Causantín mac Cináeda
Causantín or Constantín mac Cináeda was a king of the Picts. He is known as Constantine I in reference to his place in modern lists of kings of Scots, but contemporary sources described Causantín only as a Pictish king. A son of Cináed mac Ailpín, he succeeded his uncle Domnall mac Ailpín as Pictish king following the latter's death on 13 April 862, it is that Causantín's reign witnessed increased activity by Vikings, based in Ireland and northern Britain. He died fighting one such invasion. Few records of ninth century events in northern Britain survive; the main local source from the period is the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, a list of kings from Cináed mac Ailpín to Cináed mac Maíl Coluim. The list survives in a thirteenth-century compilation. A list of kings with reign lengths, the other details contained in the Poppleton Manuscript version were added from the tenth century onwards. In addition to this king lists survive; the earliest genealogical records of the descendants of Cináed mac Ailpín may date from the end of the tenth century, but their value lies more in their context, the information they provide about the interests of those for whom they were compiled, than in the unreliable claims they contain.
The Pictish king-lists ended with this Causantín, reckoned the seventieth and last king of the Picts. For narrative history the principal sources are the Irish annals. While Scandinavian sagas describe events in 9th century Britain, their value as sources of historical narrative, rather than documents of social history, is disputed. If the sources for north-eastern Britain, the lands of the kingdom of Northumbria and the former Pictland, are limited and late, those for the areas on the Irish Sea and Atlantic coasts—the modern regions of north-west England and all of northern and western Scotland—are non-existent, archaeology and toponymy are of primary importance. Writing a century before Causantín was born, Bede recorded five languages in Britain. Latin, the common language of the church. By the ninth century a sixth language, Old Norse, had arrived with the Vikings. Viking activity in northern Britain appears to have reached a peak during Causantín's reign. Viking armies were led by a small group of men.
Among those noted by the Irish annals, the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle are Ívarr—Ímar in Irish sources—who was active from East Anglia to Ireland, Halfdán—Albdann in Irish, Healfdene in Old English— and Amlaíb or Óláfr. As well as these leaders, various others related to them appear in the surviving record. Viking activity in Britain increased in 865 when the Great Heathen Army a part of the forces, active in Francia, landed in East Anglia; the following year, having obtained tribute from the East Anglian King Edmund, the Great Army moved north, seizing York, chief city of the Northumbrians. The Great Army defeated an attack on York by the two rivals for the Northumbrian throne, Osberht and Ælla, who had put aside their differences in the face of a common enemy. Both would-be kings were killed in the failed assault on 21 March 867. Following this, the leaders of the Great Army are said to have installed one Ecgberht as king of the Northumbrians, their next target was Mercia where King Burgred, aided by his brother-in-law King Æthelred of Wessex, drove them off.
While the kingdoms of East Anglia and Northumbria were under attack, other Viking armies were active in the far north. Amlaíb and Auisle, said to be his brother, brought an army to Fortriu and obtained tribute and hostages in 866. Historians disagree as to whether the army returned to Ireland in 866, 867 or in 869. Late sources of uncertain reliability state that Auisle was killed by Amlaíb in 867 in a dispute over Amlaíb's wife, the daughter of Cináed, it is unclear whether, if accurate, this woman should be identified as a daughter of Cináed mac Ailpín, thus Causantín's sister, or as a daughter of Cináed mac Conaing, king of Brega. While Amlaíb and Auisle were in north Britain, the Annals of Ulster record that Áed Findliath, High King of Ireland, took advantage of their absence to destroy the longphorts along the northern coasts of Ireland. Áed Findliath was married to Causantín's sister Máel Muire. She married Áed's successor Flann Sinna, her death is recorded in 913. In 870, Amlaíb and Ívarr attacked Dumbarton Rock, where the River Leven meets the River Clyde, the chief place of the kingdom of Alt Clut, south-western neighbour of Pictland.
The siege lasted four months before the fortress fell to the Vikings who returned to Ireland with many prisoners, "Angles and Picts", in 871. Archaeological evidence suggests that Dumbarton Rock was abandoned and that Govan replaced it as the chief place of the kingdom of Strathclyde, as Alt Clut was known. King Artgal of Alt Clut did not long survive these events, being killed "at the instigation" of Causantín son of Cináed two years later. Artgal's son and successor Run was married to a sister of Causantín. Amlaíb disappears from Irish annals after his return to Ireland in 871. According to the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba he was killed by Causantín either in 871 or 872 when he returned to Pictland to collect further tribute, his ally Ívarr died in 873. In 875, the Chronicle and the Annals of Ulster again report a Viking army in Pictland. A bat
Battle of Two Rivers
The Battle of Two Rivers was fought between the Picts and Northumbrians in the year 671. The exact battle site is unknown, it marked the end of the Pictish rebellion early in the reign of Ecgfrith, with a decisive victory to the Northumbrians. Attestation of the battle is limited to the account in Stephen of Ripon's Vita Sancti Wilfrithi. During the 7th century, the Northumbrians extended their territory to the north; the Annals of Tigernach record a siege of "Etain" in 638, interpreted as Northumbria's conquest of Eidyn during the reign of Oswald, marking the annexation of Gododdin territories to the south of the River Forth. To the north of the Forth, the Pictish nations consisted at this time of the kingdom of Fortriu to the north of the Mounth, a "Southern Pictish Zone", to the south, stretching as far as the Forth. Evidence from the 8th century Anglo-Saxon historian, Bede points to the Picts being subjugated by the Northumbrians during Oswald's reign, that this subjugation continued into the reign of his successor, Oswiu.
Ecgfrith succeeded Oswiu as king of Northumbria in 670. Ecgfrith's kingdom was said to have been'weak' on his ascent to the throne. In 671, word reached Ecgfrith that the Picts, under the command of the Verturian king, Drest mac Donuel, were preparing to rebel and overthrow the Northumbrian hegemony; the record and description of the battle is limited to Stephen of Ripon's account in his Vita Sancti Wilfrithi. According to this account, Ecgfrith became aware of the Picts plans to overthrow the Northumbrian suzerainty and he hastily assembled an invasion force of horsemen, he headed north, aided by his subking Beornhæth, who historian James Fraser suggests may have ruled the southern Pictish kingdom of Niuduera, identified as being located in present-day Fife. The battle location is not recorded, but Fraser tentatively suggests that the battle may have occurred in the vicinity of Moncreiffe Island, near Perth; as recorded in Vita Sancti Wilfrithi, Ecgfrith's cavalry was ambushed by a concealed and much larger Pictish army.
The Northumbrians prevailed, with Pictish casualties being of sufficient number to'fill two rivers', allowing the Northumbrian cavalry to pursue Pictish survivors without getting their feet wet. As a work of hagiography, Vita Sancti Wilfrithi is not an ideal historical source and it has been suggested that its partisan treatment of Northumbrian history inspired Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica. Various details of Stephen's account of the battle are to have been exaggerated, overstating the extent of Ecgfrith's victory. Stephen records that, following the battle, the Picts were reduced to slavery and subject to the yoke of captivity for the next 14 years; the Irish annals of Ulster and Tigernach record of a'Drost' being expelled from kingship in 671. It is presumed that this was the Pictish king and that he was deposed and replaced by Bridei mac Bili as a direct result of the failure of the Pictish rebellion. Bridei was to defeat and kill Ecgfrith in the Battle of Dun Nechtain in 685; the Annals of Ulster, CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts, retrieved May 8, 2011 The Annals of Tigernach, CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts, ISBN 0-947992-98-7, retrieved May 8, 2011 Bede, Ecclesiastical History of England III, retrieved May 8, 2011 Colgrave, The Life of Bishop Wilfrid by Eddius Stephanus, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-31387-2 Cummins, WA, The Age of the Picts, Brimscombe Port Stroud, Gloucester: The History Press, ISBN 0-7524-4959-1 Fraser, James E.
The Pictish Conquest: The Battle Of Dunnichen 685 and the Birth of Scotland, Gloucester: Tempus Fraser, James E, From Caledonia to Pictland: Scotland to 795, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-1232-1 Jackson, Kenneth, "Edinburgh and the Anglian occupation of Lothian", in Clemoes, The Anglo-Saxons: some aspects of their history and culture presented to Bruce Dickins, London: Bowes and Bowes, pp. 35–42 Smyth, Alfred P, Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80 – 1000, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Woolf, Alex, "Dun Nechtain and the Geography of the Picts", The Scottish Historical Review, 85: 182–201, doi:10.1353/shr.2007.0029 The Birth Of Nations:Scotland
University College Cork
University College Cork – National University of Ireland, Cork is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland, located in Cork. The university was founded in 1845 as one of three Queen’s Colleges located in Belfast and Galway, it became University College, under the Irish Universities Act of 1908. The Universities Act 1997 renamed the university as National University of Ireland, a Ministerial Order of 1998 renamed the university as University College Cork – National University of Ireland, though it continues to be universally known as University College Cork. Amongst other rankings and awards, the university was named Irish University of the Year by the Sunday Times on five occasions. In 2015, UCC was named as top performing university by the European Commission funded U-Multirank system, based on obtaining the highest number of "A" scores among a field of 1200 partaking universities. UCC became the first university to achieve the ISO 50001 standard in energy management in 2011.
Queen's College, was founded by the provisions of an act which enabled Queen Victoria to endow new colleges for the "Advancement of Learning in Ireland". Under the powers of this act, the three colleges of Belfast and Galway were incorporated on 30 December 1845; the college opened in 1849 with 181 students. A year the college became part of the Queen's University of Ireland; the original site chosen for the college was considered appropriate as it was believed to have had a connection with the patron saint of Cork, Saint Finbarr. His monastery and school of learning were close by at Gill Abbey Rock and the mill attached to the monastery is thought to have stood on the bank of the south channel of the River Lee, which runs through the College lower grounds; this association is reflected in the College motto "Where Finbarr Taught, Let Munster Learn", the university motto. Adjacent to Gillabbey and overlooking the valley of the river Lee, the site was selected in 1846; the Tudor Gothic quadrangle and early campus buildings were designed and built by Sir Thomas Deane and Benjamin Woodward.
Queen's College Cork opened its doors in 1849, with further buildings added including the Medical/Windle Building in the 1860s. In the following century, the Irish Universities Act formed the National University of Ireland, consisting of the three constituent colleges of Dublin and Galway, the college was given the status of a university college as University College, Cork; the Universities Act, 1997, made the university college a constituent university of the National University and made the constituent university a full university for all purposes except the awarding of degrees and diplomas which remains the sole remit of the National University. As of 2016, University College Cork had 21,000 students; these included 15,000 in undergraduate programmes, 4,400 in postgraduate study and research, 2,800 in adult continuing education across undergraduate and short courses. The student base is supported by 2,800 academic and administrative staff; as of 2017, UCC had 150,000 alumni worldwide. Student numbers, at over 21,000 in 2016, increased from the late 1980s, precipitating the expansion of the campus by the acquisition of adjacent buildings and lands.
This expansion continued with the opening of the Alfred O'Rahilly building in the late 1990s, the Cavanagh Pharmacy building, the Brookfield Health Sciences centre, the extended Áras na MacLéinn, the Lewis Glucksman Gallery in 2004, Experience UCC and an extension to the Boole Library – named for the first professor of mathematics at UCC, George Boole, who developed the algebra that would make computer programming possible. The University completed the Western Gateway Building in 2009 on the site of the former Cork Greyhound track on the Western Road as well as refurbishment to the Tyndall institute buildings at the Lee Maltings Complex. In 2016, UCC acquired the Cork Savings Bank building on Lapps Quay in the centre of Cork city; as of 2017, the university is rolling out a programme to increase the space across its campuses, with part of this development involving the creation of a'student hub' to support academic strategy, to add 600 new student accommodation spaces, to develop an outdoor sports facility.
In 2006, the University re-opened the Crawford Observatory, a structure built in 1880 on the grounds of the university by Sir Howard Grubb. Grubb, son of the Grubb telescope building family in Dublin, designed the observatory and built the astronomical instruments for the structure; the University paid for an extensive restoration and conservation of the building and the three main telescopes, the Equatorial, the Transit Circle and Sidereostatic telescopes. In November 2009, a number of UCC buildings were damaged by flooding; the floods affected other parts of Cork City, with many students being evacuated from accommodation. The college authorities postponed academic activities for a week, indicated that it would take until 2010 before all flood damaged property would be repaired. Impacted was the newly opened Western Gateway Building, with the main lecture theatre requiring a total refit just months after opening for classes; the university is one of Ireland’s leading research institutes, with among the highest research income in the state.
In 2016, UCC secured research funding of over €96 million, a 21% increase over a five-year period and a high for the university. The university had seven faculties: Arts and Celtic Studies, Commer
Bridei I known as Bridei, son of Maelchon, was king of the Picts from 554 to 584. Sources are vague or contradictory regarding him, but it is believed that his court was near Loch Ness and that he may have been a Christian. There were contemporaries claiming the title "king of the Picts", he died in the mid-580s in battle, was succeeded by Gartnait son of Domelch. Bridei son of Maelchon, was king of the Picts until his death around 584–586. Other forms of his name include Brude son of Melcho and, in Irish sources, Bruide son of Maelchú and Bruidhe son of Maelchon, he was first mentioned in the Irish annals from 558–560, where the Annals of Ulster report "the migration before Máelchú's son, king Bruide". An earlier entry, reporting the death of "Bruide son of Máelchú" in the Annals of Ulster for 505 is presumed to be an error; the Ulster annalist does not say who fled, but the Annals of Tigernach refers to "the flight of the Scots before Bruide son of Máelchú" in 558. This uncertainty has provoked considerable speculation.
Bridei is suggested to have been the son of Maelgwn Gwynedd by John Morris in his Age of Arthur, where he is referred to in passing as "... Bridei, son of Maelgwn, the mighty king of north Wales...". Though the book has been a commercial success, it is disparaged by historians as an unreliable source of "misleading and misguided" information. Bridei's death was reported in the 580's in battle against Pictish rivals in Circinn, an area thought to correspond with the Mearns; the lists of kings in the Pictish Chronicle agree that Bridei was followed by Gartnait son of Domelch. Bridei appears in Adomnán's Life of Saint Columba as a contemporary, as one of the chief kings in Scotland. Adomnán's account of Bridei is problematic as it does not mention whether Bridei was a Christian, if not, whether Columba converted him; the archaeological discoveries at Portmahomack, showing that there was a monastic community there from around 550, provide some support for the idea that Bridei was either a Christian, at least in name, or was converted by Columba.
Bridei was not the only "king of the Picts" during his lifetime. The death of Galam — called "Cennalath, king of the Picts" — is recorded in 580 in the Annals of Ulster, four years before Bridei's death. In addition, Adomnán mentions the presence of the "under-king of Orkney" at Bridei's court; the Annals of Ulster report two expeditions to Orkney during Bridei's reign, in 580 and 581. The location of the court of Bridei's kingdom is not certain. Adomnán's account states that after leaving the royal court, Columba came to the River Ness and that the court was located atop a steep rock. Accordingly, it is supposed that Bridei's chief residence was at Craig Phadrig, to the west of the modern city of Inverness and overlooks the Beauly Firth. Bridei’s kingdom may have corresponded with what would become Fortriu. Juliet Marillier's trilogy The Bridei Chronicles is written as a combination of history and informed guesswork regarding this king's rise to power and rule, her novels describe events in the life of Bridei III.
CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork includes the Annals of Ulster, the Four Masters and Innisfallen, the Chronicon Scotorum, the Lebor Bretnach and various Saints' Lives. Most are translated into English. Bede's Ecclesiastical History and the Continuation of Bede, at CCEL, translated by A. M. Sellar. Tarbat Discovery Programme with reports on excavations at Portmahomack. List of Kings of the Picts
Ecgfrith of Northumbria
Ecgfrith was the King of Deira from 664 until 670, King of Northumbria from 670 until his death in 685. He ruled over Northumbria when it was at the height of its power, but his reign ended with a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Nechtansmere in which he lost his life. Ecgfrith Eanflæd his queen. At about the age of 10 Ecgfrith was held as a hostage at the court of Queen Cynewise after her husband king Penda of Mercia invaded Northumbria in 655. Penda was defeated and killed in the Battle of the Winwaed by Oswiu a victory which enhanced Northumbrian power. To secure his hegemony over other English kingdoms Oswiu arranged a marriage between Ecgfrith and Æthelthryth, a daughter of Anna of East Anglia, he was as young as 15 at the time. Ecgfrith was made king of Deira in 664 after his half-brother Alhfrith had rebelled against Oswiu earlier that year. In 671, at the Battle of Two Rivers, Ecgfrith put down an opportunistic rebellion by the Picts, which resulted in the Northumbrians taking control of the land between the Firth of Forth and the Tweed for the next fourteen years.
Around the same time, Æthelthryth wished to leave Ecgfrith to become a nun. In about 672, Æthelthryth persuaded Ecgfrith to allow her to become a nun, she entered the monastery of the Abbess Æbbe, aunt to King Ecgfrith, at Coldingham. A year Æthelthryth became founding abbess of Ely. In 674, Ecgfrith repelled the Mercian king Wulfhere. In 679, he fought the Mercians again, now under Wulfhere's brother Æthelred, married to Ecgfrith's sister Osthryth, at the Battle of the Trent. Ecgfrith's own brother Ælfwine was killed in the battle and following intervention by Theodore, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lindsey was returned to the Mercians. In June 684, Ecgfrith sent a raiding party to Brega in Ireland under his general Berht, which resulted in the seizing of a large number of slaves and the sacking of many churches and monasteries; the reasons for this raid are unclear, though it is known that Ecgfrith acted against the warnings of Ecgberht of Ripon and that the raid was condemned by Bede and other churchmen.
In 685, against the advice of Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, Ecgfrith led a force against the Picts of Fortriu, who were led by his cousin Bridei mac Bili. On 20 May, Ecgfrith along with most of his men was slain at the age of 40, he was lured by a feigned flight in the mountains and slain at what is now called the Battle of Nechtansmere, located at either Dunnichen in Angus or Dunachton in Badenoch. This defeat weakened Northumbrian power in the north and Bede dates the beginning of the decline of the kingdom of Northumbria from Ecgfrith's death and wrote that following Ecgfrith's death, "the hopes and strengths of the English realm began'to waver and to slip backward lower"; the Northumbrians never regained the dominance of central Britain lost in 679. Northumbria remained one of the most powerful states of Britain and Ireland well into the Viking Age. Ecgfrith was succeeded by his illegitimate half-brother, Aldfrith. Like his father before him, Ecgfrith supported the religious work of Benedict Biscop in the kingdom and gave him 70 hides of land near the mouth of the River Wear in 674 to undertake the building of a monastery dedicated to St. Peter.
About ten years he made a second gift of land, 40 hides on the River Tyne at Jarrow, for the establishment of a sister house dedicated to St. Paul; these two houses came to be known as the Monastery of Wearmouth and Jarrow, an establishment made famous by the scholar Bede, who, at the age of seven, was put into the care of Benedict Biscop at Wearmouth and remained for the rest of his life as a monk. His Ecclesiastical History of the English People was completed there in 731. Ecgfrith appears to have been the earliest Northumbrian king, the earliest of the Anglo-Saxon rulers, to have issued the silver penny, which became the mainstay of English coinage for centuries afterwards. Coins had been produced by the Anglo-Saxons since the late 6th century, modelled on the coins being produced by the Merovingians in Francia, but these were rare, the most common being gold scillingas or thrymsas. Ecgfrith's pennies known as sceattas, were thick and cast in moulds, were issued on a large scale. Stephen of Ripon, Vita Wilfridi, 19, 20, 24, 34, 39, 44 Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, iii. 24.
5, 12, 13, 15, 19, 21, 26. Historiam ecclesiasticam gentis anglorum, Vol 1, Bede, ed. Charles Plummer, 1896,: 4 mentions of "Egfrid" Historiam ecclesiasticam gentis anglorum, Vol. 2. Bede, ed. Charles Plummer, 1896,: 71 mentions of "Egfrid" Higham, N. J.. Ecgfrith: King of the Northumbrians, High-King of Britain. Paul Watkins Publishing. ISBN 978-1907730467. Ecgfrith 4 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
The Picts were a confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods. Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution of Brittonic place name elements and Pictish stones; the name Picts appears in written records from Late Antiquity to the 10th century, when they are thought to have merged with the Gaels. They lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde, spoke the Pictish language, related to the Celtic Brittonic language spoken by the Britons who lived to the south of them. Picts are assumed to have been the descendants of the Caledonii and other tribes that were mentioned by Roman historians or on the world map of Ptolemy. Pictland called Pictavia by some sources merged with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to form the Kingdom of Alba. Alba expanded, absorbing the Brittonic kingdom of Strathclyde and Northumbrian Lothian, by the 11th century the Pictish identity had been subsumed into the "Scots" amalgamation of peoples.
Pictish society was typical of many Iron Age societies in northern Europe, having "wide connections and parallels" with neighbouring groups. Archaeology gives some impression of the society of the Picts. While little in the way of Pictish writing has survived, Pictish history since the late 6th century is known from a variety of sources, including Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, saints' lives such as that of Columba by Adomnán, various Irish annals; the term Pict is thought to have originated as a generic exonym used by the Romans in relation to people living north of the Forth–Clyde isthmus. The Latin word Picti first occurs in a panegyric written by Eumenius in AD 297 and is taken to mean "painted or tattooed people". Pict is Peohta in Old English, Pecht in Scots and Peithwyr in Welsh; some think. In writings from Ireland, the name Cruthin, Cruthni, Cruithni or Cruithini was used to refer both to the Picts and to another group of people who lived alongside the Ulaid in eastern Ulster.
It is accepted that this is derived from *Qritani, the Goidelic/Q-Celtic version of the Britonnic/P-Celtic *Pritani. From this came Britanni, the Roman name for those now called the Britons. What the Picts called themselves is unknown, it has been proposed that they called themselves Albidosi, a name found in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba during the reign of Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, but this idea has been disputed. A unified "Pictish" identity may have consolidated with the Verturian hegemony established following the Battle of Dun Nechtain in 685 AD. A Pictish confederation was formed in Late Antiquity from a number of tribes—how and why is not known; some scholars have speculated that it was in response to the growth of the Roman Empire. The Chronicon Pictum, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the early histographers such as Isidore of Seville, Bede, Geoffrey of Monmouth, etc. all present the Picts as conquerors of Alba from Scythia. However, little credence is now given to that view. Pictland had been described by Roman writers and geographers as the home of the Caledonii.
These Romans used other names to refer to tribes living in that area, including Verturiones and Venicones. But they may have heard these other names only second- or third-hand, from speakers of Brittonic or Gaulish languages, who may have used different names for the same group or groups. Pictish recorded history begins in the Dark Ages. At that time, the Gaels of Dál Riata controlled what is now Argyll, as part of a kingdom straddling the sea between Britain and Ireland; the Angles of Bernicia, which merged with Deira to form Northumbria, overwhelmed the adjacent British kingdoms, for much of the 7th century Northumbria was the most powerful kingdom in Britain. The Picts were tributary to Northumbria until the reign of Bridei mac Beli, when, in 685, the Anglians suffered a defeat at the Battle of Dun Nechtain that halted their northward expansion; the Northumbrians continued to dominate southern Scotland for the remainder of the Pictish period. Dál Riata was subject to the Pictish king Óengus mac Fergusa during his reign, though it had its own kings beginning in the 760s, does not appear to have recovered its political independence from the Picts.
A Pictish king, Caustantín mac Fergusa, placed his son Domnall on the throne of Dál Riata. Pictish attempts to achieve a similar dominance over the Britons of Alt Clut were not successful; the Viking Age brought great changes in Britain and Ireland, no less in Scotland than elsewhere, with the Vikings conquering and settling the islands and various mainland areas, including Caithness and Galloway. In the middle of the 9th century Ketil Flatnose is said to have founded the Kingdom of the Isles, governing many of these territories, by the end of that century the Vikings had destroyed the Kingdom of Northumbria weakened the Kingdom of Strathclyde, founded the Kingdom of York. In a major battle in 839, the Vikings killed the King of Fortriu, Eógan mac Óengusa, the King of Dál Riata Áed mac Boanta, many others. In the aftermath, in the 840s, Cínaed mac Ailpín became king of the Picts. During the reign of Cínaed's grandson, Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the Kingdom of Alba rather than the Kingdom of the Picts, but it is not known whether this was because a new kingdom was established or Alba was a closer