Water quality refers to the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose, it is most used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance achieved through treatment of the water, can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact, drinking water. In the setting of standards, agencies make political and technical/scientific decisions about how the water will be used. In the case of natural water bodies, they make some reasonable estimate of pristine conditions. Natural water bodies will vary in response to environmental conditions. Environmental scientists work to understand how these systems function, which in turn helps to identify the sources and fates of contaminants. Environmental lawyers and policymakers work to define legislation with the intention that water is maintained at an appropriate quality for its identified use.
The vast majority of surface water on the Earth is neither toxic. This remains true. Another general perception of water quality is that of a simple property that tells whether water is polluted or not. In fact, water quality is a complex subject, in part because water is a complex medium intrinsically tied to the ecology of the Earth. Industrial and commercial activities are a major cause of water pollution as are runoff from agricultural areas, urban runoff and discharge of treated and untreated sewage; the parameters for water quality are determined by the intended use. Work in the area of water quality tends to be focused on water, treated for human consumption, industrial use, or in the environment. Contaminants that may be in untreated water include microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria. Water quality depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human uses such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, overuse; the United States Environmental Protection Agency limits the amounts of certain contaminants in tap water provided by US public water systems.
The Safe Drinking Water Act authorizes EPA to issue two types of standards: primary standards regulate substances that affect human health. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water that must provide the same protection for public health. Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants; the presence of these contaminants does not indicate that the water poses a health risk. In urbanized areas around the world, water purification technology is used in municipal water systems to remove contaminants from the source water before it is distributed to homes, businesses and other recipients. Water drawn directly from a stream, lake, or aquifer and that has no treatment will be of uncertain quality. Dissolved minerals may affect suitability of water for a range of domestic purposes; the most familiar of these is the presence of ions of calcium and magnesium which interfere with the cleaning action of soap, can form hard sulfate and soft carbonate deposits in water heaters or boilers.
Hard water may be softened to remove these ions. The softening process substitutes sodium cations. Hard water may be preferable to soft water for human consumption, since health problems have been associated with excess sodium and with calcium and magnesium deficiencies. Softening may increase cleaning effectiveness. Various industries' wastes and effluents can pollute the water quality in receiving bodies of water. Environmental water quality called ambient water quality, relates to water bodies such as lakes and oceans. Water quality standards for surface waters vary due to different environmental conditions and intended human uses. Toxic substances and high populations of certain microorganisms can present a health hazard for non-drinking purposes such as irrigation, fishing, rafting and industrial uses; these conditions may affect wildlife, which use the water for drinking or as a habitat. Modern water quality laws specify protection of fisheries and recreational use and require, as a minimum, retention of current quality standards.
There is some desire among the public to return water bodies to pristine, or pre-industrial conditions. Most current environmental laws focus on the designation of particular uses of a water body. In some countries these designations allow for some water contamination as long as the particular type of contamination is not harmful to the designated uses. Given the landscape changes in the watersheds of many freshwater bodies, returning to pristine conditions would be a significant challenge. In these cases, environmental scientists focus on achieving goals for maintaining healthy ecosystems and may concentrate on the protection of populations of endangered species and protecting human health; the complexity of water quality as a subject is reflected in the many types of measu
United Utilities Group plc, the United Kingdom's largest listed water company, was founded in 1995 as a result of the merger of North West Water and NORWEB. The group manages the regulated water and waste water network in North West England, which includes Cumbria, Greater Manchester and Merseyside, which have a combined population of nearly seven million; the United Utilities Group was the distribution network operator for the North West until 2010, when the electricity subsidiary was sold to Electricity North West. United Utilities' headquarters are in Warrington and the company has 5,300 direct employees, its shares are listed on the FTSE 100 Index. North West England is the wettest region in England, water hardness across the region is soft to soft. In 1990, North West Water and NORWEB, the companies responsible for the provision of water and electricity to the North West, were privatised. In 1995, they retained their separate identities. In January 1998, United Utilities listed on the New York Stock Exchange, but delisted its shares in May 2007.
In 2000, the North West Water and NORWEB branding was phased out in favour of United Utilities, the rebranding was completed by the end of 2001. The company sold some of the businesses it had acquired, its telecoms business, Your Communications was sold in February 2006, Vertex in March 2007. In December 2007, United Utilities sold its electricity distribution network assets to North West Electricity Networks Limitied, a joint venture between funds run by Colonial First State and investment bank JPMorgan Chase. Electricity North West became the licensed Distribution Network Operator for the north west of England as a result. United Utilities operated and maintained the network on behalf of Electricity Northwest until 2010, when Electricity Northwest bought the electricity network operations and maintenance arm of United Utilities to establish one Group. In October 2011, United Utilities was selected as the preferred bidder by Severn Trent Water to purchase the Lake Vyrnwy estate for £11 million.
In February 2012, United Utilities proposed a national water pipeline linking water sources in Manchester to London. In April 2016, United Utilities received an 18-year loan of £500m from The European Investment Bank to support investment across the North West. In May 2016, the Competition and Markets Authority granted United Utilities and Severn Trent Water approval to create a new joint venture company in preparation for the water market deregulation. In June 2016, United Utilities and Severn Trent Water formed Water Plus, in readiness to provide the retail services for their non household customers. United Utilities owns 184 reservoirs and is responsible for the provision and maintenance of water supply in the region; some reservoirs operated by the company are outside the North West such as the Longdendale Chain in Derbyshire, which were constructed by the Manchester Corporation in the 19th century, remain networked to the North West's water supply. United Utilities operates wastewater networks.
In North West England it is investing £3.6 billion between 2010–2015 to meet ever-increasing water quality standards, deliver environmental improvements and make their network more reliable. On 7 August 2015, United Utilities announced that cryptosporidium, a water borne parasite that can cause diarrhoea and vomiting, had been detected in the water supply to Blackpool, Fylde, South Ribble and Wyre affecting more than 300,000 customers. No cases of cryptosporidiosis were reported and the introduction of ultra-violet treatment units resulted in "boil water" notices being lifted in some areas. Investigations by UU and the Drinking Water Inspectorate had not identified the cause but work continued to remove it. On 6 September, the water supply was declared free from contamination, restrictions were lifted. United Utilities was subsequently fined £300,000 at Preston Crown Court on 10 October 2017 for supplying water unfit for human consumption, with an additional £150,000 costs, it paid around £18 million in compensation to its customers.
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Wessex Water Services Limited, known as Wessex Water, is a water supply and sewerage utility company serving an area of South West England, covering 10,000 square kilometres including Bristol, most of Dorset and Wiltshire and parts of Gloucestershire and Hampshire. Wessex Water supplies 1.3 million people with around 285 million litres of water a day. It is regulated under the Water Industry Act 1991. In 2016, the company had about 2,100 employees. Wessex Water is owned by the Malaysian power company YTL Corporation, its headquarters are on the outskirts of Bath in Claverton Down, in a modern energy-efficient building by Bennetts Associates and Buro Happold. The company originated as the Wessex Water Authority, one of ten regional water authorities established by the Water Act 1973 which were privatised in 1989. Wessex Water Services Limited was purchased by American company Enron in 1998 for $2.4 billion and placed in a newly formed subsidiary, Azurix. Following Enron's collapse, Wessex Water was sold to YTL Power International of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2002.
The water authority had acquired the assets and duties of a number of public sector and local authority water utilities: Bristol Avon River Authority Somerset River Authority Avon and Dorset River Authority Bath Corporation Dorset Water Board North Wilts Water Board South Wilts Water Board Wessex Water Board West Somerset Water Board West Wilts Water Board Bournemouth and District Water Company Bristol Waterworks Company Cholderton and District Water Company West Hampshire Water Company West Lulworth Water Undertaking Wessex Water achieved a score of 4.53 in Ofwat’s ‘Satisfaction by company’ survey 2012/13. In 2013 Wessex Water's compliance with drinking water standards exceeded 99.9% and the company maintained 100% compliance with sewage treatment discharge consents. In both 2011/12 and 2012/13 the company's leakage figure was 69 million litres per day, compared to a yearly average of 73 million litres per day between 2005–10. Wessex Water's greenhouse gas emissions totalled 149 kilotonnes of CO2 equivalent in 2011/12 and 159 kilotonnes in 2012/13.
The company owns and manages several reservoirs including Blashford Lakes in Dorset, Clatworthy Reservoir, Durleigh Reservoir, Hawkridge Reservoir, Otterhead Lakes, Sutton Bingham Reservoir and Tucking Mill in Somerset, many of which, in addition to supplying drinking water, are used for recreation and as nature reserves. GENeco operates sewage treatment works, it produces renewable energy and provides the agricultural industry with fertiliser. In summer 2010, GENeco launched the Bio-Bug, a modified VW Beetle that runs on bio-gas generated from waste treated at sewage treatment works. Waste flushed down the toilets of just 70 homes in Bristol is enough to power the Bio-Bug for a year, based on an annual mileage of 10,000 miles. In November 2014, the UK's first bus powered by human and food waste went into service between Bristol and Bath, run by tour operator Bath Bus Company; the biomethane gas is generated at Bristol sewage treatment works in Avonmouth, run by GENeco. May 1998 – Found guilty of discharging over 1 million gallons of raw sewage into a Weymouth, marina on August Bank Holiday Monday 1997, the busiest day of the year.
The company was fined £5,000 with £500 costs. March 1999 – Ranked 4th in the top ten list of "worst polluters" in England by the Environment Agency. May 2002 – Fined £8,000 for causing pollution in Dowlais Brook, Cwmbran in June 2001. April 2003 – Fined £5,000 with £1,000 costs at Minehead Magistrates' Court after pleading guilty to causing poisonous, noxious or polluting matter to enter the Washford River in Somerset. July 2003 – Described by the Environment Agency as one of the worst "repeat offenders" for pollution incidents. 2004 – Fined six times for environmental pollution incidents. May 2007 – Fined £1,500 with £1,589 costs by Bristol magistrates after pleading guilty to one offence under the Water Resources Act 1991 of causing sewage to enter controlled waters. Untreated sewage had been allowed to pollute the River Frome in July 2006; the river was polluted again with untreated sewage at Frampton Cotterell in February 2007 and April 2007. April 2008 – Fined £3,000 with £1,960 costs for allowing sewage to pollute the River Stour.
March 2010 – Fined £6,000 with £2,235 costs at Weymouth Magistrates' Court after allowing sewage to pollute the River Stour near Shaftesbury in March 2009. Official website
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
The Department for Environment and Rural Affairs is the government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture and rural communities in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Concordats set out agreed frameworks for co operation, between it and the Scottish Government, Welsh Government and Northern Ireland Executive, which have devolved responsibilities for these matters in their respective nations. Defra leads for Britain at the EU on agricultural and environment matters and in other international negotiations on sustainable development and climate change, although a new Department of Energy and Climate Change was created on 3 October 2008 to take over the last responsibility, it was formed in June 2001, under the leadership of Margaret Beckett, when the Ministry of Agriculture and Food was merged with part of the Department of Environment and the Regions and with a small part of the Home Office. The department was created after the perceived failure of MAFF, to deal adequately with an outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease.
The department had about 9,000 core personnel, as of January 2008. The department's main building is Nobel House on Smith Square, SW1. In October 2008, the climate team at Defra was merged with the energy team from the Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, to create the Department of Energy and Climate Change headed by Ed Miliband; the Defra Ministers are as follows: The Permanent Secretary is Clare Moriarty. Shadow ministers portfolios can differ from government departments therefore overlap. Defra is responsible for British Government policy in the following areas Adaptation to global warming Agriculture Air quality Animal health and animal welfare Biodiversity Conservation Chemical substances and pesticides Fisheries Flooding Food Forestry Hunting Inland waterways Land management Marine policy National parks Noise Plant health Rural development Sustainable development Waste management Water managementSome policies apply to England alone due to devolution, while others are not devolved and therefore apply to Britain as a whole.
The department's executive agencies are: Animal and Plant Health Agency Centre for Environment and Aquaculture Science Rural Payments Agency Veterinary Medicines Directorate The department's key delivery partners are: Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board Consumer Council for Water Environment Agency Fera Science Forestry Commission Joint Nature Conservation Committee Marine Management Organisation National Forest Company Natural England Ofwat Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Sea Fish Industry AuthorityA full list of departmental delivery and public bodies may be found on the Defra website. Policies for environment and rural affairs are delivered in the regions by Defra's executive agencies and delivery bodies, in particular Natural England, the Rural Payments Agency, Animal Health and the Marine Management Organisation. Defra provides grant aid to the following flood and coastal erosion risk management operating authorities: Environment Agency Internal drainage boards Local authorities Defra's overarching aim is sustainable development, defined as "development which enables all people throughout the world to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy a better quality of life without compromising the quality of life of future generations."
The Secretary of State wrote in a letter to the Prime Minister that he saw Defra’s mission as enabling a move toward what the World Wide Fund for Nature has called "one planet living". Under this overarching aim, Defra has five strategic priorities: energy. Sustainable consumption and production, including responsibility for the National Waste Strategy. Protecting the countryside and natural resource protection. Sustainable rural communities. A sustainable farming and food sector including animal health and welfare. Badger culling in the United Kingdom Cattle Health Initiative Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Energy policy in the United Kingdom Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom Environmental contract List of atmospheric dispersion models National Bee Unit National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria New Technologies Demonstrator Programme Nicola Spence Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department UK Dispersion Modelling Bureau United Kingdom budget Waste Implementation Programme Defra's official website Fera - Executive agency of DEFRA National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria - Fera English Nature's website JNCC's website Defra's wiki for formulating an environmental contract DEFRA YouTube channel
Northumbrian Water Limited is a water company in the United Kingdom, providing mains water and sewerage services in the English counties of Northumberland and Wear, Durham and parts of North Yorkshire, supplying water as Essex and Suffolk Water. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Northumbrian Water Group. Northumbrian Water Limited is a private limited company registered in England and Wales under company number 2366703, incorporated in this form in 1989. Northumbrian Water's operations cover an area of 1488 miles and extend from the urban conurbations of Tyneside and Teesside to the sparsely populated rural districts of Durham and Northumberland. A small area around Hartlepool is excluded from NW's water supply licence; the total population served by NW is 2.7m people using: 44 impounding reservoirs 57 water treatment works 344 water pumping stations 338 water service reservoirs 25,545 km of water mains 418 sewage treatment works 765 sewage pumping stations 29,724 km of sewers NW's operations are split between two resource zones: Berwick and Fowberry resource zone.
This zone covers a small area in north Northumberland, centred on the towns of Berwick and Wooler which has no access to stored water and its water supplies come from an aquifer in the underlying Fell Sandstone, from which water is abstracted via boreholes. 99% of the population served by NW is in the Kielder zone, so named from Kielder Water, the largest reservoir in NW's region. The zone is split into three supply zones, Northern and Southern, which correspond broadly to the catchment areas of the rivers Tyne and Tees each of which incorporates one of the region's three conurbations. Under normal circumstances, each zone is self-sufficient in water resources, but provision exists to transfer water from the northern zone to either of the others, via the Kielder Transfer Scheme; the zone's water supplies are supported by a system of impounding reservoirs, river pumping stations, water treatment works. There are 29 impounding reservoirs, of which three—Kielder and Cow Green— account for 78% of the available capacity of nearly 360,000 million litres.
Water is supplied to the treatment works either from a nearby reservoir or by abstraction from one of the major rivers. In the latter case, the flow of the river has to be maintained by discharging water from a reservoir further upstream; the major reservoir in the Northern zone is Kielder Water. Others include: Fontburn, on the River Font. Catcleugh is at the start of a sequence that includes reservoirs at Colt Crag, two at Hallington and a complex of seven at Whittle Dene, where there is a treatment works. Within the Northern zone, water is abstracted from the North Tyne at Barrasford and from the Tyne at Ovingham, with discharges from Kielder Water ensuring that the minimum regulated flow is maintained in the two rivers. From Barrasford, water is pumped to West Hallington reservoir, while water abstracted at Ovingham is used to supply Horsley treatment works and can be used to replenish the Whittle Dene complex; the treatment works at Horsley and Whittle Dean jointly meet the needs of Tyneside and south-east Northumberland.
In the Central zone, the main reservoirs are Burnhope. Derwent reservoir supplies Mosswood treatment works, 2 miles away, Burnhope supplies Wear Valley treatment works at Wearhead. With the opening of the new Wear Valley works, in 2004, an older facility at Tunstall was closed, Tunstall reservoir is now used to maintain regulated flow on the Wear; the reservoirs at Waskerley and Smiddy Shaw supply Honey Hill treatment works, which lies just below Smiddy Shaw. Water is abstracted from the Wear at Chester-le-Street to supply a treatment works at Great Lumley, the minimum flow being maintained through discharges from Burnhope or Tunstall. In the event that neither Burnhope nor Tunstall can satisfy regulatory discharges to meet the minimum maintained flow on the Wear, water can be transferred into the Wear via the Kielder Transfer Scheme, which can be used to supplement or replace water from Derwent reservoir or to replenish Waskerley reservoir. Coastal parts of the Central zone, including Sunderland, are supplied with drinking water from boreholes and shafts that abstract groundwater from aquifers in the underlying Magnesian limestone.
The largest reservoir in the Southern zone is Cow Green, in upper Teesdale, used to regulate flow in the River Tees. There are two chains of reservoirs on the Lune and the Balder, tributaries of the Tees, which in combination supply a water treatment works at Lartington, just south of Cotherstone; the main reservoirs are Selset and Grassholme in Lunedale, Balderhead and Hury in Baldersdale. Two further reservoirs, at Lockwood Beck and Scaling Dam, on the North Yorkshire Moors, are no longer used for water supply and serve purely as recreational facilities. Water is abstracted from the Tees for treatment at the Broken Scar treatment works, near Low Coniscliffe on the outskirts of Darlington, for industrial water at Blackwell, just downstream from Broken Scar, Low Worsall, near Kirklevington. Tees Cottage Pumping Station is sited across the A67 from
Thames Water Utilities Ltd, known as Thames Water, is the monopoly private utility company responsible for the public water supply and waste water treatment in large parts of Greater London, the Thames Valley, Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and some other areas of the United Kingdom. Thames Water is the UK's largest water and wastewater services company, supplies 2.6 billion litres of drinking water per day, treats 4.4 billion litres of wastewater per day. Thames Water's 15 million customers comprise 27% of the UK population. Thames Water is responsible for a range of water management infrastructure projects including: the Thames Water Ring Main around London. Thames Water awarded Bazalgette Tunnel Ltd the contract to build the £4.2 billion London Tideway Tunnel Infrastructure proposals by Thames Water include the proposed reservoir at Abingdon, which would be the largest enclosed or bunded reservoir in the UK. Thames Water is regulated under the Water Industry Act 1991 and is owned by Kemble Water Holdings Ltd, a consortium formed in late 2006 and owned by Australian-based Macquarie Group's European Infrastructure Funds for the purpose of purchasing Thames Water.
The largest shareholders are Canadian pensions group OMERS, BT Pension Scheme, the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority, the China Investment Corporation and the Kuwait Investment Authority. The name of the company reflects its role providing water to the drainage basin of the River Thames and not the source of its water, taken from a range of rivers and boreholes. In March 2017 a judge imposed a record fine of £20.3m on Thames Water after large leaks of untreated sewage, totalling 1.4bn litres, occurred over a number of years. Thames Water can trace its history back the building of the New River, from 1609 to 1612, which channelled fresh water from Hertfordshire to the New River Head in Islington; the business of the New River was taken over by the New River Company founded by royal charter in 1619, under the leadership of Edmund Colthurst and Hugh Myddelton. Although earlier water companies existed providing fresh water to London, the New River Company is the earliest direct ancestor of Thames Water today.
During the 1850s, Dr John Snow and William Farr's identification of the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak provided a stimulus to the better treatment of sewage. The Thames Conservancy was established in 1857 with unified control over water supply and navigation; the Great Stink occurred in 1858, focussed government and public opinion on cleaning up the Thames. Joseph Bazalgette's remediation of The Great Stink provided the company with much of London's present Victorian sewerage infrastructure and several listed buildings within its portfolio of sites. In 1904 The New River Company and eight other water companies serving London were taken into public ownership under control of the newly-founded Metropolitan Water Board. In 1973 the Metropolitan Water Board and the Thames Conservancy were taken over by the Thames Water Authority, under the terms of the Water Act 1973, along with the following water companies outside the historical boundaries of London: In 1989, the responsibility for navigation, regulatory and channels management inherited from the Thames Conservancy, was transferred to the National Rivers Authority which became part of the Environment Agency.
The remainder of Thames Water Authority was privatised as Thames Water Utilities Limited. The company was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Following international expansion, Thames Water became the world's third largest water company in 1995. Thames Water plc was acquired by the German utility company RWE in 2001; as well as its British operations, it continued as an international water treatment consultancy and acquired further overseas operations. On 17 October 2006, following several years of criticism about failed leakage targets in the UK, RWE announced it would sell Thames Water for £8 billion to Kemble Water Holdings Ltd, a consortium led by the Australian Macquarie Group. In December 2006, the sale of Thames Water's British operation went ahead, with RWE keeping the overseas operations. Under the new ownership, the company re-focused its efforts on improving its operational performance and in 2007 announced the largest-ever capital investment programme of any UK water company. In 2012 some of the company's stock was acquired by the BT Pension Scheme, the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority and the China Investment Corporation.| Thames Water was a Tier Three sponsor of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London.
In 2017, under the Government's Open Water programme, in common with all Water and Sewerage companies, Thames Water must provide separate Retail and Wholesale operations for its commercial customers, working through a central Market Operator. On 14 March 2017, Macquarie Group sold its remaining stake in Thames Water's holding company to OMERS and the Kuwait Investment Authority; as of 2014, Thames Water provides the second cheapest residential water and sewerage charges of all the combined Water and Sewerage companies. Since 2007, it has made capital investments at least £1 billion a year in its infrastructure – the largest such annual investment within the UK water industry. In 2015–2016, this figure was £1.2 billion. This level of investment has allowed the company to defer, but not avoid, substantial portions of its corporation tax liability in line with UK tax law; every day, Thames Water abstracts / extracts and supplies 2.6
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate