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Lucille Bogan

Lucille Bogan was an American singer-songwriter, among the first to be recorded. She recorded under the pseudonym Bessie Jackson; the music critic Ernest Borneman stated that Bogan was one of "the big three of the blues", along with Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith. Many of Bogan's songs have been covered by blues and jazz musicians, including Buddy Guy, B. B. King, Sonny Boy Williamson. Many of her songs were sexually explicit, she was considered to have been a dirty blues musician, she was born Lucille Anderson in Amory and raised in Birmingham, Alabama. In 1914, she married Nazareth Lee Bogan, a railwayman, gave birth to a son, Nazareth Jr. in either 1915 or 1916. She divorced Bogan and married James Spencer, 22 years younger than she, she first recorded vaudeville songs for Okeh Records in New York in 1923, with the pianist Henry Callens. That year she recorded "Pawn Shop Blues" in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1927 she began recording for Paramount Records in Grafton, where she recorded her first big success, "Sweet Petunia", covered by Blind Blake.

She recorded for Brunswick Records, backed by Tampa Red. By 1930 her songs tended to concern drinking and sex, such as "Sloppy Drunk Blues" and "Tricks Ain't Walkin' No More", she recorded the original version of "Black Angel Blues", covered by B. B. King and many others. With her experience in some of the rowdier juke joints of the 1920s, many of Bogan's songs, most of which she wrote herself, have thinly veiled humorous sexual references; the theme of prostitution, in particular, featured prominently in several of her recordings. One of these was "Groceries on the Shelf", written and recorded by Charlie "Specks" McFadden. Piggly Wiggly is the name of a successful American supermarket chain, operating in the South and the Midwest, which first opened in 1916. Bogan used the self-service notion in her amended lyrics to the song, part of which ran, "My name is Piggly Wiggly and I swear you can help yourself, And you've got to have your greenback, it don't take nothin' else". In 1933, she returned to New York, to conceal her identity, began recording as Bessie Jackson for the Banner label of ARC.

She was accompanied on piano by Walter Roland, with whom she recorded over 100 songs between 1933 and 1935, including some of her biggest commercial successes, "Seaboard Blues", "Troubled Mind", "Superstitious Blues". Her other songs include "Stew Meat Blues", "Coffee Grindin' Blues", "My Georgia Grind", "Honeycomb Man", "Mr. Screw Worm in Trouble", "Bo Hog Blues", her final recordings with Roland and Josh White include two takes of "Shave'Em Dry", recorded in New York on Tuesday, March 5, 1935. The unexpurgated alternate take is notorious for its explicit sexual references, a unique record of the lyrics sung in after-hours adult clubs. According to Keith Briggs' liner notes for Document Records Complete Recordings, these were recorded either for the fun of the recording engineers, or for "clandestine distribution as a'Party Record.'" Briggs notes that Bogan seems to be unfamiliar with the lyrics, reading them as she sings them surprised by them herself. Another of her songs, "B. D. Woman's Blues", takes the position of a "bull dyke", with the lyrics "Comin' a time, B.

D. women, they ain't gonna need no men", "They got a head like a sweet angel and they walk just like a natural man" and "They can lay their jive just like a natural man". She appears not to have recorded after 1935, she managed her son's jazz group, Bogan's Birmingham Busters, for a time, before moving to Los Angeles shortly before her death from coronary sclerosis in 1948. She is interred in Compton, California. Document Records issued her complete recordings in a series of releases. Classic female blues List of classic female blues singers List of country blues musicians Lucille Bogan biography Lucille Bogan music catalog

Cross processing

Cross processing is the deliberate processing of photographic film in a chemical solution intended for a different type of film. The effect was discovered independently by many different photographers by mistake in the days of C-22 and E-4. Color cross processed photographs are characterized by unnatural colors and high contrast; the results of cross processing differ from case to case, as the results are determined by many factors such as the make and type of the film used, the amount of light exposed onto the film and the chemical used to develop the film. Similar effects can be achieved with digital filter effects. Cross processing involves one of the two following methods. Processing positive color reversal film in C-41 chemicals, resulting in a negative image on a colorless base. Processing negative color print film in E-6 chemicals, resulting in a positive image but with the orange base of a processed color negative. However, cross processing can take other forms, such as negative color print film or positive color reversal film in black and white developer.

Other interesting effects can be obtained by bleaching color films processed in black and white chemistry using a hydrochloric acid dichromate mixture or using potassium triiodide solution. If these bleached films are re-exposed to light and re-processed in their intended color chemistry, subtle low contrast, pastel effects are obtained. Cross processing effects can be simulated in digital photography by a number of techniques involving the manipulation of contrast/brightness, hue/saturation and curves in image editors such as Adobe Photoshop or GIMP. However, these digital tools lack the unpredictable nature of regular cross processed images. Redscale Photographic processes

Cross County Parkway

The Cross County Parkway is a 4.46-mile-long parkway in lower Westchester County, New York, in the United States. The parkway is a critical east–west connection throughout Westchester, having full interchanges with every major north–south highway in southern Westchester with the exception of Interstate 95. Among its junctions, it has access to the New York State Thruway mainline; the western terminus is at the Saw Mill Parkway in Yonkers. The eastern terminus is at the Hutchinson River Parkway in New Rochelle; as evident from stubs and oversized overpasses, it appears that there were plans to expand the Parkway west from exit 2 to Downtown Yonkers and east from exit 9 to I-95. World War II had slowed this idea; the CCP is the only parkway in New York state that has local lanes. The parkway is designated an unsigned reference route; the Cross County Parkway begins at an interchange with the Saw Mill River Parkway in Yonkers. Exits 1 and 2 are part of this interchange, with exit 1 being a westbound only exit to Rumsey Road, exit 2 being a westbound exit/eastbound entrance from the Saw Mill northbound.

The entrance/exit at the Saw Mill southbound has no number. The eastbound entrance at exit 1 is via the Saw Mill southbound. After crossing an abandoned railroad grade, the parkway enters exit 3, a small interchange with Yonkers Avenue; the six-lane roadway crosses through southeast Yonkers, making a gradual bend from the northeast to the southeast before spitting into express and local lanes. The parkway enters an interchange with the New York State Thruway and NY 100, exits 4S and 4N. All exits/entrances are accessed here by the local lanes, except for the eastbound exit and westbound entrance at exit 4N, which are via the express lanes; the eastbound entrance at exit 4N connects to both the local lanes. Shortly after, the Cross County enters exit 5, which connects to Kimball Avenue and Midland Avenue and is only accessed by the local lanes. There is no eastbound entrance. Continuing east through Yonkers, the Cross County Parkway enters an interchange with the Bronx River Parkway and Sprain Brook Parkway, exit 6.

In the center of this interchange, consisting of several flyover ramps, is the Fleetwood Metro-North Railroad station on the Harlem Line. After exit 6, the Cross County crosses into Mount Vernon where it meets exit 7, a northbound entrance and exit via the local lanes at Broad Street, which connects to Gramatan Avenue. After exit 7, the parkway winds southeast into the Chester Heights section of Mount Vernon, where it enters exit 8 for NY 22. Just east of exit 8, the Cross County has a eastbound exit and westbound entrance at exit 9, which connects the parkway to/from the southbound lanes of the Hutchinson River Parkway at exit 13. After exit 9, the Cross County Parkway turns ninety degrees to the north, going back to a six lane parkway after expanding to host exit 9; the Cross County parallels a park in the Chester Heights section of Mount Vernon. Entering the southwest corner of New Rochelle, the parkway enters exit 10, a small interchange with New Rochelle Road with only an eastbound exit and westbound entrance.

This is because westbound exit are via the Hutch. After exit 10, the Cross County continues north as a five-lane parkway, before crossing under a flyover ramp for the Hutchinson River Parkway southbound and merging into the parkway northbound; the Cross County Parkway was built as an east–west link between the Saw Mill, Bronx River, Hutchinson River Parkways. Construction began in 1929, the highway was a 40-foot -wide undivided roadway that could accommodate four lanes of automobile traffic; the parkway had a toll barrier in Fleetwood, removed in the early 1950s. The reconstruction of the Cross County Parkway was begun in 1964; the parkway is now a multi-lane highway with local lanes. In conjunction with the renovation of the Cross County Shopping Center, Exit 5 westbound and Exit 5 eastbound of the Cross County Parkway underwent major reconstruction during 2010 and 2011; the two exit ramps were improved with new traffic lights and signage. In addition, traffic can now proceed from the eastbound parkway directly into the shopping center.

Cross County Parkway was intended to connect to the Rye Playland Parkway. However this proposal was stalled by the Great Depression and Second World War, cancelled in the 1970s. Part of the right of way for the Cross County Parkway's unbuilt extension has since been incorporated into the Leatherstocking Trail; the entire route is in Westchester County. U. S. Roads portal New York portal Cross County Parkway at Alps' Roads

Eumops nanus

Eumops nanus is a species of bat found in Central and South America. It was first described by American zoologist Gerrit Smith Miller in 1900. Miller placed it into the genus Promops; the holotype for the species was collected in Chiriquí Province in Panama. Thomas had received the specimen from HJ Watson, the owner of extensive plantations in Panama; when Miller described a new genus of bat in 1906, Eumops, he placed Promops nanus in the new genus, renaming it Eumops nanus. Its taxonomy has been revised several times, with some authors considering it a subspecies of the dwarf bonneted bat. E. Nanus was maintained as a subspecies of the dwarf bonneted bat from 1932 until 2007, when Eger et al. recommended that it should be elevated to a species once more. Its species name nanus is from Latin meaning "dwarf." Miller stated. It is the smallest member of its genus, weighing 6–14 g. Miller characterized it as "essentially a miniature of Promops glaucinus." Its forearm is 37–49 mm long. Its fur is dark brown.

Its lips are wrinkled. The ears are large and rounded, extending over the forehead with their inner edges touching each other, its tragus is rounded. Its calcar has a pronounced keel, its tail extends beyond the edge of the uropatagium. Its dental formula is 1.1.2.32.1.2.3 for a total of 30 teeth. It is nocturnal; the holotype was collected under the roof of a house. It is known to roost in tree cavities, it is insectivorous, consuming moths, true bugs, other insects. It will forage for prey over bodies of water. In one population in Mexico, late June is the most popular time for parturition; the female nurses the young, called a pup, for 6–8 weeks. Its range extends from southern Mexico to northern Colombia and Venezuela, with documented occurrence in Belize, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela, its occurs in areas of tropical thorn forests, tropical humid forests, forest edge habitat. It is evaluated as least concern by the IUCN—its lowest conservation priority, it meets the criteria for this designation because it has a large range, it occurs in several protected areas, its population is unlikely to be declining at a rapid rate.

Nonetheless, it is a rarely-encountered species

Torre Cerredo

Torre Cerredo called Torrecerredo or Torre de Cerredo, is the highest peak of the Cantabrian Mountains, northern Spain. With a prominence of 1,931 m, it is an ultra-prominent peak and the third most prominent peak of the Iberian Peninsula; the mountain has an elevation of 2,650 metres, making it the highest peak of the Picos de Europa and the Cantabrian Mountains. Torre Cerredo is located on the central massif of the Picos de Europa, the Urrieles Massif, on the limits of the provinces Asturias and León, its summit towers 2,200 metres over the river Cares and offers wide views over the western massif and the Cares' tributaries. Torre Cerredo was first ascended by Aymar d'Arlot de Saint Saud, Paul Labrouche, Juan Suárez, de Espinama and Francois Salles, from Gavarnie, on June 30, 1882; the easiest ascent route starts at Jou de Cerredo. The most common approach uses the refuges of Vega de Urriellu. List of European ultra-prominent peaks Media related to Torre Cerredo at Wikimedia Commons "Torrecerredo, Spain" on Peakbagger