A dream vision or visio is a literary device in which a dream or vision is recounted as having revealed knowledge or a truth that is not available to the dreamer or visionary in a normal waking state. While dreams occur frequently throughout the history of literature, visionary literature as a genre began to flourish suddenly, in both its ancient and medieval form, the dream vision is often felt to be of divine origin. The genre reemerged in the era of Romanticism, when dreams were regarded as creative gateways to imaginative possibilities beyond rational calculation and this genre typically follows a structure whereby a narrator recounts his experience of falling asleep and waking, and the story is often an allegory. The dream, which forms the subject of the poem, is prompted by events in his life that are referred to early in the poem. The ‘vision’ addresses these concerns through the possibilities of the imaginative landscapes offered by the dream-state. In the course of the dream, the narrator, often with the aid of a guide, is offered perspectives that provide potential resolutions to his waking concerns, the poem concludes with the narrator waking, determined to record the dream – thus producing the poem.
The dream-vision convention was used in European literature from late Latin times until the 15th century. He is chaperoned in the dream briefly by Scipio the Elder himself and it is written in unrhymed alliterative verse divided into sections called passus
Fantasy is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe, often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Most fantasy uses magic or other elements as a main plot element, theme. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds, in popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy works by many writers, filmmakers. Fantasy is studied in a number of disciplines including English and other studies, cultural studies, comparative literature, history. The identifying trait of fantasy is the reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent. This differs from realistic fiction in that whereas realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, an author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Fantasy has often compared with science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction.
Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements, a science fiction narrative is unlikely, though seeming possible through logical scientific and/or technological extrapolation, whereas fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. The imagined elements of fantasy do not need an explanation to be narratively functional. Authors have to rely on the suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment. Despite both genres heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable, horror primarily evokes fear through the protagonists weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Beginning perhaps with the earliest written documents and other elements that would come to define fantasy. MacDonald was an influence on both J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis. The other major fantasy author of this era was William Morris, lord Dunsany established the genres popularity in both the novel and the short story form.
Many popular mainstream authors began to write fantasy at this time, including H. Rider Haggard, Rudyard Kipling and Edgar Rice Burroughs. Indeed, juvenile fantasy was considered more acceptable than fantasy intended for adults, nathaniel Hawthorne wrote fantasy in A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys, intended for children, though works for adults only verged on fantasy. Political and social trends can affect a societys reception towards fantasy, in the early 20th century, the New Culture Movements enthusiasm for Westernization and science in China compelled them to condemn the fantastical shenmo genre of traditional Chinese literature
Wonderland (fictional country)
Wonderland is the setting for Lewis Carrolls 1865 childrens novel Alices Adventures in Wonderland. In the story, Wonderland is accessed by an underground passage, the land is heavily wooded and grows mushrooms. There are well-kept gardens and substantial houses, such as those of the Duchess, Wonderland has a seacoast, where the Mock Turtle lives. The land is ruled by the Queen of Hearts, whose whimsical decrees of capital punishment are routinely nullified by the King of Hearts. There is at least one Duchess, the main population consists of animated playing cards, the royal family, courtiers and servants. In addition, there are talking animals. Wonderland is featured in Tim Burtons 2010 film Alice in Wonderland, here, it is actually named Underland, Alice misheard the name as a child, believing it to be Wonderland. Alice returns to Wonderland when the White Queen is challenging her tyrannical sister, Wonderland is featured in some episodes of Once Upon a Time. This is where the Evil Queen sent her mother Cora where she became the current Queen of Hearts.
Land of Oz Looking-Glass Land Middle Earth Narnia Neverland Pictorial map of Alices Wonderland
The Adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl in 3-D
The film uses the anaglyph 3-D technology, similar to the one used in Spy Kids 3-D, Game Over. The film stars Taylor Lautner, Taylor Dooley, Cayden Boyd, David Arquette, Kristin Davis, many of the concepts and much of the story were conceived by Rodriguezs children. Max is a child in the suburbs of Austin who creates an imaginary world named Planet Drool. The two left Max to guard Planet Drool, in real life, Maxs parents have little time for him, and their marriage seems to be on the rocks, and he is bullied by fellow schoolmate Linus. However, he does receive friendship from Marissa, the daughter of his teacher Mr. Electricidad, after a chase around the local park, Linus steals Maxs dream journal, and vandalizes it. The next day, as Max attempts to retaliate, twin tornadoes form outside the school, and moments later and Lavagirl appear, and ask Max to come with them to Planet Drool. They reach Planet Drool via a shark-like spacecraft, where Max learns that the dreamworld is turning bad, courtesy of Mr.
Electric, originally the dreamworlds electrician and Lavagirl save some children from an out-of-control roller coaster called Mount Neverrest. Then with Max, they confront Mr. Electric, who drops them in a part of Planet Drool called the Dream Graveyard. They find Tobor, a toy that was never finished being built by Max. They are pursued by Mr. Electric and his plughounds across the planet. They plan to visit the Ice Princess, and obtain the Crystal Heart, which can freeze time, giving enough time to get to the center of Planet Drool. However, they are captured by Mr. Electric, and delivered to Linuss Planet Drool incarnation Minus, who has altered the dreamworld with Maxs own Dream Journal, Sharkboy gets annoyed by Linus and has a shark frenzy, destroying the cage. Max retrieves the Dream Journal from Minus while he is sleeping, Max informs Sharkboy that his father is alive in his book, but when Lavagirl wishes to find out what it says about her true identity, she burns the book to ash. In rage, Lavagirl asks him why she was out of lava.
With little time left, Max and Lavagirl reach the Ice Princess, the Planet Drool incarnation of Marissa Electricidad, after an encounter with the Ice Guardian. She hands over the Crystal Heart, but they find they are too late to stop the corruption since the ice princess is the one who can use the Crystal Hearts power. Mr. Electric fools Sharkboy into jumping into water filled with electric eels, Lavagirl jumps into the water to retrieve Sharkboy, but dies moments later. Tobors face appears, and convinces Max to dream a better and unselfish dream, which in turn revives Sharkboy, who races Lavagirl to a volcano, where she too is revived
Philip K. Dick
Philip Kindred Dick was an American writer, who published works mainly belonging to the genre of science fiction. Born in Illinois before moving to California, Dick began publishing science fiction stories in the 1950s and his 1962 alternate history novel The Man in the High Castle earned Dick early acclaim, including a Hugo Award for Best Novel. He followed with science fiction such as Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. His 1974 novel Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said won the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for best novel, a collection of his non-fiction writing on these themes was published posthumously as The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick. He died in 1982 of a stroke, aged 53, in addition to 44 published novels, Dick wrote approximately 121 short stories, most of which appeared in science fiction magazines during his lifetime. A variety of films based on his works have been produced, including Blade Runner, Total Recall, Minority Report, A Scanner Darkly, Next. In 2005, Time magazine named Ubik one of the hundred greatest English-language novels published since 1923, in 2007, Dick became the first science fiction writer to be included in The Library of America series.
The death of Jane six weeks later, on January 26,1929, profoundly affected Philips life and his family moved to the San Francisco Bay Area. When Philip was five, his father was transferred to Reno, both parents fought for custody of Philip, which was awarded to the mother. Dorothy, determined to raise Philip alone, took a job in Washington, D. C. Philip was enrolled at John Eaton Elementary School, completing the second through fourth grades. His lowest grade was a C in Written Composition, although a teacher remarked that he shows interest and he was educated in Quaker schools. In June 1938, Dorothy and Philip returned to California, Dick stated that he read his first science fiction magazine, Stirring Science Stories in 1940 at the age of twelve. Dick attended Berkeley High School in Berkeley, California and he and fellow science fiction author Ursula K. Le Guin were members of the graduating class but did not know each other at the time. After graduation, he attended the University of California, Berkeley.
Dick did not declare a major and took classes in history, psychology and this question from his early studies persisted as a theme in many of his novels. Dick dropped out because of ongoing anxiety problems, according to his third wife Annes memoir and she says he disliked the mandatory ROTC training. At Berkeley, Dick befriended poet Robert Duncan and poet and linguist Jack Spicer, Dick claimed to have been host of a classical music program on KSMO Radio in 1947
Iain Banks was a Scottish author. He wrote mainstream fiction under the name Iain Banks and science fiction as Iain M. Banks, after the publication and success of The Wasp Factory, Banks began to write on a full-time basis. His first science book, Consider Phlebas, was released in 1987. His books have been adapted for theatre and television, in 2008, The Times named Banks in their list of The 50 greatest British writers since 1945. In April 2013, Banks announced that he had cancer and was unlikely to live beyond a year. Banks was born in Dunfermline, Fife, to a mother who was an ice skater. An only child, Banks lived in North Queensferry until the age of nine, Bankss family moved to Gourock due to the requirements of his fathers work. When someone introduced him to science fiction by giving him Kemlo, after attending Gourock and Greenock High Schools, Banks studied English and psychology at the University of Stirling. After graduation Banks chose a succession of jobs that left him free to write in the evenings and these posts supported his writing throughout his twenties and allowed him to take long breaks between contracts, during which time he travelled through Europe and North America.
He was an expediter analyser for IBM, a technician for the British Steel Corporation, Banks decided to become a writer at the age of 11. He completed his first novel The Hungarian Lift-Jet at 16 and his second novel TTR during his first year at Stirling University in 1972, after the publication and success of The Wasp Factory, Banks began to write full-time. His editor at Macmillan, James Hale, advised him to one book a year. His second novel Walking on Glass was published in 1985, the Bridge followed in 1986, and Espedair Street, published in 1987, was broadcast as a series on BBC Radio 4. His first published fiction book Consider Phlebas was released in 1987 and was the first of several novels of the acclaimed Culture series. Banks cited Robert A. Heinlein, Isaac Asimov, Arthur C, Brian Aldiss, M. John Harrison and Dan Simmons as literary influences. The Crow Road, published in 1992, was adapted as a BBC television series, Banks continued to write both science fiction and mainstream novels, with his final novel The Quarry published in June 2013, the month of his death.
Banks published work under two names and his parents had intended to name him Iain Menzies Banks, but his father made a mistake when registering the birth and Iain Banks became the officially registered name. Despite this error, Banks used the name and submitted The Wasp Factory for publication as Iain M. Banks
Anime is Japanese hand-drawn or computer animation. The word is the pronunciation of animation in Japanese, where this term references all animation. Arguably, the abstract approach to the words meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners strictly view anime as a Japanese animation product, some scholars suggest defining anime as specifically or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, and Japanese anime production has continued to increase steadily. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media and it is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is an art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies. It consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining art, cinematography.
The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of effects, including panning, zooming. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation. Despite comprising only a fraction of Japans domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales and it has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming. This rise in popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Anime is an art form, specifically animation, that all genres found in cinema. In Japanese, the term refers to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more used to denote a Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment or as a style of animation created in Japan.
The etymology of the anime is disputed. The English term animation is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form, in English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun
A Nightmare on Elm Street (franchise)
A Nightmare on Elm Street is an American horror franchise that consists of nine slasher films, a television series and comic books. The franchise began with the film A Nightmare on Elm Street created by Wes Craven, the franchise revolves around the fictional character Freddy Krueger, a former child killer who stalks teenagers in their dreams and kills them. His motives were to seek revenge on their parents, who had burned him alive, the original film was written and directed by Craven, who returned to co-script the second sequel, A Nightmare on Elm Street 3, Dream Warriors, and to write and direct New Nightmare. The films collectively grossed over $457 million at the box-office worldwide, the original film was released in 1984. A series of produced by the independent film company New Line Cinema followed. New Line often attributes the growth of their company to the success of the Nightmare franchise, the film series as a whole has received mixed reviews by critics, but has been a financial success at the box office.
When comparing the United States box office grosses of other American horror film series, in 1988, a television series was produced with Freddy as the host. The pilot episode focused on the night Freddy was burned alive by the parents of the children he had killed. A remake of the 1984 film was released in 2010, the original film and directed by Wes Craven and titled A Nightmare on Elm Street, was released in 1984. The story focuses on Freddy Krueger attacking Nancy Thompson and her friends in their dreams, successfully killing all but Nancy, in fictional Springwood, Kruegers back-story is revealed by Nancys mother, who explains he was a child murderer. The parents of Springwood killed Krueger after he was acquitted on a technicality, Nancy defeats Freddy by pulling him from the dream world and stripping him of his powers when she stops being afraid of him. Freddy returns to attack the new family, the Walshes, living in Nancy Thompsons house in 1985s A Nightmare on Elm Street 2, Freddy possesses the body of Jesse Walsh, using him to kill.
Jesse is temporarily saved by his girlfriend Lisa, who helps him exorcise Kruegers spirit, Wes Craven returned to write A Nightmare on Elm Street 3, Dream Warriors, released in 1987. In the second sequel, Freddy is systematically killing the last of the Elm Street children, the few remaining children have been placed in Westin Hills Mental Institution, for allegedly attempting suicide. Nancy Thompson arrives at Westin Hills as a new intern, with the help of Dr. Neil Gordon, Nancy helps Kristen, Taryn and Will find their dream powers, so they can kill Freddy once and for all. Neil, unknowingly until the end, meets the spirit of Freddys mother, Amanda Krueger, Neil completes his task, but not before Freddy kills Nancy. The story of Kristen Parker would continue with 1988s A Nightmare on Elm Street 4 and this time, Kristen unwittingly releases Freddy, who immediately kills Kincaid and Joey. Before Freddy can kill Kristen, she transfers her powers to Alice
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer. He is noted for his facility at word play, There are societies in many parts of the world dedicated to the enjoyment and promotion of his works and the investigation of his life. Dodgsons family was predominantly northern English, with Irish connections, most of Dodgsons male ancestors were army officers or Church of England clergy. His great-grandfather, named Charles Dodgson, had risen through the ranks of the church to become the Bishop of Elphin. His paternal grandfather, another Charles, had been an army captain, the older of these sons – yet another Charles Dodgson – was Carrolls father. He went to Westminster School and to Christ Church, Oxford and he reverted to the other family tradition and took holy orders. He was mathematically gifted and won a double first degree, which could have been the prelude to a brilliant academic career, instead, he married his first cousin Frances Jane Lutwidge in 1830 and became a country parson.
Dodgson was born in the parsonage at Daresbury in Cheshire near the towns of Warrington and Runcorn. When Charles was 11, his father was given the living of Croft-on-Tees in North Yorkshire, and this remained their home for the next 25 years. He was High Church, inclining to Anglo-Catholicism, an admirer of John Henry Newman and the Tractarian movement, Young Charles was to develop an ambiguous relationship with his fathers values and with the Church of England as a whole. During his early youth, Dodgson was educated at home and his reading lists preserved in the family archives testify to a precocious intellect, at the age of seven, he was reading books such as The Pilgrims Progress. He suffered from a stammer – a condition shared by most of his siblings – that often influenced his life throughout his years. At the age of twelve, he was sent to Richmond Grammar School at nearby Richmond, in 1846, Dodgson entered Rugby School where he was evidently unhappy, as he wrote some years after leaving, I cannot say.
That any earthly considerations would induce me to go through my three years again, I can honestly say that if I could have been. Secure from annoyance at night, the hardships of the daily life would have been comparative trifles to bear, though, he excelled with apparent ease. I have not had a promising boy at his age since I came to Rugby. He left Rugby at the end of 1849 and matriculated at Oxford in May 1850 as a member of his fathers old college, after waiting for rooms in college to become available, he went into residence in January 1851. He had been at Oxford only two days when he received a summons home and his mother had died of inflammation of the brain – perhaps meningitis or a stroke – at the age of 47
The looking-glass world is the setting for Lewis Carrolls 1871 childrens novel Through the Looking-Glass. The entire country is divided into squares by a series of little brooks with hedges growing perpendicular to them, the land is contested by two competing factions, the Reds and the Whites. Each side has its King and Queen, knights, haigha Hatta Humpty Dumpty The Lion and the Unicorn Red King Red Queen The Sheep Tweedledum and Tweedledee White King White Knight White Queen Wonderland Manguel, Gianni Guadalupi. Map of The Looking-Glass Lands by Triple Ace Games
James Branch Cabell
James Branch Cabell was an American author of fantasy fiction and belles lettres. Cabell was well regarded by his contemporaries, including H. L. Mencken, Edmund Wilson and his works were considered escapist and fit well in the culture of the 1920s, when they were most popular. For Cabell, veracity was the one sin, not merely against art. Although escapist, Cabells works are ironic and satirical, H. L. Mencken disputed Cabells claim to romanticism and characterized him as really the most acidulous of all the anti-romantics. Chase dragons precisely as stockbrockers play golf, Cabell saw art as an escape from life, but once the artist creates his ideal world, he finds that it is made up of the same elements that make the real one. Interest in Cabell declined in the 1930s, a decline that has been attributed in part to his failure to move out of his fantasy niche despite the onset of World War II, alfred Kazin said that Cabell and Hitler did not inhabit the same universe. Cabell was born into an affluent and well-connected Virginian family, the first Cabell settled in Virginia in 1664, Cabells paternal great-grandfather, William H.
Cabell, was Governor of the Commonwealth from 1805 to 1808. Cabell County in West Virginia is named after the Governor, James was the oldest of three boys—his brothers were Robert Gamble Cabell III and John Lottier Cabell. His parents separated and were divorced in 1907. His aunt was the suffragist and educationist Mary-Cooke Branch Munford, although Cabells surname is often mispronounced Ka-BELL, he himself pronounced it CAB-ble. To remind an editor of the pronunciation, Cabell composed this rhyme. Cabell matriculated at the College of William and Mary in 1894 at the age of fifteen, while an undergraduate, Cabell taught French and Greek at the College. Following his graduation, he worked from 1898 to 1900 as a reporter in New York City, but returned to Richmond in 1901. 1901 was an year for Cabell, his first stories were accepted for publication, and he was suspected of the murder of John Scott. It was rumored that Scott was involved romantically with Cabells mother, Cabells supposed involvement in the Scott murder and his college scandal were both mentioned in Ellen Glasgows posthumously published autobiography The Woman Within.
Between 1911 and 1913, he was employed by his uncle in the office of the Branch coal mines in West Virginia, on November 8,1913, he married Priscilla Bradley Shepherd, a widow with five children from her previous marriage. In 1915, son Ballard Hartwell Cabell was born, Priscilla died in March 1949, Cabell was remarried in June 1950 to Margaret Waller Freeman. During his life, Cabell published fifty-two books, including novels, collections of stories, poetry
Stephen R. Donaldson
Stephen Reeder Donaldson is an American fantasy, science fiction and mystery novelist, most famous for The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, his ten-novel fantasy series. He earned his bachelors degree from The College of Wooster and a Masters degree from Kent State University and he currently resides in New Mexico. In the United Kingdom he is usually called Stephen Donaldson, Donaldson spent part of his youth in India, where he attended what is now the Kodaikanal International School. He was attending Kent State University as a student at the time of the Kent State shootings on May 4,1970. Though he was not on campus at the time of the shootings, his apartment was one and a half blocks away, Donaldson does not like to discuss the incident, as he finds the memories disturbing. Donaldson is a fan of opera, and has said that he love that direct expression of emotion in beautiful sound. In 1994, he gained a black belt in Shotokan karate, Donaldson is part of the generation of fantasy authors which came to prominence in the 1970s and early 1980s.
Like that of many of his peers, his writing is influenced by the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. However, Donaldsons stories show a range of other influences, including Mervyn Peake, C. S. Lewis, Robert E. Howard. Donaldson is a fan of Roger Zelaznys Amber novels. Also, in the Gradual Interview section of his website, Donaldson mentions his extensive study of Joseph Conrad, Henry James and William Faulkner to further develop his narrative style. Donaldsons most celebrated series is The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, which centers on a cynical leper, shunned by society, who is destined to become the heroic savior of an alternative Earth. Covenant struggles against the tyrannical Lord Foul, who intends to break the physical universe in order to escape his bondage and wreak revenge upon his arch enemy, the Chronicles were originally published as two trilogies of novels between 1977 and 1983. According to his current publisher, those two series sold more than 10 million copies, a third series, The Last Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, began publication in 2004 with the novel The Runes of the Earth.
With the second book of series, Fatal Revenant, Donaldson again attained bestseller status when the book reached number 12 on the New York Times Bestseller List in October 2007. The first concerns an ensign in the United Mining Companies Police, Morn Hyland, each of the epics takes place against the backdrop of a threat to human survival itself from an alien species called the Amnion who use genetic mutation as a way to assimilate and overcome. Trade in raw materials is carried out with the Amnion in exchange for technology, some illegals trade in Amnion territorial space, referred to as forbidden space, out of bounds to the UMCP by treaty. Donaldson wrote the series in part to be a reworking of Wagners Ring Cycle, the Gap of the title refers to the faster-than-light drives used by the space vessels in order to cross great distances, an instantaneous occurrence similar to the notion of folding space