubs. Real Madrid is the most successful club in the tournament's history, having won it 13 times, including its first five seasons. Real Madrid are the reigning champions. Spanish clubs have the highest number of victories, followed by Italy. England has the largest number of winning teams, with five clubs having won the title; the first pan-European tournament was the Challenge Cup, a competition between clubs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Mitropa Cup, a competition modelled after the Challenge Cup, was created in 1927, an idea of Austrian Hugo Meisl, played between Central European clubs.
In 1930, the Coupe des Nations, the first attempt to create a cup for national champion clubs of Europe, was played and organised by Swiss club Servette. Held in Geneva, it brought together ten champions from across the continent; the tournament was won by Újpest of Hungary. Latin European nations came together to form the Latin Cup in 1949. After receiving reports from his journalists over the successful Campeonato Sudamericano de Campeones of 1948, Gabriel Hanot, editor of L'Équipe, began proposing the creation of a continent-wide tournament. After Stan Cullis declared Wolverhampton Wanderers "Champions of the World" following a successful run of friendlies in the 1950s, in particular a 3–2 friendly victory against Budapest Honvéd, Hanot managed to convince UEFA to put into practice such a tournament, it was conceived in Paris in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup. The first edition of the European Cup took place during the 1955–56 season. Sixteen teams participated: Milan, AGF Aarhus, Djurgården, Gwardia Warszawa, Partizan, PSV Eindhoven, Rapid Wien, Real Madrid, Rot-Weiss Essen, Saarbrücken, Sporting CP, Stade de Reims, Vörös Lobogó.
The first European Cup match took place on 4 September 1955, ended in a 3–3 draw between Sporting CP and Partizan. The first goal in European Cup history was scored by João Baptista Martins of Sporting CP; the inaugural final took place at the Parc des Princes between Stade de Real Madrid. The Spanish squad came back from behind to win 4–3 thanks to goals from Alfredo Di Stéfano and Marquitos, as well as two goals from Héctor Rial. Real Madrid defended the trophy next season in their home stadium, the Santiago Bernabéu, against Fiorentina. After a scoreless first half, Real Madrid scored twice in six minutes to defeat the Italians. In 1958, Milan failed to capitalise after going ahead on the scoreline twice, only for Real Madrid to equalise; the final held in Heysel Stadium went to extra time where Francisco Gento scored the game-winning goal to allow Real Madrid to retain the title for the third consecutive season. In a rematch of the first final, Real Madrid faced Stade Reims at the Neckarstadion for the 1958–59 season final winning 2–0.
West German side Eintracht Frankfurt became the first non-Latin team to reach the European Cup final. The 1959–60 season finale still holds the record for the most goals scored, with Real Madrid beating Eintracht Frankfurt 7-3 in Hampden Park, courtesy of four goals by Ferenc Puskás and a hat-trick by Alfredo Di Stéfano; this was a record that still stands today. Real Madrid's reign ended in the 1960–61 season when bitter rivals Barcelona dethroned them in the first round. Barcelona themselves, would be defeated in the final by Portuguese side Benfica 3–2 at Wankdorf Stadium. Reinforced by Eusébio, Benfica defeated Real Madrid 5–3 at the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam and kept the title for a second, consecutive season. Benfica wanted to repeat Real Madrid's successful run of the 1950s after reaching the showpiece event of the 1962–63 European Cup, but a brace from Brazilian-Italian José Altafini at the Wembley Stadi
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B
Le Coq Sportif
Le Coq Sportif is a French producer of athletic shoes and sporting accessories. Founded in 1882 by Émile Camuset and located in Entzheim, the company first issued items branded with its now-famous rooster trademark in 1948; the company's name and trademark are derived from a national symbol of France. The company has sponsorship deals with several football clubs, most notably European clubs Saint-Étienne and Fiorentina. In addition, the company sponsors the Quick Team Milram cycling teams. Le coq sportif supplied kits to the Tottenham Hotspur team that won the FA Cup in 1981 and 1982, Aston Villa 1982 team that won the European Cup, Sunderland, Sheffield United and Everton and AFC Ajax of Amsterdam of the mid-1980s; the company sponsored Brazilian club Sport Club Internacional in 1982. The club won the traditional Joan Gamper Trophy at the Camp Nou in Barcelona while using Le Coq uniforms. Internacional won the 1982 Gaúcho Championship wearing Le Coq. South Korean golfer Yang Yong-eun wore a Le Coq Sportif shirt on the last day of the PGA Championship in 2009, which he won.
Le Coq Sportif is famous in Japan and Korea and hired local designers to complete and adapt the global collection for local market. They signed some partnerships to release special models. Le Coq Sportif in Japan associated with Sou to create handmade tabi, they released a line of shoes with designer Kamishima Chinami. For Le Coq Sportif Korea, the partnership was made with the car manufacturer Peugeot to create a shoe named the "Peugeot 207cc." The shoes were recalled in 2009 for a product fault, when the fabric was exposed to water the shoe's stitching would come apart. This in turn lost Le Coq Sportif millions in revenue. In 2012, Le Coq Sportif returned to professional cycling, manufactured the jerseys for the Tour de France under a new five-year contract with Amaury Sport Organisation. Le Coq Sportif started supplying the Tour de France in 1951. Le Coq Sportif is the official uniform supplier of the following teams/players: Changwon LG Sakers Lennox Lewis Tour de France Renault F1 Team Richard Gasquet Chung Hyeon Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata Atlético Mineiro Quimbaya Brasil Saint-Étienne ESTAC Troyes Fiorentina AS Velasca FC Seoul Homenmen Beirut Racing 92 France Official website
James Lomas is an English television actor, known for his roles as Warren Fox in Hollyoaks and Jake Stone in EastEnders and Jeff Durkin in Coronation Street. Lomas was born in Manchester. Before joining Hollyoaks in 2006, he had minor roles in Heartbeat playing Craig Harker in 2005 and in Casualty playing Nathan Simmonds in 2005, his most notable appearance was the Sky One series Dream Team as Alex Dempsey and appeared in Blue Murder in October 2006. Lomas left Hollyoaks in 2011. Lomas made a full-time return to Hollyoaks in May 2016, before he departed again in November 2017. In June 2013, it was revealed that Lomas had received a part in EastEnders as Jake Stone, his character having an affair with Lauren Branning. Jamie was on the 17th series of I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here! and finished in 2nd place. On 30 March 2018 it was announced that Lomas was to return to Hollyoaks reprising his role as Warren in the year. Lomas has a son named Billy with his former girlfriend, he and Coronation Street star Kym Marsh publicly announced their relationship in July 2008.
In December 2008, Lomas and Marsh announced they were expecting a baby together, due in the summer of 2009. On 12 February 2009, Marsh released a statement on behalf of the couple, announcing their son, Archie Jay Lomas, had been born 18 weeks early on 11 February, had died moments after birth. On 23 March 2011, Marsh gave birth to their second child together, Polly, they married in Cheshire in 2012 but separated in October 2013 with the divorce being finalised on 10 January 2014. Nominated for Villain of the Year and Best Actor at the British Soap Awards 2007, 2008 and 2009; as well as this he was nominated for Sexiest Male in 2007 and 2008. Lomas along with Gemma Bissix, Hannah Tointon and Chris Fountain picked up the award for Most Spectacular scene in 2008 for Clare Devine driving off a cliff, he was nominated for Best Actor for his role as Warren Fox since returning at the 2017 British Soap Awards along side his colleague Gregory Finnegan who plays James Nightingale but they lost out to John Middleton for his role as Ashley Thomas in rival soap Emmerdale.
Official website Channel 4 Website Harchester.net Harchester United. Org Jamie Lomas on IMDb Backstage Video from the Hollyoaks official website https://web.archive.org/web/20090509194057/http://tv.sky.com/hollyoaks-interview-jamie-lomas
In law, fraud is intentional deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud can violate civil law, a criminal law, or it may cause no loss of money, property or legal right but still be an element of another civil or criminal wrong; the purpose of fraud may be monetary gain or other benefits, such as obtaining a passport or travel document, driver's license. Examples include mortgage fraud, where the perpetrator may attempt to qualify for a mortgage by way of false statements. A hoax is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim. In common law jurisdictions, as a civil wrong, fraud is a tort. While the precise definitions and requirements of proof vary among jurisdictions, the requisite elements of fraud as a tort are the intentional misrepresentation or concealment of an important fact upon which the victim is meant to rely, in fact does rely, to the harm of the victim.
Proving fraud in a court of law is said to be difficult. That difficulty is found, for instance, in that each and every one of the elements of fraud must be proven, that the elements include proving the states of mind of the perpetrator and the victim, that some jurisdictions require the victim to prove fraud by clear and convincing evidence; the remedies for fraud may include rescission of a fraudulently obtained agreement or transaction, the recovery of a monetary award to compensate for the harm caused, punitive damages to punish or deter the misconduct, others. In cases of a fraudulently induced contract, fraud may serve as a defense in a civil action for breach of contract or specific performance of contract. Fraud may serve as a basis for a court to invoke its equitable jurisdiction. In common law jurisdictions, as a criminal offence, fraud takes many different forms, some general and some specific to particular categories of victims or misconduct; the elements of fraud as a crime vary.
The requisite elements of the most general form of criminal fraud, theft by false pretense, are the intentional deception of a victim by false representation or pretense with the intent of persuading the victim to part with property and with the victim parting with property in reliance on the representation or pretense and with the perpetrator intending to keep the property from the victim. Section 380 of the Criminal Code provides the general definition for fraud in Canada: 380; every one who, by deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means, whether or not it is a false pretence within the meaning of this Act, defrauds the public or any person, whether ascertained or not, of any property, money or valuable security or any service, is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding fourteen years, where the subject-matter of the offence is a testamentary instrument or the value of the subject-matter of the offence exceeds five thousand dollars. In addition to the penalties outlined above, the court can issue a prohibition order under s. 380.2.
It can make a restitution order under s. 380.3. The Canadian courts have held that the offence consists of two distinct elements: A prohibited act of deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means. In the absence of deceit or falsehood, the courts will look objectively for a "dishonest act"; the Supreme Court of Canada has held that deprivation is satisfied on proof of detriment, prejudice or risk of prejudice. Deprivation of confidential information, in the nature of a trade secret or copyrighted material that has commercial value, has been held to fall within the scope of the offence; the proof requirements for criminal fraud charges in the United States are the same as the requirements for other crimes: guilt must be proved beyond a reasonable doubt. Throughout the United States fraud charges can be misdemeanors or felonies depending on the amount of loss involved. High value frauds can include additional penalties. For example, in California losses of $500,000 or more will result in an extra two, three, or five years in prison in addition to the regular penalty for the fraud.
The U. S. government's 2006 fraud review concluded that fraud is a under-reported crime, while various agencies and organizations were attempting to tackle the issue, greater co-operation was needed to achieve a real impact in the public sector. The scale of the problem pointed to the need for a small but high-powered body to bring together the numerous counter-fraud initiatives that existed. Although elements may vary by jurisdiction and the specific allegations made by a plaintiff who files a lawsuit that alleged fraud, typical elements of a fraud case in the United States are that: Somebody misrepresents a material fact in order to obtain action or forbearance by another person.