William Forbes Skene
William Forbes Skene WS FRSE FSA DCL LLD, was a Scottish lawyer and antiquary. He co-founded the Scottish legal firm Skene Edwards, prominent throughout the 20th century but disappeared in 2008 when merged with Morton Fraser, he was born in Inverey, the second son of Sir Walter Scott's friend, James Skene, of Rubislaw, near Aberdeen, his wife, Jane Forbes, daughter of Sir William Forbes, 6th Baronet of Pitsligo. The family moved to Edinburgh in 1817 living with his uncle, Andrew Skene from 1820 living at 126 Princes Street facing Edinburgh Castle, he was educated at Edinburgh Academy in Edinburgh. He was apprenticed as a lawyer first to Francis Wilson WS at Parliament Square to Henry Jardine WS at Parliament Square, he studied Law at the University of St Andrews and Edinburgh University taking a special interest in the study of Celtic philology and literature. In 1832, he became a Writer to the Signet, shortly afterwards obtained an official appointment in the bill department of the Court of Session, which he held until 1865.
His early interest in the history and antiquities of the Scottish Highlands bore its first fruit in 1837, when he published The Highlanders of Scotland, their Origin and Antiquities. In 1847, during the Highland Potato Famine, he was appointed Secretary to the Central Board for Highland Relief. In this position he worked with Sir Charles Trevelyan, Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. In 1859 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh his proposer being Cosmo Innes, he served as the Society's Vice President from 1869 to 1871. His chief work, however, is his Celtic Scotland, a History of Ancient Alban the most important contribution to Scottish history written during the 19th century. In 1879 he was made a Doctor of Civil Law of the University of Oxford, in 1881 Historiographer Royal for Scotland. William Forbes Skene was a leading member of the congregation of St Vincent's Scottish Episcopal Church in St Vincent Street in Stockbridge in north Edinburgh, he is commemorated there by a prominent memorial on the south wall of the nave.
An avowed Evangelical, he had argued that, since the Scottish Episcopal Church's General Synod of 1863 had established the English Book of Common Prayer as the primary authority for the Church's worship and the Scottish Episcopal Church had adopted the Church of England's Thirty Nine Articles as a doctrinal yardstick, for St Vincent's to remain outside that church could no longer be justified. In his final years he had offices at 5 Albyn Place on the Moray Estate and lived at 27 Inverleith Row, he died unmarried and childless in Edinburgh on 29 August 1892. He is buried with his family in St Johns Episcopal Churchyard on Princes Street; the graves are marked by a bronze plaque. The most important of Skene's other works are: editions of John of Fordun's Chronica gentis Scotorum. MS 1467, a mediaeval Gaelic manuscript'discovered', translated by Skene "Skene, William Forbes." British Authors of the Nineteenth Century H. W. Wilson Company, New York, 1936; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Skene, William Forbes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press. P. 186. "Skene, William Forbes". A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. 1910 – via Wikisource. "Skene, William Forbes". Dictionary of National Biography. 1885–1900. Skene, William Forbes, Alexander, ed; the Highlanders of Scotland, Stirling: Eneas Mackay Skene, William Forbes, ed. Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, Consisting of Original Papers and Documents Relating to the History of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, Edinburgh: Thomas G. Stevenson Skene, William Forbes, "Introduction and Additional Notes", in M'Lauchlan, The Dean of Lismore's Book: A Selection of Ancient Gaelic Poetry, Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, pp. i–xc, 137–152 Skene, William Forbes, ed. Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots, Other Early Memorials of Scottish History, Edinburgh: Edinburgh General Register House Skene, William Forbes, The Four Ancient Books of Wales, I, Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas Skene, William Forbes, The Four Ancient Books of Wales, II, Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas Skene, William Forbes, The Coronation Stone, Edinburgh: Edmonston & Douglas Skene, William Forbes, The Gododdin Poems, Forgotten Books, ISBN 1-60506-167-0 Skene, Felix James Henry.
Domnall mac Ailpín
Domnall mac Ailpín. He followed; the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says that Domnall reigned for four years, matching the notices in the Annals of Ulster of his brother's death in February 858 and his own in April 862. The Chronicle notes: In his time the Gaels with their king made the rights and laws of the kingdom, of Aed, Eochaid's son, in Forteviot; the laws of Áed Find are lost, but it has been assumed that, like the laws attributed to Giric and Constantine II, these related to the church and in particular to granting the privileges and immunities common elsewhere. The significance of Forteviot as the site of this law-making, along with Kenneth's death there and Constantine's gathering at nearby Scone, may point to this as being the heartland of the sons of Alpín's support; the Chronicle of Melrose says of Domnall, "in war he was a vigorous soldier... he is said to have been assassinated at Scone." No other source reports Domnall's death by violence. The Prophecy of Berchán may refer to Domnall in stanzas 123–124: Evil will be Scotland's lot because of.
A long while till the king takes, the wanton son of the foreign wife. He will be three years in the kingdom, three months, his tomb-stone will be above Loch Awe. He dies of disease. Although Domnall is supposed to have been childless, it has been suggested that Giric was a son of Domnall, reading his patronym as mac Domnaill rather than the supposed mac Dúngail. This, however, is not accepted. Domnall died, either at Rathinveralmond, he was buried on Iona. Kingdom of Alba Origins of the Kingdom of Alba Annals of Ulster, part 1, at CELT The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba
Óengus son of Fergus, was king of Picts from 732 until his death in 761. His reign can be reconstructed in some detail from a variety of sources; the unprecedented gains he made and the legacy he left, mean Óengus can be considered the first king of what would become Scotland. Wresting power from his rivals, Óengus became the chief king in Pictland following a period of civil war in the late 720s. During his reign, the neighbouring kingdom of Dál Riata was subsumed under Pictish rule and he extended Pictish influence through Northumbria and Ireland, Óengus is credited with establishing the cult of Saint Andrew in Scotland, at Cennrígmonaid; the most powerful ruler in Scotland over more than two decades, kings from Óengus' family dominated Pictland for a century, until defeat at the hands of Vikings in 839 began a new period of instability, ending with the coming to power of another Pictish line, that of Cináed mac Ailpín. Surviving Pictish sources for the period are few, limited to king lists, the original of, prepared in the early 720s, a number of accounts relating to the foundation of St Andrews called Cennrígmonaid.
Beyond Pictland, the principal sources are the Irish annals, of which the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Tigernach are the most reliable. These include materials from an annal kept at the monastery of Iona in Scotland. Óengus and the Picts appear in Welsh sources, such as the Annales Cambriae, more in Northumbrian sources, of which the Continuation of Bede's chronicle and the Historia Regum Anglorum attributed to Symeon of Durham are the most important. The Picts were one of four political groups in north Britain in the early 8th century. Pictland ran from the River Forth northwards, including Orkney and the Western Isles. Prior to the Viking Age, the main power in Pictland appears to have been the kingdom of Fortriu. Known high-status sites in Fortriu include Craig Phádraig by Inverness. Pictland appears to have had only one bishop with his seat at Rosemarkie. From the Forth south to the River Humber lay the kingdom of Northumbria. Once the dominant force in Britain, it remained a powerful kingdom, but the end of the old dynasty of kings with the death of Osric in 729 led to conflict between rival families for the throne.
The growing power of the Mercian kingdom to the south added to the problems faced by Northumbrian kings. For most of Óengus's reign Northumbria was ruled by the capable King Eadberht Eating. To the south-west of Pictland were the Gaels of Dál Riata where the kingship was disputed between the Cenél Loairn of northern Argyll and the Cenél nGabráin of Kintyre. In 723 Selbach mac Ferchair abdicated as head of the Cenél Loairn and king of Dál Riata in favour of his son Dúngal, driven out as king of Dál Riata by Eochaid mac Echdach of the Cenél nGabráin in 726. Dúngal and Eochaid were still in conflict as late as 731; the history of the fourth group, the Britons of Alt Clut the kingdom of Strathclyde, leaves little trace in the record. King Teudebur map Beli had ruled from Dumbarton Rock since 722, continued to do so until his death in 752 when his son Dumnagual succeeded him. An early medieval Irish genealogy tract claims Óengus to be a descendent of Cairpre Cruithnecháin or "Cairbre the little Pict", of the Eóganachta of Munster.
The branch of the kindred from which it's claimed he came, known in the annals as the Éoganachta of Mag Gergind, are accepted as having been located in modern Angus and the Mearns.Óengus thus appears to have been a native of the Mearns born into an established Verturian kindred there. Indeed, it's nearby, at the hill of Moncrieffe, near Perth, that he first appears in the records, defeating his rival, Alpin, in battle; that the Irish annals envision his kin as'Éoganachta' suggests he was the descendent of an obscure'Vuen', the Pictish British cognate of Gaelic Éogan. Otherwise much of Óengus' early life is unknown, his close kin included at least two sons and Talorgan, two brothers and Bridei. King Nechtan son of Der-Ile abdicated to enter a monastery in 724 and was imprisoned by his successor Drest in 726. In 728 and 729, four kings competed for power in Pictland: Drest. Four battles large enough to be recorded in Ireland were fought in 728 and 729. Alpín was defeated twice by Óengus. In 729 a battle between supporters of Óengus and Nechtan's enemies was fought at Monith Carno where the supporters of Óengus were victorious.
Nechtan was restored to the kingship until his death in 732. On 12 August 729 Óengus defeated and killed Drest in battle at Druimm Derg Blathuug, a place which has not been identified. In the 730s, Óengus fought against Dál Riata whose traditional overlords and protectors in Ireland, the Cenél Conaill, were much weakened at this time. A fleet from Dál Riata fought for Flaithbertach mac Loingsig, chief of the Cenél Conaill, in his war with Áed Allán of the Cenél nEógan, suffered heavy losses in 733. Dál Riata was ruled by Eochaid mac Echdach of the Cenél nGabráin who died in 733, the king lists are unclear as to who, if anyone, succeeded him as overking; the Cenél Loairn of north Argyll were ruled by Dúngal mac Selbaig whom Eochaid had deposed as overking of Dál Riata in the 720s. Fighting between the Picts, led by Óengus's son Bridei, the Dál Riata, led by Talorgan mac Congussa, is reco
Bridei I known as Bridei, son of Maelchon, was king of the Picts from 554 to 584. Sources are vague or contradictory regarding him, but it is believed that his court was near Loch Ness and that he may have been a Christian. There were contemporaries claiming the title "king of the Picts", he died in the mid-580s in battle, was succeeded by Gartnait son of Domelch. Bridei son of Maelchon, was king of the Picts until his death around 584–586. Other forms of his name include Brude son of Melcho and, in Irish sources, Bruide son of Maelchú and Bruidhe son of Maelchon, he was first mentioned in the Irish annals from 558–560, where the Annals of Ulster report "the migration before Máelchú's son, king Bruide". An earlier entry, reporting the death of "Bruide son of Máelchú" in the Annals of Ulster for 505 is presumed to be an error; the Ulster annalist does not say who fled, but the Annals of Tigernach refers to "the flight of the Scots before Bruide son of Máelchú" in 558. This uncertainty has provoked considerable speculation.
Bridei is suggested to have been the son of Maelgwn Gwynedd by John Morris in his Age of Arthur, where he is referred to in passing as "... Bridei, son of Maelgwn, the mighty king of north Wales...". Though the book has been a commercial success, it is disparaged by historians as an unreliable source of "misleading and misguided" information. Bridei's death was reported in the 580's in battle against Pictish rivals in Circinn, an area thought to correspond with the Mearns; the lists of kings in the Pictish Chronicle agree that Bridei was followed by Gartnait son of Domelch. Bridei appears in Adomnán's Life of Saint Columba as a contemporary, as one of the chief kings in Scotland. Adomnán's account of Bridei is problematic as it does not mention whether Bridei was a Christian, if not, whether Columba converted him; the archaeological discoveries at Portmahomack, showing that there was a monastic community there from around 550, provide some support for the idea that Bridei was either a Christian, at least in name, or was converted by Columba.
Bridei was not the only "king of the Picts" during his lifetime. The death of Galam — called "Cennalath, king of the Picts" — is recorded in 580 in the Annals of Ulster, four years before Bridei's death. In addition, Adomnán mentions the presence of the "under-king of Orkney" at Bridei's court; the Annals of Ulster report two expeditions to Orkney during Bridei's reign, in 580 and 581. The location of the court of Bridei's kingdom is not certain. Adomnán's account states that after leaving the royal court, Columba came to the River Ness and that the court was located atop a steep rock. Accordingly, it is supposed that Bridei's chief residence was at Craig Phadrig, to the west of the modern city of Inverness and overlooks the Beauly Firth. Bridei’s kingdom may have corresponded with what would become Fortriu. Juliet Marillier's trilogy The Bridei Chronicles is written as a combination of history and informed guesswork regarding this king's rise to power and rule, her novels describe events in the life of Bridei III.
CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork includes the Annals of Ulster, the Four Masters and Innisfallen, the Chronicon Scotorum, the Lebor Bretnach and various Saints' Lives. Most are translated into English. Bede's Ecclesiastical History and the Continuation of Bede, at CCEL, translated by A. M. Sellar. Tarbat Discovery Programme with reports on excavations at Portmahomack. List of Kings of the Picts
Saint Patrick was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland. Known as the "Apostle of Ireland", he is the primary patron saint of Ireland, the other patron saints being Brigit of Kildare and Columba, he is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Lutheran Churches, the Old Catholic Church, in the Eastern Orthodox Church as equal-to-the-apostles and Enlightener of Ireland. The dates of Patrick's life cannot be fixed with certainty, but there is broad agreement that he was active as a missionary in Ireland during the fifth century; as the most recent biography on Patrick shows, a late fourth-century date for the saint is not impossible. Early medieval tradition credits him with being the first bishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland, they regard him as the founder of Christianity in Ireland, converting a society practising a form of Celtic polytheism, he has been so regarded since, despite evidence of some earlier Christian presence in Ireland.
According to the autobiographical Confessio of Patrick, when he was about 16, he was captured by Irish pirates from his home in Britain and taken as a slave to Ireland, looking after animals. After becoming a cleric, he returned to western Ireland. In life, he served as a bishop, but little is known about the places where he worked. By the seventh century, he had come to be revered as the patron saint of Ireland. Saint Patrick's Day is observed on the supposed date of his death, it is celebrated outside Ireland as a religious and cultural holiday. In the dioceses of Ireland, it is a holy day of obligation. Two Latin works survive which are accepted as having been written by St. Patrick; these are the Declaration and the Letter to the soldiers of Coroticus, from which come the only accepted details of his life. The Declaration is the more biographical of the two. In it, Patrick gives a short account of his mission. Most available details of his life are from subsequent hagiographies and annals, which have considerable value but lack the empiricism scholars depend on today.
The only name that Patrick uses for himself in his own writings is Pātricius, which gives Old Irish Pátraic and Modern Irish Pádraig. Hagiography records other names. Tírechán's seventh-century Collectanea gives: "Magonus, famous. "Magonus" appears in the ninth century Historia Brittonum as Maun, descending from British *Magunos, meaning "servant-lad". "Succetus", which appears in Muirchú moccu Machtheni's seventh century Life as Sochet, is identified by Mac Neill as "a word of British origin meaning swineherd". Cothirthiacus appears as Cothraige in the 8th century biographical poem known as Fiacc's Hymn and a variety of other spellings elsewhere, is taken to represent a Primitive Irish *Qatrikias, although this is disputed. Harvey argues that Cothraige "has the form of a classic Old Irish tribal name", noting that Ail Coithrigi is a name for the Rock of Cashel, the place-names Cothrugu and Catrige are attested in Counties Antrim and Carlow; the dates of Patrick's life are uncertain. His own writings provide no evidence for any dating more precise than the 5th century generally.
His Biblical quotations are a mixture of the Old Latin version and the Vulgate, completed in the early 5th century, suggesting he was writing "at the point of transition from Old Latin to Vulgate", although it is possible the Vulgate readings may have been added replacing earlier readings. The Letter to Coroticus implies that the Franks were still pagans at the time of writing: their conversion to Christianity is dated to the period 496–508; the Irish annals for the fifth century date Patrick's arrival in Ireland at 432, but they were compiled in the mid 6th century at the earliest. The date 432 was chosen to minimise the contribution of Palladius, known to have been sent to Ireland in 431, maximise that of Patrick. A variety of dates are given for his death. In 457 "the elder Patrick" is said to have died: this may refer to the death of Palladius, who according to the Book of Armagh was called Patrick. In 461/2 the annals say that "Here some record the repose of Patrick". While some modern historians accept the earlier date of c. 460 for Patrick's death, scholars of early Irish history tend to prefer a date, c.
493. Supporting the date, the annals record that in 553 "the relics of Patrick were placed sixty years after his death in a shrine by Colum Cille"; the death of Patrick's disciple Mochta is dated in the annals to 535 or 537, the early hagiographies "all bring Patrick into contact with persons whose obits occur at the end of the fifth century or the beginning of the sixth". However, E. A. Thompson argues that none of the dates given for Patrick's death in the Annals are reliable. A recent biography argues. Irish academic T. F. O'Rahilly proposed the "Two Patricks" theory, which suggests that many of the traditions attached to Saint Patrick act
The Picts were a confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods. Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution of Brittonic place name elements and Pictish stones; the name Picts appears in written records from Late Antiquity to the 10th century, when they are thought to have merged with the Gaels. They lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde, spoke the Pictish language, related to the Celtic Brittonic language spoken by the Britons who lived to the south of them. Picts are assumed to have been the descendants of the Caledonii and other tribes that were mentioned by Roman historians or on the world map of Ptolemy. Pictland called Pictavia by some sources merged with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to form the Kingdom of Alba. Alba expanded, absorbing the Brittonic kingdom of Strathclyde and Northumbrian Lothian, by the 11th century the Pictish identity had been subsumed into the "Scots" amalgamation of peoples.
Pictish society was typical of many Iron Age societies in northern Europe, having "wide connections and parallels" with neighbouring groups. Archaeology gives some impression of the society of the Picts. While little in the way of Pictish writing has survived, Pictish history since the late 6th century is known from a variety of sources, including Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, saints' lives such as that of Columba by Adomnán, various Irish annals; the term Pict is thought to have originated as a generic exonym used by the Romans in relation to people living north of the Forth–Clyde isthmus. The Latin word Picti first occurs in a panegyric written by Eumenius in AD 297 and is taken to mean "painted or tattooed people". Pict is Peohta in Old English, Pecht in Scots and Peithwyr in Welsh; some think. In writings from Ireland, the name Cruthin, Cruthni, Cruithni or Cruithini was used to refer both to the Picts and to another group of people who lived alongside the Ulaid in eastern Ulster.
It is accepted that this is derived from *Qritani, the Goidelic/Q-Celtic version of the Britonnic/P-Celtic *Pritani. From this came Britanni, the Roman name for those now called the Britons. What the Picts called themselves is unknown, it has been proposed that they called themselves Albidosi, a name found in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba during the reign of Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, but this idea has been disputed. A unified "Pictish" identity may have consolidated with the Verturian hegemony established following the Battle of Dun Nechtain in 685 AD. A Pictish confederation was formed in Late Antiquity from a number of tribes—how and why is not known; some scholars have speculated that it was in response to the growth of the Roman Empire. The Chronicon Pictum, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the early histographers such as Isidore of Seville, Bede, Geoffrey of Monmouth, etc. all present the Picts as conquerors of Alba from Scythia. However, little credence is now given to that view. Pictland had been described by Roman writers and geographers as the home of the Caledonii.
These Romans used other names to refer to tribes living in that area, including Verturiones and Venicones. But they may have heard these other names only second- or third-hand, from speakers of Brittonic or Gaulish languages, who may have used different names for the same group or groups. Pictish recorded history begins in the Dark Ages. At that time, the Gaels of Dál Riata controlled what is now Argyll, as part of a kingdom straddling the sea between Britain and Ireland; the Angles of Bernicia, which merged with Deira to form Northumbria, overwhelmed the adjacent British kingdoms, for much of the 7th century Northumbria was the most powerful kingdom in Britain. The Picts were tributary to Northumbria until the reign of Bridei mac Beli, when, in 685, the Anglians suffered a defeat at the Battle of Dun Nechtain that halted their northward expansion; the Northumbrians continued to dominate southern Scotland for the remainder of the Pictish period. Dál Riata was subject to the Pictish king Óengus mac Fergusa during his reign, though it had its own kings beginning in the 760s, does not appear to have recovered its political independence from the Picts.
A Pictish king, Caustantín mac Fergusa, placed his son Domnall on the throne of Dál Riata. Pictish attempts to achieve a similar dominance over the Britons of Alt Clut were not successful; the Viking Age brought great changes in Britain and Ireland, no less in Scotland than elsewhere, with the Vikings conquering and settling the islands and various mainland areas, including Caithness and Galloway. In the middle of the 9th century Ketil Flatnose is said to have founded the Kingdom of the Isles, governing many of these territories, by the end of that century the Vikings had destroyed the Kingdom of Northumbria weakened the Kingdom of Strathclyde, founded the Kingdom of York. In a major battle in 839, the Vikings killed the King of Fortriu, Eógan mac Óengusa, the King of Dál Riata Áed mac Boanta, many others. In the aftermath, in the 840s, Cínaed mac Ailpín became king of the Picts. During the reign of Cínaed's grandson, Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the Kingdom of Alba rather than the Kingdom of the Picts, but it is not known whether this was because a new kingdom was established or Alba was a closer
Palladius (bishop of Ireland)
Palladius was the first bishop of the Christians of Ireland, preceding Saint Patrick. He was a member of one of the prominent families in Gaul. Pope Celestine I consecrated him a bishop and sent him to Ireland "to the Scotti believing in Christ"; the Palladii were thought to be amongst the most noble families of Gaul, several of them held high ranks in the Church of Gaul. Palladius was the son of Exuperantius of Poitiers, of whom the contemporary pagan poet Rutilius Claudius Namatianus wrote: "Even now his father Exuperantius trains the Armoric sea-board to love the recovery of peace. Exuperantius was praefectus praetorio Galliarum when he was killed in an army mutiny at Arles in 424. Palladius had a young daughter, he is described as younger kinsman by Namatianus. In Rome, he kissed his family goodbye in the manner of the Apostles, lived as an ascetic in Sicily around 408/409, giving his daughter to a convent on that island, he seems to have been ordained as a priest around 415. He lived in Rome between 418–429, appears to be the "Deacon Palladius", responsible for urging Pope Celestine I to send the bishop Germanus to Britain, where he guided "the Britons back to the Catholic faith."Prosper of Aquitaine describes Palladius as a deacon.
Butler and P. F. Moran say that Palladius was a Deacon of Rome, as it is unlikely that a deacon of Auxerre would exercise the influence in Rome that many have assigned to Palladius. Historian Kathleen Hughes regards it as more probable that he was a deacon of St Germanus, that Germanus sent him to Rome, where he received a commission from the Holy See for Germanus to travel to Britain in response to a request from the bishops there for assistance in combatting Pelagianism. In 431, "Palladius, having been ordained by Pope Celestine, is sent as first bishop to the Scotti believing in Christ", according to the Irish Annals. Palladius landed at Arklow. Auxilius and Iserninus are missioners identified with St. Patrick, but more recent research associates them not with Patrick but with Palladius. Irish writers that chronicled the life of St Patrick state that St Palladius preached in Ireland before St Patrick, although he was soon banished by the King of Leinster, returned to North Britain. According to Muirchu in the Book of Armagh, God hindered him...and neither did those fierce and cruel men receive his doctrine nor did he himself wish to spend time in a strange land, but returned to him who sent him.
Palladius was accompanied by four companions: Sylvester and Solinus, who remained after him in Ireland, Augustinus and Benedictus, who followed him to Britain but returned to their own country after his death. Palladius is most associated with Leinster with Clonard, County Meath. According to St Prosper, Palladius arrived among the Scots in North Britain after he left Ireland in 431. Scottish church tradition holds that he presided over a Christian community there for about 20 years. A cluster of dedications in the Mearns in Scotland, in the village of Auchenblae, are believed to mark his last resting place; as late as the reign of James V, royal funds were disbursed for the fabrication of a new reliquary for the church there, an annual "Paldy Fair" was held at least until the time of the Reformation. His date of death is unknown. 493 "Patrick... apostle of the Irish, rested on the 16th day before the Kalends of April..."Thus, it is possible that writers confused Palladius and Patrick. If the earlier dates of 457/461 indeed refer to him it seems that the actual St Patrick died much about 492/493.
Patrick's mission was confined to Ulster and Connacht, while Palladius seems to have been active in Leinster in the area around Clonard. The Vita tripartita states that he died at Cell Fine, where he left his books, writing tablet and relics of Peter and Paul. Alban Butler, citing Hector Boethius and Camden, says that he died at Fordun, fifteen miles south of Aberdeen, around the year 450. Secundinus "New light on Palladius?", Peritia iv, pp. 276–83. Ó Cróinín. "Who was Palladius'First Bishop of the Irish'?". Peritia. 14: 205–37. Vita tripartita Sancti Patricii O'Rahilly, Thomas F.. The Two Patricks: A Lecture on the History of Christianity in Fifth-Century Ireland. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies