Presidential Unit Citation (United States)
The unit with the most Presidential Unit Citations is the USS Parche with 9 citations. The Army citation was established by Executive Order 9075 on 26 February 1942, superseded by Executive Order 9396 on Dec.2,1943, as with other Army unit citations, the PUC is in a larger frame than other ribbons, and is worn above the right pocket. All members of the unit may wear the decoration, whether or not they participated in the acts for which the unit was cited. Only those assigned to the unit at the time of the action cited may wear the decoration as a permanent award, for both the Army and Air Force, the emblem is a solid blue ribbon enclosed in a gold frame. The Air Force PUC was adopted from the Army Distinguished Unit Citation after the Air Force became a military branch in 1947. By Executive Order 10694, dated Jan,10,1957 the Air Force redesignated the Distinguished Unit Citation as the Presidential Unit Citation. The Air Force PUC is the color and design as the Army PUC but slightly smaller.
The Citation is carried on the units colors in the form of a blue streamer,4 ft long and 2.75 in wide. For the Army, only on rare occasions will a larger than battalion qualify for award of this decoration. The Navy citation was established by Executive Order 9050 on 6 February 1942, the Navy version has blue and red horizontal stripes, and is the only Navy ribbon having horizontal stripes. These are only worn by persons who meet the criteria at the time it is awarded to the unit, unlike the Army, those who join the unit do not wear it on a temporary basis. The current decoration is known as the Department of Homeland Security Presidential Unit Citation. A Coast Guard version of the award was awarded to all U. S. Coast Guard and Coast Guard Auxiliary personnel responding to Hurricane Katrina by President George W. Bush for rescue, the United States Public Health Service Presidential Citation was established in 2015. The design was finalized by the Army Institute of Heraldry on 17 August 2015, two units of the Free French Forces were awarded Presidential Unit Citations during World War II.
On April 22,1986, the 1st Fighter Group Força Aérea Brasileira was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for its actions in the Po Valley region of Italy in World War II. The Brazilians, operating in Italy in support of Allied forces, destroyed in one day over 45 vehicles, strafed pontoon bridges on the River Po, eleven missions of 44 sorties were flown destroying nine motor transports and damaging 17. One Belgian-Luxembourgian battalion of the Belgian United Nations Command was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation once for actions during the Battle of the Imjin River, the Colombia Battalion received the citation while attached to the American 21st Infantry Regiment in 1951. One Dutch unit, the Netherlands Detachment United Nations, part of the Regiment Van Heutsz, was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation twice for actions during the Korean War, the first citation was awarded after the battle near Wonju and Hoengson in February 1951
Good Conduct Medal (United States)
The Good Conduct Medal is one of the oldest military awards of the United States Armed Forces. The criteria for a Good Conduct Medal are defined by Executive Orders 8809,9323, the medal is awarded to any active-duty enlisted member of the United States military who completes three consecutive years of honorable and faithful service. Such service implies that a standard enlistment was completed without any punishment, disciplinary infractions. During times of war, the Good Conduct Medal may be awarded for one year of faithful service, the Good Conduct Medal may be awarded posthumously, to any service member killed in the line of duty. Service for the Good Conduct Medal must be performed on active duty, the exception is the Navy Reserve which discontinued the award as of 1 January 2014. The Navy Good Conduct Medal is the oldest Good Conduct Medal, there have been a total of four versions of the Navy Good Conduct Medal, the first version of which was issued from 1870 to 1884. The original Navy Good Conduct Medal was not worn on a uniform, a sailor in the Navy received a new Good Conduct Medal for each honorable enlistment completed.
The second version of the Navy Good Conduct Medal was issued between 1880 and 1884, the medal was considered a transitional decoration and was the first of the Good Conduct Medals to be worn on a uniform. The medal was phased out by 1885 and a new medal issued between 1885 and 1961, the new medal was a Good Conduct medallion suspended from an all red ribbon. Enlistment bars, denoting each honorable enlistment completed, were pinned on the ribbon as attachments, there was slight oddity during the Spanish–American War when the Navy created the Specially Meritorious Service Medal which had an all red suspension and service ribbon. This is one of the times in the history of U. S. military awards that two awards had identical ribbons. Additional awards of the Navy Good Conduct Medal are denoted by bronze and silver 3/16 inch stars, the reverse side of the medal has three words, FIDELITY ZEAL OBEDIENCE superimposed in a semicircle. It is extremely rare in todays Navy, but provisions do allow for Petty Officer Third Class to wear gold rate insignia, the Marine Corps Good Conduct Medal was established on 20 July 1896.
The medal was originally a ribbon and medal suspended from a clasp bearing the words U. S. Marine Corps, the clasp was eliminated after 1935 and the medal has remained unchanged in appearance since that time. Prior to 10 December 1945, four years of honorable creditable enlisted service was required in the Marine Corps for award of the Marine Corps Good Conduct Medal, after 10 December 1945, the required period of service was reduced to three years. Since that latter date, members of the Marine Corps must have three years of honorable and faithful service in order to be eligible for the medal. In 1953, the Marine Corps adopted bronze and silver 3/16-inch service stars to denote additional awards of the Good Conduct Medal, replacing enlistment bars showing each honorable period of service. The Coast Guard Good Conduct Medal was designed in 1923 and originally used enlistment bars as attachments, in the manner as the Marine Corps
Outstanding Airman of the Year Ribbon
The Outstanding Airman of the Year Ribbon is a military award of the United States Air Force which was created on February 21,1968 by order of Secretary of the Air Force Harold Brown. The first presentation of the award was in June 1970, the Outstanding Airman of the Year Ribbon is the highest personal ribbon award of the United States Air Force. The Outstanding Airman of the Year program recognizes 12 enlisted members from a section of Air Force Career fields. Nominated personnel compete in one of three categories Airman, Non-commissioned Officer, and Senior Non-commissioned Officer, nominations are based only on the members performance and achievement for the prior calendar year. The Outstanding Airman of the Year Ribbon is light blue with a stripe of white, flanked on either side by thin stripes of dark blue. Airmen selected as one of the 12 Outstanding Airmen of the Year are authorized to wear the Outstanding Airman badge for one year, all other nominated competitors are authorized to wear the ribbon without the service star.
Subsequent awards of the ribbon are represented by oak leaf clusters,12 Outstanding Airmen of the Year Program Complete listing of all recipients since the Awards inception Link
U.S. military instructor badges
The U. S. military issues instructor badges to specially training military personnel who are charged with teaching military recruits the skills they need to perform as members of the U. S. Armed Forces or teach continuing education courses for noncommissioned officers and officers in the military. With the exception of the U. S. Army and U. S. Coast Guard, the Drill Sergeant Identification Badge is a military badge of the United States Army which was first issued on January 15,1958. The badge is presented to any NCO who has completed the Drill Sergeant Course at any U. S. Army Drill Sergeant School, the drill sergeant identification badge is worn by all qualified drill sergeants. Each element of the badge has a specific meaning and it consists of 13 stars representing the original colonies. The torch, burning brightly, in the center symbolizes liberty, the snake is derived from the original ”Don’t Tread On Me” serpent on the Gadsden flag, a symbol of American independence during the 18th century.
Together with the torch and breastplate, it indicated readiness to defend, the breastplate is a symbol of strength. The green background is a vestment worn under the breastplate and its called a Jupon, which represents the new Army. The snake grasps, with his tail and teeth, a scroll inscribed “This We’ll Defend, the inscription summarizes the meaning of all the symbols on the badge, depicting the determination and constant readiness of the American soldier. The Drill Sergeant Identification Badge is worn on the right uniform pocket of the U. S. Army Class A uniform. On the Army Combat Uniform, the black subdued pin on version is worn centered on the ACU blouse pocket, the badge is authorized for wear upon successful completion of the Drill Sergeant Course. During this tour of duty the Drill Sergeant badge is considered a temporary decoration pending successful completion of the tour as a drill sergeant. Any drill sergeant who is relieved of drill sergeant duties for cause may be required to surrender the badge, in June 2014, the U. S.
Army Training and Doctrine Command implemented the Army Instructor Identification Badges. These badges are earned by certified noncommissioned officers who work as instructors within the Noncommissioned Officer Education System, the Army Instructor Identification Badge system is designed to be part of the Instructor Development and Recognition Program and come with promotion points for pay grades E-5 and E-6. The Army Instructor Identification Badges are awarded in three levels, basic and master and they must complete 400 hours of instruction as a primary instructor. They must meet requirements and master instructor board requirements outlined in TRADOC Regulation 600-21. These badges can be worn on the Army Combat Uniform, as a badge or patch. The Army Instructor Identification Badges are permanent awards and can be worn on Army uniforms for the remainder of a soldiers career, the Air Education and Training Instructor Badge is the Air Force equivalent to the U. S. Army’s Drill Sergeant Identification Badge
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
Nuclear Deterrence Operations Service Medal
The Nuclear Deterrence Operations Service Medal is a service medal of the United States Air Force established on 27 May 2014. The medal recognizes service by personnel in various fields who have served in units involved with national strategic nuclear deterrence operations. Officer and enlisted personnel in the Active, Air Force Reserve, eligible service is retroactive from 26 December 1991. The establishment of the Nuclear Deterrence Operations Service Medal was announced by Secretary of the Air Force Deborah Lee James on 27 May 2014, the creation of this medal is part of a multifaceted approach to attract and retain high-caliber personnel in the nuclear and missile operations career fields. The idea for this medal had been circulating within the Air Force for a few prior to approval. After completion of the requirements is certified by the individuals squadron commander. Subsequent awards may only be earned by completing the same service, personnel must have served 179 non-consecutive days dispatched to a missile complex.
Individuals in the following Air Force Specialty Codes are eligible, The medal is round, a graphic on the medal represents the core mission for personnel, nuclear capability. The medal is gold in color to represent the legacy of the United States strategic nuclear deterrence mission, the medal is suspended from a blue ribbon with red and gold stripes. Subsequent awards of the medal are recognized by oak leaf clusters, the N device may only be awarded once. SSBN Deterrent Patrol insignia Nuclear deterrence medal approved for total force Airmen
The service star may be referred to as a campaign star or battle star depending on which award is authorized the star and the manner in which the device is used for the award. Service stars, Campaign stars, and Battle stars are worn with one point of the star pointing up on the ribbon of a medal. A silver star is worn instead of five bronze stars, a service star is sometimes mistaken for a Bronze Star or Silver Star. The service star is similar to the gold and silver 5⁄16 Inch Stars which may be authorized to be worn on specific individual decorations of certain services to denote additional decorations. Service stars are authorized for the following United States expeditionary medals, Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, Navy Expeditionary Medal, Service stars are authorized for the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal effective February 9,2015 retroactive to September,11,2001. Each star represents a deployment in support of an approved GWOT operation, only one GWOT-EM is awarded for each operation.
The five GWOT-EM approved operations by inclusive dates are, Enduring Freedom,11,2001 - TBD Iraqi Freedom, Mar.19,2003 - Aug.31, 2010Nomad Shadow, Nov.05,2007 - TBD New Dawn, Sep. 01,2010 - Dec.31,2011 Inherent Resolve, the bronze service star is authorized for certain unit awards such as the Presidential Unit Citation to denote a second and subsequent award. The service ribbon itself indicates the first award, with a service star being added to indicate the second. If ever applicable, a service star is worn instead of five bronze stars. As a result, at least one star will be worn on the ribbon. However, though authorized for wear, no battle stars have been approved for wear, only a combatant commander can initiate a request for a battle star. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the approving authority, only one award of the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal and one award of the Global War on Terrorism Service Medal may be authorized for any individual. The specific manner of wear and symbolism of the stars varied from medal to medal, for example, an American Campaign Medal with a bronze service star indicated the service member had participated in an antisubmarine campaign.
On other medals, bronze service stars were used on the service ribbon for those recipients of medals in possession of authorized campaign claps for those medals. Similarly, during the Vietnam War and afterwards, the Battle Effectiveness Award took the place of receiving battle stars for superior battle efficiency in place of combat operations. Awards and decorations of the United States military United States military award devices 5/16 inch star Oak leaf cluster United States award regulations for World War II
Air Force Combat Action Medal
The Air Force Combat Action Medal is a relatively new medal created for the United States Air Force in March 2007 to recognize Air Force members for active participation in ground or air combat. The AFCAM was first awarded on June 12,2007 to six Air Force members who were engaged in air or ground combat off base in a zone during Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom. The medal is retroactive from September 11,2001 to a date to be determined, the application will be processed through the chain of command and eventually be approved or disapproved by the Commander of Air Force Forces. Nomination of the award of the AFCAM will be restricted to members of the U. S, while defending the base, and must have come under enemy fire and engage the enemy with direct and lethal fire, and are at risk of grave danger. Retroactive awards prior to 11 September 2001 are not authorized, the AFCAM has no patch or badge equivalent for wear on the Airman Battle Uniform and other functional uniforms that are worn for daily duties and deployments.
It is worn after the Air Force Achievement Medal and before the Air Force Presidential Unit Citation. The AFCAM may be awarded to members from the other Armed Forces and foreign military members serving in a U. S. Air Force unit, provided they meet the criteria for the award. However, in AFI36-2803, gold stars are not included in the AF list of authorized ribbon devices, also, no ribbon device is authorized for wear in AFI36-2803 to denote subsequent awards of the AFCAM, which normally would be oak leaf clusters. The Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard authorizes a 5⁄16 gold star to denote subsequent awards of specific decorations. Note, This may be the beginning of a first time wearing of a gold star device by a member of the Air Force on any one of their awards, Lieutenant General Tod Wolters, U. S. A. F. Publicly wears a gold star on an AFCAM service ribbon on his uniform since at least September 2013. Wolters has fought in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. In conjunction with the Army Institute of Heraldry, the medal was designed by Susan Gamble, a professional artist and Master Designer for the U. S.
Mint, and wife of Mike Gamble, an Air Force colonel. She was quoted by the Washington Post as saying, It was just a pleasure to give this back to the Air Force thats been part of my life. His SPAD16 is currently displayed at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, a laurel wreath surrounds the medals eagle emblem executed in a simple, linear Art Deco style. The eagle with a national flag shield with thirteen stripes on its breast faces right, over the right talon clutching arrows. The left talon clutches an olive branch, the reverse side of the medal contains two rows of words written on a scroll at the center of the eagle, U. S. Air Force and Combat Action. The ribbons diagonal stripes at first could not be manufactured in the United States and this design problem was resolved when a mill in Bally, Bally Ribbon Mills, bought a new loom specifically to weave the diagonal stripe
The Achievement Medal is a military decoration of the United States Armed Forces. Each military service issues its own version of the Achievement Medal, the Achievement Medal is awarded for outstanding achievement or meritorious service not of a nature that would otherwise warrant awarding the Commendation Medal. Award authority rests with local commanders, granting a broad discretion of when, the Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal, is the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps version of the Achievement Medal. This title was shortened in 1967 to simply, the Navy Achievement Medal, the award is referred to in shorthand speech as a NAM. Awards for crewmembers had to be submitted to the Commodore or Air Wing Commander or the first appropriate O-6 in the chain of command for approval, since 2002 the commanding officers of aviation squadrons and ships have had the authority to award NAMs without submission to higher authority. For the Army, battalion commanders is the authority for the Army Achievement Medal.
Effective 11 September 2001, the Army Achievement Medal may be awarded in a combat area, since this change over sixty thousand Army Achievement Medals have been awarded in theaters of operations such as Iraq and Afghanistan. The Joint Service Achievement Medal was created in 1983 and this award was considered a Department of Defense decoration senior to the service department Achievement Medals
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the countrys seven uniformed services. This has happened twice, in 1917, during World War I, created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States. As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue Marine, by the 1860s, the service was known as the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue Marine gradually fell into disuse, the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury. As one of the five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War. As of 2014 the Coast Guard had over 36,000 men and women on duty,7,350 reservists,29,620 auxiliarists. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the worlds 12th largest naval force.
Because of its authority, the Coast Guard can conduct military operations under the U. S. Department of Defense or directly for the President in accordance with Title 14 USC 1–3. The Coast Guards enduring roles are maritime safety, security, to carry out those roles, it has 11 statutory missions as defined in 6 U. S. C. §468, which include enforcing U. S. law in the worlds largest exclusive economic zone of 3.4 million square miles, the Coast Guards motto is the Latin phrase, Semper Paratus. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, the Coast Guards most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, and most of all, spirit. Wil Milam, a swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, In the Navy. Practicing for war, training for war, in the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself. The Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are subdivided into eleven statutory missions. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, and have responsibility for military and civilian search and rescue.
The two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators, previously located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports, details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. The Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution, the five uniformed services that make up the U. S
Air and Space Campaign Medal
The Air and Space Campaign Medal is an award of the United States Air Force which was first created on April 24,2002 by order of Secretary of the Air Force James G. Roche. To be eligible for the Air and Space Campaign Medal a service member must perform direct support of an operation for at least thirty consecutive days or for sixty non-consecutive days. Which due to technological advances are no longer constrained by geographic location and this includes, but is not limited to, sortie generation, surveillance, computer network attack operations, etc. Squadron Commanders may determine other functions that meet the intent of this award, members who provided direct support for 30 consecutive or 60 nonconsecutive days to one of these operations, at home station, or from outside of the geographic area of combat qualify for the ASCM. Air and Space Campaign Medal takes precedence immediately after the Military Outstanding Volunteer Service Medal, additional awards are denoted by service stars