MAN SE MAN AG, is a German mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group. It is a subsidiary of automaker Volkswagen AG. MAN SE is based in Munich, its primary output is for the automotive industry heavy trucks. Further activities include the production of diesel engines for various applications, like marine propulsion, turbomachinery. MAN supplies trucks, diesel engines and turbomachinery. In 2016, its 53,824 employees generated annual sales of around €13.6 billion. MAN SE is owned in majority by Volkswagen AG, it is a producer of Commercial Vehicles, through its MAN Truck & Bus and MAN Latin America divisions, participation in the manufacturer Sinotruk. MAN traces its origins back to 1758, when the "St. Antony" ironworks commenced operation in Oberhausen, as the first heavy-industry enterprise in the Ruhr region. In 1808, the three ironworks "St. Antony", "Gute Hoffnung", "Neue Essen" merged, to form the Hüttengewerkschaft und Handlung Jacobi, renamed Gute Hoffnungshütte. In 1840, the German engineer Ludwig Sander founded in Augsburg the first predecessing enterprise of MAN in Southern Germany: the "Sander'sche Maschinenfabrik."
It firstly became the "C. Reichenbach'sche Maschinenfabrik", named after the pioneer of printing machines Carl August Reichenbach, on the "Maschinenfabrik Augsburg"; the branch Süddeutsche Brückenbau A. G. was founded when the company in 1859 was awarded the contract for the construction of the railway bridge over the Rhine at Mainz. In 1898, the companies Maschinenbau-AG Nürnberg and Maschinenfabrik Augsburg AG merged to form Vereinigte Maschinenfabrik Augsburg und Maschinenbaugesellschaft Nürnberg A. G. Augsburg. In 1908, the company was renamed Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nürnberg AG, or in short, M·A·N. While the focus remained on ore mining and iron production in the Ruhr region, mechanical engineering became the dominating branch of business in Augsburg and Nuremberg. Under the direction of Heinrich von Buz, Maschinenfabrik Augsburg grew from a medium-sized business of 400 employees into a major enterprise with a workforce of 12,000 by the year 1913. Locomotion and steel building were the big topics of this phase.
The early predecessors of MAN were responsible for numerous technological innovations. The success of the early MAN entrepreneurs and engineers like Heinrich Gottfried Gerber, was based on a great openness towards new technologies, they constructed the Wuppertal monorail and the first spectacular steel bridges like the Großhesseloher Brücke in Munich in 1857 and the Müngsten railway bridge between 1893 and 1897. The invention of the rotary printing press allowed the copious printing of books and newspapers and since 1893, Rudolf Diesel puzzled for four years with future MAN engineers in a laboratory in Augsburg until his first Diesel engine was completed and functional. During 1921, the majority of M. A. N. was taken over by Sterkrade. Through well-directed equities and acquisitions of processing industries, e.g. Deutsche Werft, Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau, MAN advanced to a nationwide operating enterprise, with a workforce of 52,000 by 1921. MAN produced tractors by the name MAN Ackerdiesel between.
The decision for tractors production was made due to increasing demand from eastern Germany. At the same time the GHH's economic situation worsened; the causes for this were, among others, the reparations after World War I, the occupation of the Ruhr region and the world economic crisis. In only two years the number of MAN employees sank from 14,000 in the year 1929/30 to 7,400 in 1931/32. While the civil business was collapsing, the military business increased with the armament under the National Socialist regime. GHH/MAN enterprises supplied diesel engines for submarines, cylinders for projectiles and artillery of every description. MAN produced gun parts, including Mauser Karabiner 98k rifle bolts, their Waffenamt code was WaA53, ordnance code was "coc". The MAN works in Augsburg, which produced diesel engines for U-boats, the MAN works in Nuremberg, which built 40 percent of Germany's Panther tanks, were the target of massive Allied bombing attacks during World War II. After the end of World War II the allies split up the GHH group.
A vertical integration in which mining and steel production are consolidated was not allowed any more. The "Gutehoffnungshütte", together with the MAN firms of Southern Germany, therefore concentrated on engineering, plant construction, commercial vehicles and printing machines; this process has been supported by strategic dispositions. In 1982/83 the "Gutehoffnungshütte" plunged into a deep corporate crisis; the enterprise suffered from the late effects of a bad economic situation. This was displayed by the dramatic downturn of the commercial vehicles sales figures. Besides e
Automotive safety is the study and practice of design, construction and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of traffic collisions involving motor vehicles. Road traffic safety more broadly includes roadway design. One of the first formal academic studies into improving motor vehicle safety was by Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory of Buffalo, New York; the main conclusion of their extensive report is the crucial importance of seat belts and padded dashboards. However, the primary vector of traffic-related deaths and injuries is the disproportionate mass and velocity of an automobile compared to that of the predominant victim, the pedestrian. According to the World Health Organization, 80% of cars sold in the world are not compliant with main safety standards. Only 40 countries have adopted the full set of the seven most important regulations for car safety. In the United States, a pedestrian is injured by a motor vehicle every 8 minutes, are 1.5 times more than a vehicle's occupants to be killed in a motor vehicle crash per outing.
Improvements in roadway and motor vehicle designs have reduced injury and death rates in all first world countries. Auto collisions are the leading cause of injury-related deaths, an estimated total of 1.2 million in 2004, or 25% of the total from all causes. Of those killed by autos, nearly two-thirds are pedestrians. Risk compensation theory has been used in arguments against safety devices and modifications of vehicles despite the efficacy of saving lives. Coalitions to promote road and automotive safety, such as Together for Safer Roads, brings together global private sector companies, across industries, to collaborate on improving road safety. TSR brings together members’ knowledge, data and global networks to focus on five road safety areas that will make impact globally and within local communities; the rising trend of Autonomous Things is driven by the move towards the Autonomous car, that both addresses the main existing safety issues and creates new issues. The autonomous car is expected to be safer than existing vehicles, by eliminating the single most dangerous element - the driver.
The Center for Internet and Society at Stanford Law School claims that "Some ninety percent of motor vehicle crashes are caused at least in part by human error". But while safety standards like the ISO 26262 specify the required safety, it is still a burden on the industry to demonstrate acceptable safety. Work-related roadway crashes are the leading cause of death from traumatic injuries in the U. S. workplace. They accounted for nearly 12,000 deaths between 1992 and 2000. Deaths and injuries from these roadway crashes result in increased costs to employers and lost productivity in addition to their toll in human suffering. Truck drivers tend to endure higher fatality rates than workers in other occupations, but concerns about motor vehicle safety in the workplace are not limited to those surrounding the operation of large trucks. Workers outside the motor carrier industry operate company-owned vehicles for deliveries and repair calls, client visits, etc. In these instances, the employer providing the vehicle plays a major role in setting safety and training policy.
As in non-occupational driving, young drivers are at risk. In the workplace, 45% of all fatal injuries to workers under age 18 between 1992 and 2000 in the United States resulted from transportation incidents; the terms "active" and "passive" are important terms in the world of automotive safety. "Active safety" is used to refer to technology assisting in the prevention of a crash and "passive safety" to components of the vehicle that help to protect occupants during a crash. Crash avoidance systems and devices help the driver — and help the vehicle itself — to avoid a collision; this category includes: The vehicle's headlamps and other lights and signals The vehicle's mirrors The vehicle's brakes and suspension systems A subset of crash avoidance is driver assistance systems, which help the driver to detect obstacles and to control the vehicle. Driver assistance systems include: DADS:' DADS: Driver Alertness Detection System System to prevent crashes caused by fatigue Automatic Braking systems to prevent or reduce the severity of collision.
Infrared night vision systems to increase seeing distance beyond headlamp range Adaptive headlamps control the direction and range of the headlight beams to light the driver's way through curves and maximize seeing distance without blinding other drivers Reverse backup sensors, which alert drivers to difficult-to-see objects in their path when reversing Backup camera Adaptive cruise control which maintains a safe distance from the vehicle in front Lane departure warning systems to alert the driver of an unintended departure from the intended lane of travel Tire pressure monitoring systems or Deflation Detection Systems Traction control systems which restore traction if driven wheels begin to spin Electronic Stability Control, which intervenes to avert an impending loss of control Anti-lock braking systems Electronic brakeforce distribution systems Emergency brake assist systems Cornering Brake Control systems Assured Clear Distance Ahead measurement and speed governance systems Precrash system Automated parking system Obstacle detection sensor systems notify a driver how close their vehicle is to an object - providing a distance measurement, to the inch, as to how close they are.
Crashworthy systems and devices prevent or reduce the severity of injuries when a crash is imminent or happening. Much research is carried out using anthropomorphic crash test dummies. Seatbelt
SAIC Volkswagen Automotive Co. Ltd. known as Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co. Ltd. or Shanghai Volkswagen, is an automobile manufacturing company headquartered in Anting, China and a joint venture between Volkswagen Group and SAIC Motor. It produces cars under the Volkswagen and Škoda marques; the joint venture is made up of equity from - Volkswagen AG, Volkswagen Invest, SAIC, with a fixed-term venture for 45 years. It will run until 2030. SAIC Volkswagen sold a total of 1.16 million vehicles in 2011. SAIC Volkswagen was formed in October 1984, as a joint venture between Volkswagen and SAIC; this was a 25-year contract to make passenger cars in Shanghai with a limit of 50 per cent foreign ownership. SAIC Volkswagen's Shanghai plant was by the far the winner among all new JVs, as it produced cars that could function as taxis, vehicles for government officials and transport for the newly emerging business elite. SAIC Volkswagen began automobile production in 1985; as car imports fell to some 34,000 in 1990, SAIC Volkswagen's production of its Santana models reached nearly 19,000 vehicles that year.
By 1993 SAIC Volkswagen’s output had reached 100,000 vehicles. Volkswagen was aided by some Shanghai municipal efforts. Various restrictions on engine size, as well as incentives to city taxi companies, helped ensure a safe market in the company’s wealthy home arena. Volkswagen encouraged its foreign parts suppliers to create joint ventures in China, their resulting product helped SAIC Volkswagen achieve an 85 per cent local content rate by 1993. In May 2018, SAIC Volkswagen started to export the Santana, Lavida and Tiguan to the Philippines as part of the new ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement; the joint venture was in the process of building an electric-car plant in Anting, near Shanghai by late 2018. Notes: aSales to dealersbDeliveries to customers Official website
Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group since 1998. Headquartered in Crewe, the company was founded as Bentley Motors Limited by W. O. Bentley in 1919 in Cricklewood, North London—and became known for winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 2003. Prominent models extend from the historic sports-racing Bentley 4 1/2 Bentley Speed Six. Today most Bentleys are assembled at the company's Crewe factory, with a small number assembled at Volkswagen's Dresden factory and with bodies for the Continental manufactured in Zwickau and for the Bentayga manufactured at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant; the joining and eventual separation of Bentley and Rolls-Royce followed a series of mergers and acquisitions, beginning with the 1931 purchase by Rolls-Royce of Bentley in receivership. In 1971, Rolls-Royce itself was forced into receivership and the UK government nationalised the company—splitting into two companies the aerospace division and automotive divisions—the latter retaining the Bentley subdivision.
Rolls-Royce Motors was subsequently sold to engineering conglomerate, Vickers and in 1998, Vickers sold Rolls-Royce to Volkswagen AG. Intellectual property rights to both the name Rolls-Royce as well as the company's logo had been retained not by Rolls-Royce Motors, but by aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc, which had continued to license both to the automotive division, thus the sale of "Rolls-Royce" to VW included the Bentley name and logos, vehicle designs, model nameplates and administrative facilities, the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks —but not the rights to the Rolls-Royce name or logo. The aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc sold both to BMW AG. Before World War I, Walter Owen Bentley and his brother, Horace Millner Bentley, sold French DFP cars in Cricklewood, North London, but W. O, as Walter was known, always wanted to build his own cars. At the DFP factory, in 1913, he noticed an aluminium paperweight and thought that aluminium might be a suitable replacement for cast iron to fabricate lighter pistons.
The first Bentley aluminium pistons were fitted to Sopwith Camel aero engines during World War I. In August 1919, W. O. registered Bentley Motors Ltd. and in October he exhibited a car chassis, with dummy engine, at the London Motor Show. Ex–Royal Flying Corps officer Clive Gallop designed an innovative four valves per cylinder engine for the chassis. By December the engine was running. Delivery of the first cars was scheduled for June 1920, but development took longer than estimated so the date was extended to September 1921; the durability of the first Bentley cars earned widespread acclaim and they competed in hill climbs and raced at Brooklands. Bentley's first major event was the 1922 Indianapolis 500, a race dominated by specialized cars with Duesenberg racing chassis, they entered a modified road car driven by works driver, Douglas Hawkes, accompanied by riding mechanic, H. S. "Bertie" Browning. Hawkes completed the full 500 miles and finished 13th with an average speed of 74.95 miles per hour after starting in 19th position.
The team was rushed back to England to compete in the 1922 RAC Tourist Trophy. In an ironic reference to his heavyweight boxer's stature, Captain Woolf Barnato was nicknamed "Babe". In 1925, he acquired a 3-litre. With this car he won numerous Brooklands races. Just a year he acquired the Bentley business itself; the Bentley enterprise was always underfunded, but inspired by the 1924 Le Mans win by John Duff and Frank Clement, Barnato agreed to finance Bentley's business. Barnato had incorporated Baromans Ltd in 1922, which existed as his investment vehicle. Via Baromans, Barnato invested in excess of £100,000, saving the business and its workforce. A financial reorganisation of the original Bentley company was carried out and all existing creditors paid off for £75,000. Existing shares were devalued from £ 1 each to 5 % or their original value. Barnato held 149,500 of the new shares giving him control of the company and he became chairman. Barnato injected further cash into the business: £35,000 secured by debenture in July 1927.
With renewed financial input, W. O. Bentley was able to design another generation of cars; the Bentley Boys were a group of British motoring enthusiasts that included Barnato, Sir Henry "Tim" Birkin, steeple chaser George Duller, aviator Glen Kidston, automotive journalist S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis, Dudley Benjafield. The Bentley Boys favoured Bentley cars. Many were independently wealthy and many had a military background, they kept the marque's reputation for high performance alive. In 1929, Birkin developed the 4½-litre, lightweight Blower Bentley at Welwyn Garden City and produced five racing specials, starting with Bentley Blower No.1, optimised for the Brooklands racing circuit. Birkin overruled Bentley and put the model on the market before it was developed; as a result, it was unreliable. In March 1930, during the Blue Train Races, Barnato raised the stakes on Rover and its Rover Light Six, having raced and beaten Le Train Bleu for the first time, to better that record with his 6½-litre Bentley Speed Six on a bet o
Porsche Automobil Holding SE shortened to Porsche SE, is a German holding company with investments in the automotive industry. Porsche SE is headquartered in Zuffenhausen, a city district of Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg and is owned by the Austrian Porsche and Piëch families; the company was founded in Stuttgart as Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH in 1931 by Ferdinand Porsche and his son-in-law Anton Piëch. Porsche SE was created in June 2007 by renaming the old Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, became a holding company for the families' stake in Porsche Zwischenholding GmbH and is the major shareholder in Volkswagen AG and holds the majority voting rights. At the same time, the new Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG was created for the car manufacturing business. In August 2009, Porsche SE and Volkswagen AG reached an agreement that the car manufacturing operations of the two companies would merge in 2011, to form an "Integrated Automotive Group"; the management of Volkswagen AG agreed to 50.7% of Volkswagen AG being controlled by Porsche SE in return for Volkswagen AG management taking Porsche SE management positions, for Volkswagen AG acquiring ownership of Porsche AG.
As of the end of 2014, the 31.5% stake in Volkswagen AG is the predominant investment by Porsche SE, Volkswagen AG in turn controls brands and companies such as Volkswagen, Audi, SEAT, Škoda, Bugatti, Porsche AG, Ducati, VW Commercial Vehicles, Scania, MAN, as well as Volkswagen Financial Services. Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, as a 100% subsidiary of Volkswagen AG, is responsible for the actual production and manufacture of the Porsche automobile line. In addition to Volkswagen AG, other subsidiaries of Porsche SE include Porsche Engineering and Porsche Design Group. Porsche SE has an investment in the American traffic information provider INRIX on 10% stake. Volkswagen and its principal factory were designed by Ferdinand Porsche and his design office, the factory with supporting town facilities were established by the German government led by National Socialist Party in 1937-1938; when the government-owned Volkswagenwerk GmbH was privatized in 1960 into Volkswagen AG, German parliament enacted the law known as Volkswagen Law to govern the privatization process.
In order to maintain government control in the owned company, the law stipulated that the votes on major shareholder meeting resolutions will require 4/5th agreement. This gave any shareholder with more than 20% ownership a veto of any resolution, proposed; this not only secured government control, but prevented the possibility of a hostile takeover in the future. When the European Union was founded in 1993, a European Union law was signed with the principles to promote free movement of goods and capital within the Union, it became somewhat clear that the anti-takeover measure in Volkswagen Law would violate the European company law, it was feared that suitors would be able to take over Volkswagen AG, as amendments to the German law and the bylaws of VW AG were seen to be likely. In late 2005, Porsche took an 18.65% stake in the Volkswagen Group, further cementing their relationship, preventing a takeover of Volkswagen Group, rumoured at the time. Hypothetical suitors included DaimlerChrysler AG, BMW, Renault.
As of June 2006, the Porsche AG stake in VW AG had risen to 25.1%, giving Porsche the veto rights along with the government. On 26 March 2007, amidst the rumors that hedge funds were trying to takeover VW AG with the intent to dismantle and dispense the components of Volkswagen Group, Porsche took its holding of Volkswagen AG shares to 30.9%, triggering a takeover bid under German law which required other shareholders to be given the opportunity to sell the shares at least at the price paid by the new major shareholder. Porsche formally announced in a press statement that it did not intend to take over Volkswagen Group but intended to move to avoid a competitor taking a large stake. Porsche's move came after the European Union announced that it intends to take steps against the Volkswagen Law. In October 2007, the European Court of Justice ruled against the law paving the way for a takeover. On 16 September 2008, Porsche increased its holdings to 35.14%, in effect taking control of the company, with more than 35% of the voting rights.
It again triggered a takeover bid, but this time over Audi AG. Porsche dismissed the bid as a mere formality, since it was Porsche's intention to keep the corporate structure of the Volkswagen Group. In October 2008, Porsche SE announced its intent to raise its stake in Volkswagen AG to 75% during 2009, on 7 January 2009, Porsche SE's holding in VW AG was raised to 50.76%. At 75% ownership level, Porsche SE would have been able to bring VW AG's cash position onto Porsche SE books. Porsche's move automatically triggered a bid for Scania AB, because VW AG had a controlling position in the Swedish truck-maker; as Porsche had no strategic interest in Scania, they offered the minimum price in that mandatory takeover bid on 19 January 2009. There has been some tension and anxiety among the VW AG management and the workers, who feared that Porsche might replace the management after the takeover, it may signify a hardened produ
Lower Saxony is a German state situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2, fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining. Lower Saxony borders on the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and North Rhine-Westphalia, the Netherlands. Furthermore, the state of Bremen forms two enclaves within Lower Saxony, one being the city of Bremen, the other, its seaport city of Bremerhaven. In fact, Lower Saxony borders more neighbours than any other single Bundesland; the state's principal cities include the state capital Hanover, Braunschweig, Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, Wolfenbüttel, Göttingen. The northwestern area of Lower Saxony, which lies on the coast of the North Sea, is called East Frisia and the seven East Frisian Islands offshore are popular with tourists.
In the extreme west of Lower Saxony is the Emsland, a traditionally poor and sparsely populated area, once dominated by inaccessible swamps. The northern half of Lower Saxony known as the North German Plains, is invariably flat except for the gentle hills around the Bremen geestland. Towards the south and southwest lie the northern parts of the German Central Uplands: the Weser Uplands and the Harz mountains. Between these two lie the Lower Saxon Hills, a range of low ridges. Thus, Lower Saxony is the only Bundesland that encompasses both mountainous areas. Lower Saxony's major cities and economic centres are situated in its central and southern parts, namely Hanover, Osnabrück, Salzgitter, Göttingen. Oldenburg, near the northwestern coastline, is another economic centre; the region in the northeast is called the Lüneburg Heath, the largest heathland area of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to salt mining and salt trade, as well as to a lesser degree the exploitation of its peat bogs until about the 1960s.
To the north, the Elbe River separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg. The banks just south of the Elbe are known as Altes Land. Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil, it is the state's largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples. Most of the state's territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover, it was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November 1946. Lower Saxony has a natural boundary in the north in the North Sea and the lower and middle reaches of the River Elbe, although parts of the city of Hamburg lie south of the Elbe; the state and city of Bremen is an enclave surrounded by Lower Saxony. The Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region is a cooperative body for the enclave area. To the southeast, the state border runs through the Harz, low mountains that are part of the German Central Uplands; the northeast and west of the state, which form three-quarters of its land area, belong to the North German Plain, while the south is in the Lower Saxon Hills, including the Weser Uplands, Leine Uplands, Schaumburg Land, Brunswick Land, Untereichsfeld and Lappwald.
In northeast, Lower Saxony is Lüneburg Heath. The heath is dominated by the poor, sandy soils of the geest, whilst in the central east and southeast in the loess börde zone, productive soils with high natural fertility occur. Under these conditions—with loam and sand-containing soils—the land is well-developed agriculturally. In the west lie the County of Bentheim, Osnabrück Land, Oldenburg Land, Oldenburg Münsterland, on the coast East Frisia; the state is dominated by several large rivers running northwards through the state: the Ems, Weser and Elbe. The highest mountain in Lower Saxony is the Wurmberg in the Harz. For other significant elevations see: List of hills in Lower Saxony. Most of the mountains and hills are found in the southeastern part of the state; the lowest point in the state, at about 2.5 m below sea level, is a depression near Freepsum in East Frisia. The state's economy and infrastructure are centred on the cities and towns of Hanover, Celle, Wolfsburg and Salzgitter. Together with Göttingen in southern Lower Saxony, they form the core of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region.
Lower Saxony has clear regional divisions that manifest themselves geographically, as well as and culturally. In the regions that used to be independent the heartlands of the former states of Brunswick, Hanover and Schaumburg-Lippe, a marked local regional awareness exists. By contrast, the areas surrounding the Hanseatic cities of Bremen and Hamburg are much more oriented towards those centres. Sometimes and transition areas happen between the various regions of Lower Saxony. Several of the regions listed here are part of other, larger regions, that are included in the list. Just under 20% of the land area of Lower Saxony is designated as nature parks, i.e.: Dümmer, Elbhöhen-Wendland, Elm-Lappwald, Harz, Lüneburger Heide, Münden, Terra.vita, Solling-Vogler, Lake Steinhude, Südheide, Weser Uplands, Wildeshausen Geest, Bourtanger Moor-Bargerveen. L
FAW-Volkswagen Automobile Co. Ltd. is a joint venture between FAW Group and Volkswagen Group which manufactures Audi and Volkswagen marque passenger cars for sale in China. Ownership of the company is: FAW – 51%, Volkswagen AG – 20%, Audi AG – 10%, Volkswagen Invest – 19%. FAW-VW was founded on 6 February 1991. FAW-VW is headquartered in the south-western fringes of Changchun, Jilin Province, where it has two vehicle assembly plants, it has an additional assembly plant in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, a fourth plant is under construction in Foshan, Guangdong Province. FAW-VW is capable of producing the cars based on the platforms of PQ34, PQ35 and PQ46. FAW-VW's year-on-year production volume exceeded 513,000 units as of 31.07.2009. In 2011, FAW-VW sold just over 1,000,000 automobiles. On November 20, 1990, the official contract of an annual capacity of 150,000 cars for the joint venture between FAW Group and Volkswagen AG was signed by Geng Zhaojie, President of FAW and Dr. Carl Hahn, CEO of Volkswagen AG in the Great Hall of the People, Beijing.
All of the facilities in the first car plant, including the body shop, paint shop and assembly shop came together from the abandoned factory of VW's in Westmoreland, USA. The company started its business on September 1, 1992. On December 5, 1991, the first Volkswagen Jetta Mk2 rolled off the line. Two years on February 7, 1993, the 10,000th car rolled off the line. In 1995 FAW Group, Volkswagen AG and Audi AG decided to integrate Audi to the product line of the joint ventures, the equity holdings were changed with 60% for FAW, 30% for VW and 10% Audi. On May 20, 1996, the first Audi 200 rolled off the line. On July 10, 1996, the engine shop started running. By July 1996, the company was capable of producing 150,000 cars, 270,000 engines and 180,000 gearboxes in one year. In 1997 FAW-Volkswagen Sales Company Ltd. was established as a joint venture between FAW-VW and FAW Group with the equity holdings of 50% for each, it was a smart idea of avoiding the Germans to take control of the sales department under the policy of the governing body then.
By 2002 FAW-VW took the majority of the equities back from FAW Group. In 1998 the Jetta King became the first car equipped with ABS system in the Chinese A-class market. In 1999 the Jetta was registered in FIA Group N category, it entered a lot of Rally events in China with FRD Sport and Qingyang Racing from the late 1990s to early 2000s. In 2002 the Jetta became the first mass production passenger car in China to be available with a diesel engine. On January 7, 2004, the 1,000,000 car rolled off the line. On December 7, 2004, FAW-VW's second car plant began operating. On August 4, 2009, the 3,000,000th car rolled off the line in car plant #2. By 2010 FAW-VW had sold over 1,000,000 Audis in China. With the celebration, a sculpture named'Ode to Audi' from Gerry Judah was set at the entrance of the company. According to Chinese government policy, foreign auto manufactures should develop domestic brands with their local partners, thus FAW-VW revealed its own brand'Kaili' in May 2011. On August 15, 2011, FAW-VW celebrated its twentieth anniversary with its one millionth car in 2011.
November 2016: Changchun FAW-VW agency workers organize and file a report on unfair labor conditions to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions December 2016-January 2017: With the intervention of Changchun ACFTU, worker representatives engage in two collective bargaining sessions with FAW-VW and Hongxin Youye. The two CB sessions don’t seem to have yielded any outcomes. January–February 2017: Over one thousand FAW-VW agency workers present their case to the district’s labor arbitration committee, they get no official replyFebruary 2017: Agency workers present their cases to court, which rejects their claims. 500 plus agency workers hold a protest in front of the local Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security office. April 2017: Agency workers organize a May Day protest, but they cancel their plans under police pressureMay 21, 2017: Agency workers gather at the gates of the company and chant slogans during the Changchun International Marathon May 26, 2017: Worker representatives Fu Tianbo, Wang Shuai and Ai Zhenyu are detained for “gathering crowds to disrupt public order”.
Not long after, Wang and Ai are released, Fu remains in detention. June 7, 2017: Worker representative Fu Tianbo is put under arrestJuly 2017: Police harassment of Fu Tianbo’s family increases, Fu’s mother publishes video demanding to see her son, otherwise she will go to Beijing to present her grievances to higher government officials. July 19, 2017: The three arrested workers send a letter to Volkswagen, its World Works Council and its European Works CouncilAugust 2, 2017: Officers of IG Metal send a letter to VW China demanding an end to the judicial persecution of the three arrested workers. Automobile production started in December 1991, the current manufactured range includes: Audi A3 Type 8V Audi A4L Type B9 Audi A6L Type C7 Audi Q3 Audi Q5 Volkswagen Jetta Night Volkswagen Bora Mk. II Volkswagen C-Trek Volkswagen Golf Mk. VII Volkswagen Golf GTI Mk. VII Volkswagen Golf Sportsvan Volkswagen Sagitar Mk. II Volkswagen Magotan Type B8L Volkswagen T-Roc Volkswagen CC The new Jetta marque is scheduled to be on sale in 2019 with three models: VA3 VA5 VA7 Audi 100 Audi 200 Lang Audi A4 Type B6 Audi A4 Type