A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Bradley Ernest Whitford is an American musician, best known for serving as the rhythm and co-lead guitarist for the hard rock band Aerosmith. He has worked as a songwriter for the group, co-composing well-received tracks such as 1976's "Last Child". Whitford graduated from Reading Memorial High School in 1970. After attending the Berklee College of Music, Whitford played in local bands Cymbals of Resistance, Teapot Dome, Inc. and a band called Justin Thyme before joining Aerosmith in 1971, replacing original guitarist Ray Tabano. Aerosmith would go on to be one of the most successful bands of the 1970s. However, following a string of less successful albums in the late 1970s, Whitford left the band in 1981 to work on his own project with singer Derek St. Holmes called Whitford/St. Holmes; the project was dissolved after a sole self-titled album was released in 1981. Whitford toured with the Joe Perry Project, featuring former Aerosmith bandmate Joe Perry, before both Perry and Whitford rejoined Aerosmith in 1984.
In the mid-late 1980s, all band members completed drug rehabilitation, including Whitford, who completed programs to combat his alcohol abuse. Whitford continues to be an active member in Aerosmith. Whitford served as a producer for a well-known Boston band, the Neighborhoods, who were led by a rabid Aerosmith fan, David Minehan. When, in 1994, Whitford was forced to leave unexpectedly in the middle of an Asian tour due to family illness, Minehan was flown to Japan where he performed in Whitford's place for several days until Whitford returned. Whitford missed the start of Aerosmith's 2009 summer tour after requiring surgery as a result of a head injury sustained while getting out of his Ferrari, joining the tour after a month. In 2010, Whitford was announced as one of the guitarists to take part in the Experience Hendrix tour, playing songs performed and inspired by Jimi Hendrix along with other musicians such as Joe Satriani, Sacred Steel, Jonny Lang, Eric Johnson, Kenny Wayne Shepherd, Ernie Isley, Living Colour, Hubert Sumlin, Chris Layton, bassist Billy Cox.
Along with fellow Aerosmith guitarist Joe Perry, Whitford was included in the Guitar World book The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time in 2007. In 2013 played with Buddy Guy, Steven Tyler and Joe Perry on Evil Twin. In November 2015, Whitford/St. Holmes Reunited for a 10 show tour. While Joe Perry is Aerosmith's better known guitarist and the band's principal songwriter with Steven Tyler, Whitford has made significant contributions to the band's repertoire over the years; this includes co-writing Aerosmith's hit "Last Child" as well as some of Aerosmith's heaviest songs: "Nobody's Fault" and "Round and Round", playing lead guitar on "Sick as a Dog" and "Back In the Saddle", "Last Child", on the ballads "You See Me Crying" and "Home Tonight" He plays co-lead with Joe Perry on songs such as "Train Kept A-Rollin", "Lord of the Thighs" and "Love in an Elevator". The version of "Lord of the Thighs" on their 1978 live album Live! Bootleg in particular is his most famous soloing moment; when Aerosmith made their comeback in the late 1980s, Whitford continued to co-write tracks such as "Permanent Vacation" and "Hoodoo/Voodoo Medicine Man", plays occasional lead guitar on some more recent tracks as well as during many live performances.
Concerning his lesser role in the band's songwriting process, Whitford has said, "I don't consider myself a prolific writer. I can write music with other people. I can't create a song. It's difficult to do. That's why the people that can do it are few and far between. I'm not that type of a guy. More of a guitar player, more of the kind of who comes up with enough riffs and ideas to write a song, but to write lyrics and come up with a melody for it, it won't happen."Said Aerosmith lead singer Steven Tyler of the two guitarists, "Joe is self-taught and his playing comes from raw emotion. Not that Brad's doesn't, but his style is more schooled." Slash, lead guitarist of Guns N' Roses cites Brad Whitford as one of his heaviest influences, stating: "I identified with Joe Perry's image, both soundwise and visually....but I was totally into Brad Whitford's guitar solos, he had a more direct influence on the way I play than anybody realizes." Brad Whitford plays lead guitar, co-leads, or plays the guitar solo on the following Aerosmith songs "Dream On" from Aerosmith "Mama Kin" from Aerosmith "One Way Street" from Aerosmith "Same Old Song and Dance" from Get Your Wings "Lord of the Thighs" from Get Your Wings "Train Kept A-Rollin'" from Get Your Wings "Round and Round" from Toys in the Attic "You See Me Crying" Toys in the Attic "Back in the Saddle" from Rocks "Last Child" from Rocks "Sick as a Dog" from Rocks "Nobody's Fault" from Rocks "Home Tonight" from Rocks "Kings and Queens" from Draw the Line "The Hand that Feeds" from Draw the Line "Milk Cow Blues" from Draw the Line "Shela" from Done with Mirrors "The Hop" from Done with Mirrors "Hearts Done Time" from Permanent Vacation "Girl Keeps Coming Apart" from Permanent Vacation "Permanent Vacation" from Permanent Vacation "The Movie" from Permanent Vacation "Love in an Elevator" from Pump "Hoodoo/Voodoo Medicine Man" from Pump "Krawhitham" from Pandora's Box "Fever" from Get a Grip "Flesh" from Get a Grip "Walk on Down" (last solo during li
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Robert Leroy Johnson was an American blues singer and musician. His landmark recordings in 1936 and 1937 display a combination of singing, guitar skills, songwriting talent that has influenced generations of musicians. Johnson's poorly documented life and death have given rise to much legend; the one most associated with his life is that he sold his soul to the devil at a local crossroads to achieve musical success. He is now recognized as a master of the blues as a progenitor of the Delta blues style; as an itinerant performer who played on street corners, in juke joints, at Saturday night dances, Johnson had little commercial success or public recognition in his lifetime. He only participated in two recording sessions, one in San Antonio in 1936, one in Dallas in 1937, that produced recordings of 29 distinct songs; these songs, recorded at low fidelity in improvised studios, were the totality of his recorded output. About half of these were released as 10-inch, 78 rpm singles from 1937–1939, many after his death at the age of 27.
Other than these recordings little was known of him during his life outside of the small musical circuit in the Mississippi Delta where he spent most of his life. His music had only a small, but influential, following during his life and in the years after his death; as early as 1938, his music was being sought by influential producers such as John Hammond, who tried to recruit him to record and tour without knowing of his death. Brunswick Records, which owned the original recordings, was bought by Hammond's Columbia Records, which would release the recordings to a wider audience. Musicologist Alan Lomax went to Mississippi in 1941 to record Johnson not knowing of his death. A compilation album, titled King of the Delta Blues Singers, was released by Columbia in 1961, which brought his work to a wider audience; the album would become an influential record on the nascent British blues movement, just getting started at the time. Musicians as diverse as Bob Dylan, Keith Richards, Robert Plant have cited both Johnson's lyricism and musicianship has key influences on their own work.
Many of Johnson's songs have been covered over the years, becoming hits for other artists, his guitar licks and lyrics have been borrowed and repurposed by a many musicians. Renewed interest in Johnson's work and life led to a burst of scholarship starting in the 1960s. Much of what we know about him today was reconstructed by researchers such as Gayle Dean Wardlow; the 1991 documentary The Search for Robert Johnson by John Hammond, Jr. was another attempt to document his life, demonstrated the difficulties arising from the scant historical record and conflicting oral accounts. Johnson was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in its first induction ceremony, in 1986, as an early influence on rock and roll, he was awarded a posthumous Grammy Award in 1991 for The Complete Recordings, a 1990 compilation album. His single "Cross Road Blues" was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1998, he was given a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2006. In 2003, David Fricke ranked Johnson fifth in Rolling Stone magazine's "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".
Johnson was born in Hazlehurst, Mississippi on May 8, 1911, to Julia Major Dodds and Noah Johnson. Julia was married to Charles Dodds, a prosperous landowner and furniture maker, with whom she had ten children. Charles Dodds had been forced by a lynch mob to leave Hazlehurst following a dispute with white landowners. Julia left Hazlehurst with baby Robert, but after two years sent the boy to Memphis to live with her husband, who had changed his name to Charles Spencer. Robert rejoined his mother around 1919 near Tunica and Robinsonville, they lived on the Leatherman Plantation. Julia's new husband, known as Dusty Willis, was 24 years her junior. Robert was remembered by some residents as "Little Robert Dusty", but he was registered at Tunica's Indian Creek School as Robert Spencer. In the 1920 census, he is listed as Robert Spencer, living in Lucas, with Will and Julia Willis. Robert was at school in 1924 and 1927; the quality of his signature on his marriage certificate suggests that he was well educated for a boy of his background.
A school friend, Willie Coffee, interviewed and filmed in life, recalled that as a youth Robert was noted for playing the harmonica and jaw harp. Coffee recalled that Robert was absent for long periods, which suggests that he may have been living and studying in Memphis. After school, Robert adopted the surname of his natural father, signing himself as Robert Johnson on the certificate of his marriage to sixteen-year-old Virginia Travis in February 1929, she died in childbirth shortly after. Surviving relatives of Virginia told the blues researcher Robert "Mack" McCormick that this was a divine punishment for Robert's decision to sing secular songs, known as "selling your soul to the Devil". McCormick believed that Johnson himself accepted the phrase as a description of his resolve to abandon the settled life of a husband and farmer to become a full-time blues musician. Around this time, the blues musician Son House moved to Robinsonville, where his musical partner Willie Brown lived. Late in life, House remembered Johnson as a "little boy", a competent harmonica player but an embarrassingly bad guitarist.
Soon after, Johnson left Robinsonville for the area around Ma
Beacon Theatre: Live from New York
Beacon Theatre: Live from New York is the fifth live album by American blues rock musician Joe Bonamassa. The album was recorded across two nights on November 4th and 5th, 2011 at the Beacon Theatre in New York and released by J&R Adventures on DVD on March 8th, 2012 and on CD on September 24th, 2012. Disc oneDisc two Joe Bonamassa – guitar, vocals Tal Bergman – percussion Rick Melick – keyboards Carmine Rojas – bass Beth Hart – vocals John Hiatt – vocals, acoustic guitar Paul Rodgers – vocals Erin Cook – public relations Warren Cracknell – production manager Justin Duguid – lighting design Clancy Fraser – tour manager Dennis Friel – photography Christie Goodwin – photography Mike Hickey – guitar technician Thomas Jeffries – drum technician Michael Jensen – public relations Jared Kvitka – engineer Colin Moody – bass technician, keyboard technician, stage manager Peter Noble – public relations Neil O'Brien – booking Eric Roa – pro-tools, system engineer Pete Sangha – booking Kevin Shirley – mixing, producer Jonathan Smith – monitor engineer Will Taylor – public relations Roy Weisman – executive producer Mark Weiss – photography David Wexler – photography Leon Zervos – mastering
The Financial Times is an English-language international daily newspaper owned by Nikkei Inc, headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news. The paper was founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley, merged in 1945 with its closest rival, the Financial News; the Financial Times has over 740,000 digital subscribers. On 23 July 2015, Nikkei Inc. agreed to buy the Financial Times from Pearson for £844m and the acquisition was completed on 30 November 2015. The FT was launched as the London Financial Guide on 10 January 1888, renaming itself the Financial Times on 13 February the same year. Describing itself as the friend of "The Honest Financier, the Bona Fide Investor, the Respectable Broker, the Genuine Director, the Legitimate Speculator", it was a four-page journal; the readership was the financial community of the City of London, its only rival being the older and more daring Financial News. On 2 January 1893 the FT began printing on light salmon-pink paper to distinguish it from the named Financial News: at the time it was cheaper to print on unbleached paper, but nowadays it is more expensive as the paper has to be dyed specially.
After 57 years of rivalry the Financial Times and the Financial News were merged in 1945 by Brendan Bracken to form a single six-page newspaper. The Financial Times brought a higher circulation while the Financial News provided much of the editorial talent; the Lex column was introduced from Financial News. Pearson bought the paper in 1957. Over the years the paper grew in size and breadth of coverage, it established correspondents in cities around the world, reflecting a renewed impetus in the world economy towards globalisation. As cross-border trade and capital flows increased during the 1970s, the FT began international expansion, facilitated by developments in technology and the growing acceptance of English as the international language of business. On 1 January 1979 the first FT was printed in Frankfurt. Since with increased international coverage, the FT has become a global newspaper, printed in 22 locations with five international editions to serve the UK, continental Europe, the U. S.
Asia and the Middle East. The European edition is distributed in continental Africa, it is printed Monday to Saturday at five centres across Europe reporting on matters concerning the European Union, the Euro and European corporate affairs. In 1994 FT launched a luxury lifestyle magazine. In 2009 it launched a standalone website for the magazine. On 13 May 1995 the Financial Times group made its first foray into the online world with the launch of FT.com. This provided a summary of news from around the globe, supplemented in February 1996 with stock price coverage; the site was funded by advertising and contributed to the online advertising market in the UK in the late 1990s. Between 1997 and 2000 the site underwent several revamps and changes of strategy, as the FT Group and Pearson reacted to changes online. FT introduced subscription services in 2002. FT.com is one of the few UK news sites funded by individual subscription. In 1997 the FT launched a U. S. edition, printed in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Atlanta and Washington, D.
C. although the newspaper was first printed outside New York City in 1985. In September 1998 the FT became the first UK-based newspaper to sell more copies internationally than within the UK. In 2000 the Financial Times started publishing a German-language edition, Financial Times Deutschland, with a news and editorial team based in Hamburg, its initial circulation in 2003 was 90,000. It was a joint venture with a German publishing firm, Gruner + Jahr. In January 2008 the FT sold its 50% stake to its German partner. FT Deutschland never made a profit and is said to have accumulated losses of €250 million over 12 years, it closed on 7 December 2012. The Financial Times launched a new weekly supplement for the fund management industry on 4 February 2002. FT fund management was and still is distributed with the paper every Monday. FTfm is the world's largest-circulation fund management title. Since 2005 the FT has sponsored the annual"Financial Times" and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award.
On 23 April 2007 the FT unveiled a "refreshed" version of the newspaper and introduced a new slogan, "We Live in Financial Times."In 2007 the FT pioneered a metered paywall, which lets visitors to its site read a limited number of free articles during any one month before asking them to pay. Four years the FT launched its HTML5 mobile internet app. Smartphones and tablets now drive 19 % of traffic to FT.com. In 2012 the number of digital subscribers surpassed the circulation of the newspaper for the first time and the FT drew half of its revenue from subscriptions rather than advertising. Since 2010 the FT has been available on Bloomberg Terminal. Since 2013 the FT has been available on Wisers platform. In 2016, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Alpha Grid, a London-based media company specialising in the development and production of quality branded content across a range of channels, including broadcast, digital and events. In 2018, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Longitude, a specialist provider of thought leadership and research services to a multinational corporate and institutional client base.
This investment builds on the Financial Times’ recent growth in sev
Dobro is an American brand of resonator guitar owned by the Gibson Guitar Corporation. In popular usage, the term is used as a generic trademark for any wood-bodied, single-cone resonator guitar; the Dobro was made by the Dopyera brothers when they formed the Dobro Manufacturing Company. Their design, with a single inverted resonator, was introduced to compete with the patented Tricone and biscuit designs produced by the National String Instrument Corporation; the Dobro name appeared on other instruments, notably electric lap steel guitars and solid body electric guitars and on other resonator instruments such as Safari resonator mandolins. The name originated in 1928 when the Dopyera brothers and Emil, formed the Dobro Manufacturing Company. Dobro is a word meaning ` good' in their native Slovak. An early company motto was "Dobro means good in any language." The Dobro was the third resonator guitar design by John Dopyera, the inventor of the resonator guitar, but the second to enter production.
Unlike his earlier tricone design, the Dobro had a single resonator cone and it was inverted, with its concave surface facing up. The Dobro company described this as a bowl shaped resonator; the Dobro was cheaper to produce. In Dopyera's opinion, the cost of manufacture had priced the resonator guitar beyond the reach of many players, his failure to convince his fellow directors at the National String Instrument Corporation to produce a single-cone version was a motivating factor for leaving. Since National had applied for a patent on the single cone, Dopyera had to develop an alternative design, he did this by inverting the cone so that, rather than having the strings rest on the apex of the cone as the National method did, they rested on a cast aluminum spider that had eight legs sitting on the perimeter of the downward-pointing cone. In the following years both Dobro and National built a wide variety of metal- and wood-bodied single-cone guitars, while National continued with the Tricone for a time.
Both companies sourced many components from National director Adolph Rickenbacher, John Dopyera remained a major shareholder in National. By 1934, the Dopyera brothers had gained control of both National and Dobro, they merged the companies to form the National-Dobro Corporation. From the outset, wooden bodies had been sourced from existing guitar manufacturers the plywood student guitar bodies made by the Regal Musical Instrument Company. Dobro had granted Regal a license to manufacture resonator instruments. By 1937, it was the only manufacturer, the license was made exclusive. Regal continued to manufacture and sell resonator instruments under many names, including Regal, Old Kraftsman, Ward. However, they ceased all resonator guitar production following the United States entry into World War II in 1941. Emil Dopyera manufactured Dobros from 1959 under the brand name Dopera's Original before selling the company and name to Semie Moseley. Moseley merged it with his Mosrite guitar company and manufactured Dobros for a time.
Meanwhile, in 1967, Rudy and Emil Dopyera formed the Original Musical Instrument Company to manufacture resonator guitars, which they at first branded Hound Dog. However, in 1970, they again acquired the Dobro name—Mosrite having gone into temporary liquidation; the Gibson Guitar Corporation acquired OMI in 1993, along with the Dobro name. They moved production to Nashville. Gibson now uses the name Dobro only for models with the inverted-cone design that the original Dobro Manufacturing Company used. Gibson carries biscuit-style single-resonator guitars, but it sells them under names such as "Hound Dog"; the Dobro was first introduced to country music by Roy Acuff. The name Dobro is generically associated with all resonator designs. Gibson, as the owner of the trademark, reserves the use of the name Dobro as a registered trademark for its own product line. Notwithstanding, the name is sometimes used generically for any resonator guitar, as indicated in such songs as The Ballad of Curtis Loew by Lynyrd Skynyrd, Valium Waltz by the Old 97's, When Papa Played the Dobro by Johnny Cash on the Ride This Train album.
Hound Dog Roundneck Hound Dog Squareneck Hound Dog Deluxe Roundneck Hound Dog Deluxe Squareneck Phil Ledbetter Series Gibson Phil Ledbetter Signature Resonator Gibson Phil Ledbetter Mahogany "Limited Edition" As of 2006, many makers, including Gibson, manufacture resonator guitars similar to the original inverted-cone design. Gibson manufactures biscuit-style resonator guitars, but reserves the Dobro name for its inverted-cone models; these "biscuit" guitars are used for blues and are played vertically instead of horizontally like a "spider" bridge. Contemporary manufacturers of the inverted cone design resonator guitar other than Gibson include Tim Scheerhorn and Paul Beard. Virtuoso resonator guitarist Jerry Douglas has used guitars from these builders for nearly three decades. Both Scheerhorn and Beard produce instruments of a radically different structural design to the original Dobro instruments, while retaining the inverted cone and spider bridge. Dobro products on Epiphone website "History of the Pre-War Dobro" by Randy Getz Dobro Valpro at Elderly.com