N20 road (Ireland)
The N20 road is a national primary road in Ireland, connecting the cities of Cork and Limerick. Buttevant, Charleville and Blarney are major towns along the route. A short section of the route is designated as the M20 Motorway; the route starts at junction 1 at the Rosbrien interchange where it connects to the M7 and the N18 which together form the Limerick Southern Ring Road. The route continues from this interchange as motorway; this route was redesignated as motorway in August 2009. The route bypasses Dooradoyle and Raheen, through which the old N20 route used to run until the early 2000s. Interchanges and link roads connect to these locations. Two further interchanges are located at either end of Patrickswell. At the latter, the N20 route leaves the main road, i.e. one must diverge from the motorway to stay on the N20. A wide two lane road brings traffic along the Croom bypass. Past this new section of road, narrow two-lane road commences, ending at Charleville; the route passes through the town.
The road between Charleville and the next town, Buttevant is of similar design. At Mallow a high specification road is encountered, with an older bypass of the town passing up the hill from it as dual carriageway. A viaduct brings the road across Valley; the rest of the route to Cork is of high quality wide two lane, with a section of 2+1 road south of Mallow. The route becomes dual carriageway on the approach to Cork. New relief roads in Cork bring the route into the city centre while avoiding the winding streets through which the route ran until around 2000. Under the government's collapsed Transport 21 initiative, the Atlantic Corridor road project aimed to link Letterkenny to Waterford via Limerick and Cork with high quality roadway. A major part of this project involved the upgrading of the N20 route between Limerick, it was proposed to upgrade or replace the entire N20 with a new M20 motorway 90 km in length, with up to eight newly constructed junctions or re-configured junctions. It was to be constructed in two stages: a northern section.
It is hoped. Details of progress on the scheme can be found on the Cork National Roads Office website; the first segment of M20 motorway came into existence on 28 August 2009 following the approval by the Minister for Transport to redesignate a 10 km of existing N20 dual-carriageway between Rossbrien and Attyflin as motorway. On 10 November 2011, owing to funding issues caused by the Irish financial crisis, the government announced that the planned completion of the M20 motorway is to be shelved for the foreseeable future, along with a number of other infrastructural projects. In 2013, the National Roads Authority carried out an extensive upgrade of all directional road signage along the N20 national route, fuelling speculation that it will be some time before plans for a new motorway from Limerick to Cork are revisited. In October 2017, it was announced by the Taoiseach Leo Varadkar that the new motorway is due to be built by 2023, projected to cost over €800 million, it has been described as one of the biggest infrastructure projects of its kind for many years in Ireland.
Roads in Ireland National secondary road Regional road Roads Act 1993 Order 2006 – Department of Transport Mallow to Croom scheme M20 Cork to Limerick Motorway Scheme Public Consultation Brochure
Peadar Ua Laoghaire
Father Peadar Ua Laoghaire (Irish pronunciation:, first name locally. He was born in the parish of Clondrohid, County Cork, grew up speaking Munster Irish in the Muskerry Gaeltacht, he was a descendant of the Carrignacurra branch of the Ó Laoghaire of the ancient Corcu Loígde. He attended St Patrick's College and was ordained a priest of the Roman Catholic Church in 1867, he became a parish priest in Castlelyons in 1891, it was there that he wrote his most famous story, Séadna, told it as a fireside story to three little girls. Séadna was the first major literary work of the emerging Gaelic revival, it was serialised in the Gaelic Journal from 1894, published in book form in 1904. The plot of the story concerns a deal that the shoemaker Séadna struck with "the Dark Man". Although the story is rooted in the folklore the writer heard from shanachies by the fire during his youth, it is closely related to the German legend of Faust, it was first published as a serial in various Irish-language magazines.
Apart from Séadna, Ua Laoghaoire wrote an autobiography called Mo Sgéal Féin, published by Norma Borthwick's Irish Book Company. In addition, he translated some stories of medieval Gaelic literature into modern Irish, such as Eisirt and An Cleasaí, translated an abridged version of the story of Don Quixote into his local dialect of Irish. Peadar Ua Laoghaire became known for his support for caint na ndaoine, the real Irish of the people rather than any attempt to revive older forms of Irish, but he drew careful distinctions between what he saw as good Irish and bad Irish, saying in chapter 5 of Mo Sgéal Féin, Before I left Liscarrigane, I had never heard from anybody's mouth phrases such as "tá mé", "bhí mé", "bhí siad". Little things! – but little things that come into conversation. A taut mode of expression, as against one, lax, makes for finish in speech. Besides, the taut speech possesses a force and a vigour that cannot be contained in speech, falling apart... The loose mode of expression is prominent in Gaelic today and English is nothing else.
English has fallen apart completely. Accordingly, he promoted Cork Irish as what he saw as the best Irish for propagation among the Irish people, he died in Castlelyons at the age of 80. The following is a partial list of his works. Ar nDóithin Araon, 1894 Mion-chaint: an easy Irish phrase book, compiled for the Gaelic League, 1899 Eólas ar áireamh, arithmetical tables in Irish, 1902 An Soísgéal as Leabar an aifrinn, 1902 Irish prose composition: a series of articles, including several upon the Irish autonomous verb, 1902 Aesop a Tháinig go hÉirinn, 1903 Sgothbhualadh, a series of articles in Irish reprinted from the "Leader", 1904 Séadna, 1904 An Craos-Deamhan, 1905 An Bealach Buidhe, a drama, 1906 Tóruigheacht Dhiarmuda agus Ghráinne, 1906 Niamh 1907 Eisirt, 1909 Seanmóin agus trí fichid, sermons for every Sunday and holy day of the year, 1909–10 An sprid: Bas Dalláin: Tadhg Saor, three short plays, 1911 An Cleasaidhe, 1913 Caitilina, 1913 Aithris ar Chríost, 1914 Sliabh na mban bhFionn agus Cúan Fithise, 1914 Lughaidh Mac Con, 1914 Bricriu, 1915 Na Cheithre Soisgéil as an dTiomna Nua, 1915 Mo Sgéal Féin, 1915 Guaire, 1915 Ag Séideadh agus ag ithe, 1918 An teagasg críosdaidhe, edited by Ua Laoghaire, 1920 Don Cíchóté, (A partial translation of Cervantes' novel Don Quixote, 1921 Gníomhartha na nAspol, 1922 Lúcián, 1924 Sgéalaidheachta as an mBíobla naomhtha, 1924 Críost Mac Dé, 1925 Sgealaidheacht na Macabéach, 1926 Aodh Ruadh, an adaptation of the life of Aodh Ruadh Ó Domhnaill by Lughaidh O'Clery in the 17th century, 1929 Notes on Irish words and usages Papers on Irish idiom: together with a translation into Irish of part of the first book of Euclid, by the late canon Peter O'Leary.
Cómhairle ár leasa, articles published in the "Leader" Mo shlighe chun Dé: leabhar urnaightheAn article listing 487 of Ua Laoghaire's articles and works was published in Celtica in 1954. Feardorcha Ó Conaill This page includes material translated from the corresponding article at the Irish Wikipedia as of 2007-10-07
Society of United Irishmen
The Society of United Irishmen, founded as a Radical or liberal political organisation in 18th-century Ireland sought Parliamentary reform. It evolved into a revolutionary republican organisation, inspired by the American Revolution and allied with Revolutionary France, it launched the Irish Rebellion of 1798 with the objective of ending British monarchical rule over Ireland and founding a sovereign, independent Irish republic. During the 1780s, a few liberal members of the ruling Protestant Ascendancy, organised as the Irish Patriot Party led by Henry Grattan, campaigned for the following: reform of the Irish Parliament, a lessening of British interference in Ireland's affairs, expanding the rights and voting franchise for Catholics and Presbyterians. Supporting them was the Irish Volunteers movement, which had widespread Protestant support. Whilst they had limited success such as the establishment of Grattan's Parliament and the repeal of some of the discriminatory Penal Laws, they fell short of many of their aims.
When the parliamentary reform movement collapsed in 1784, it left radicals without a political cause. By the mid-1780s, radicalism in Ireland was taking a new, bolder form, typified by the letters penned by William Drennan, which were published in the Belfast Newsletter and in pamphlets. In them he hit out at leaders of the Volunteers such as Grattan and Charlemont for their conservatism and restraint, at the political establishment for preventing the reform of the Irish Parliament. Most notably was his appeal for all Anglicans and Roman Catholics to unite as one indifferent association, however he accepted that this would only appeal to the minority within each denomination. Inspiring and increasing the radicalisation of Irish reformists was the French Revolution which had started in 1789, had so far remained bloodless, with the French king forced to concede effective power to a National Assembly. In 1789 the Whig party was founded in Ireland and soon it became an alliance of radicals, reform-minded parliamentarians, dissident representatives of the governing class.
By 1791 this alliance however was fracturing, several rival Whig clubs were set up by people such as Napper Tandy in Dublin and Belfast. Another grouping was a "shadowy" organisation of eleven people headed by Samuel Neilson, that sought to move the revived Volunteer movement in as far a radical direction as possible; the enthusiasm for the French Revolution saw great Irish interest in Thomas Paine's Rights of Man, released in May 1791, which defended it and saw around 20,000 cheap copies printed for digest in Ireland. A couple of months the Belfast Volunteer company gathered to celebrate the second anniversary of the fall of the Bastille, it was intended that a new radical society was to be announced during the celebrations which William Drennan, to give a declaration, asked to add in resolutions. Drennan refused, due to the short notice of the request, suggested that Theobald Wolfe Tone be asked. Tone's reformist radicalism had advanced beyond that of the Whigs, he proposed three resolutions for the new society, which he named the Society of United Irishmen.
The first resolution was for the denouncing of the continuing interference of the British establishment in Irish affairs. The second was for the full reform of its representation; the last resolution called for a union of religious faiths in Ireland to "abolish the differences that had long divided Irishmen" and sought to give Catholics political rights. This last proposal however was dropped by the Belfast Volunteers to ensure unanimity for the proposals amongst the people; this seemed to delay the launch of the new society and by August 1791, Tone in response to the rebuff of his third resolution, published the popular and robust An Argument on Behalf of the Catholics of Ireland, which argued why they should be included in attempts at reform. That October, Tone was invited to a debate on the creation of a new society by a group of people including Neilson. Here he found that his resolutions were now found a few months to be "too tame". A new set of resolutions were drafted and agreed to on 14 October, which the Belfast branch of the Society of United Irishmen adopted on 18 October, the Dublin branch on 9 November.
The main problem they identified for Ireland was the issue of national sovereignty: All attendees at the first meeting of the Belfast branch were Protestant. Two were the rest Presbyterian. Along with Tone and Russell, the men involved were: William Sinclair, Henry Joy McCracken, Samuel Neilson, Henry Haslett, Gilbert McIlveen, William Simms, Robert Simms, Thomas McCabe and Thomas Pearce. After forming, the Society named chandler Samuel McTier as its first President; as 1791 drew to a close there were references to other lesser branches of the United Irishmen in a number of places such as: Armagh, Clonmel and Lisburn, yet Belfast and Dublin retained their primacy. The popularity of the society continued to grow throughout Ulster amongst the Presbyterians. In 1795 the United Irishmen linked up with a Catholic agrarian secret society; the movement developed a strategy of spreading its ideals by means of pamphlets, newspapers, ballads, "catechisms" and travelling emissaries. Whilst the Belfast Newsletter was a liberal newspaper, the society sought the publication of a more radical one in Belfast, resulting in the Northern Star.
It was successful, both commercially and politically, had a wide readership until its suppression in 1797. The spread of the Society was watched with growing alarm by the authorities, it was banned in 1793
The Blackwater or Munster Blackwater is a river which flows through counties Kerry and Waterford in Ireland. It rises in the Mullaghareirk Mountains in County Kerry and flows in an easterly direction through County Cork, through Mallow and Fermoy, it enters County Waterford where it flows through Lismore, before abruptly turning south at Cappoquin, draining into the Celtic Sea at Youghal Harbour. In total, the Blackwater is 169 km long; the total catchment area of the River Blackwater is 3,324 km2. The long term average flow rate of the River Blackwater is 89.1 Cubic Metres per second The Blackwater is notable for being one of the best salmon fishing rivers in the country. Like many Irish and British rivers, salmon stocks declined in recent years, but the Irish Government banned commercial netting of salmon off the coast of Ireland in November 2006. Tributaries of the Blackwater include: River Awbeg, River Dalua, River Bride, River Allow, River Araglin, River Finnow, River Funshion. Towns along the river are Youghal, Lismore, Fermoy and Rathmore.
The Blackwater Estuary was listed on the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance on 11 June 1996. Special Area of Conservation Salmon fishing on the Munster Blackwater, from Salmon Ireland The Munster Blackwater and associated navigations The Lombardstown to Mallow Canal
Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the south west of Ireland. In early Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was one of the kingdoms of Gaelic Ireland ruled by a "king of over-kings". Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties. Munster has no official function for local government purposes. For the purposes of the ISO, the province is listed as one of the provincial sub-divisions of the State and coded as "IE-M". Geographically, Munster covers a total area of 24,675 km2 and has a population of 1,280,020, with the most populated city being Cork. Other significant urban centres in the province include Waterford. In the early centuries AD, Munster was the domain of the Iverni peoples and the Clanna Dedad familial line, led by Cú Roí and to whom the king Conaire Mór belonged. In the 5th century, Saint Patrick spent several years in the area and founded Christian churches and ordained priests.
During the Early Middle Ages, most of the area was part of the Kingdom of Munster, ruled by the Eóganachta dynasty. Prior to this, the area was ruled by the Corcu Loígde overlords. Rulers from the Eóganachta included Cathal mac Finguine and Feidlimid mac Cremthanin. Notable regional kingdoms and lordships of Early Medieval Munster were Iarmuman, Osraige, Uí Liatháin, Uí Fidgenti, Éile, Múscraige, Ciarraige Luachra, Corcu Duibne, Corcu Baiscinn, Déisi Muman. By the 9th century, the Gaels had been joined by Norse Vikings who founded towns such as Cork and Limerick, for the most part incorporated into a maritime empire by the Dynasty of Ivar, who periodically would threaten Munster with conquest in the next century. Around this period Ossory broke away from Munster; the 10th century saw the rise of the Dalcassian clan, who had earlier annexed Thomond, north of the River Shannon to Munster. Their leaders were the ancestors of the O'Brien dynasty and spawned Brian Boru the most noted High King of Ireland, several of whose descendants were High Kings.
By 1118, Munster had fractured into the Kingdom of Thomond under the O'Briens, the Kingdom of Desmond under the MacCarthy dynasty, the short-lived Kingdom of Ormond under the O'Kennedys. The three crowns of the flag of Munster represent these three late kingdoms. There was Norman influence from the 14th century, including by the FitzGerald, de Clare and Butler houses, two of whom carved out earldoms within the Lordship of Ireland, the Earls of Desmond becoming independent potentates, while the Earls of Ormond remained closer to England; the O'Brien of Thomond and MacCarthy of Desmond surrendered and regranted sovereignty to the Tudors in 1543 and 1565, joining the Kingdom of Ireland. The impactful Desmond Rebellions, led by the FitzGeralds, soon followed. By the mid-19th century much of the area was hit hard in the Great Famine the west; the province was affected by events in the Irish War of Independence in the early 20th century, there was a brief Munster Republic during the Irish Civil War.
The Irish leaders Michael Collins and earlier Daniel O'Connell came from families of the old Gaelic Munster gentry. Noted for its traditions in Irish folk music, with many ancient castles and monasteries in the province, Munster is a tourist destination. During the fifth century, St. Patrick spent seven years founding churches and ordaining priests in Munster, but a fifth-century bishop named Ailbe is the patron saint of Munster. In Irish mythology, a number of ancient goddesses are associated with the province including Anann, Áine, Grian, Clíodhna, Aimend, Mór Muman, Bébinn and Queen Mongfind; the druid-god of Munster is Mug Ruith. Another legendary figure is Donn; the province has long had trading and cultural links with continental Europe. The tribe of Corcu Loígde had a trading fleet active along the French Atlantic coast, as far south as Gascony, importing wine to Munster; the Eóganachta had ecclesiastical ties with Germany, which show in the architecture of their ceremonial capital at the Rock of Cashel.
The majority of Irish ogham inscriptions are found in Munster, principally in areas occupied by the Iverni the Corcu Duibne. Europe's first linguistic dictionary in any non-Classical language, the Sanas Cormaic, was compiled by Munster scholars, traditionally thought to have been directed by the king-bishop Cormac mac Cuilennáin; the School of Ross in Munster was one of Europe's leading centres of learning in the Early Middle Ages. Several sports in Munster are organised on a provincial basis, or operate competitions along provincial lines; this includes traditionally popular sports such as hurling, Gaelic football, rugby union and soccer, as well as cricket and others. Munster is noted for its tradition of hurling. Three of the four most successful teams in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship are from Munster; the final of the Munster Senior Hurling Championship is one of the most important days in the Irish GAA calendar. Munster is the only province in Ireland that all of its counties have won an All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship.
Traditionally, the dominant teams in Munster football are Kerry GAA and Cork GAA, although Tipperary GAA and Limerick GAA have won All-Ireland Senior Football Championships. Kerry in particular are the most successful county in the history of football. Rugby is a popular game in the cities of Limerick a
A point-to-point is a form of horseracing over fences for hunting horses and amateur riders. In Ireland, where the sport is open to licensed - i.e. professional - trainers, many of the horses will appear in these races before they compete in National Hunt races. The Irish point-to-point is more used as a nursery for future young stars: a horse that wins its debut point-to-point in Ireland will sell for a lot of money. Whilst professional trainers are excluded from running horses in point-to-points in Great Britain, the days of the farmer running his hunter at the local point-to-point have gone. Horses are run from "livery yards" - unlicensed but otherwise professional training establishments, sometimes allied with a licensed yard. Horses running in Point-to-Points must be Thoroughbreds, save in the case of Hunt Members races and certain other Club Members races; the owner must be a member, subscriber or farmer of a recognized pack of Hounds and obtain a Hunter Certificate from the Master to that effect.
Once this Certificate has been registered with the Point-to-Point Authority the horse is eligible to run in Hunter Chases, i.e. races for qualified horses run under BHA Rules over regulation fences on licensed racecourses. Potential riders must obtain a Riders Qualification Certificate from a Hunt Secretary and register it with the PPA. Point-to-Point racing is sometimes referred to as racing'between the flags'; the first Steeplechase was run locally between Buttevant and Doneraile, County Cork, over 250 years ago. Chasing from'steeple to steeple' or point-to-point began in 1752 when Mr. Blake challenged his neighbour Mr. O'Callaghan, to race across country from Buttevant church to Doneraile church some four and a half miles distance and to jump stone walls and hedges as they presented themselves. By keeping the steeple of the church in sight both riders could see their finishing point; the first traceable use of the phrase point-to-point in connection with a horse race is in Bell's Life on 10 January 1874.
A race is described that took place on 2 January from Sutton-on-the-Forest to Brandsby, held by the 9th Lancers stationed at nearby York. It was won by Langar, ridden by his owner the Hon. E. Willoughby; the first reference to a hunt holding a point-to-point came in 1875, when the Sporting Gazette contained a detailed account of a Monmouthshire Hunt Point-to-point chase held on 12 January from Llansaintfraed to Tykin-under-Little-Skirrid, which Captain Wheeley won from his thirteen rivals. In Great Britain, local hunts combined in 1913 to form the Master of Hounds Point‐to‐Point Association and issue a standard set of rules. Control passed to the National Hunt Committee in the mid 1930s and The Jockey Club in the late 1960s. In recent years, pony racing has been staged at British meetings in an attempt to encourage more young riders into point to pointing and national hunt racing. One of the few remaining point-to-point races run under the original conditions is the New Forest Boxing Day point-to-point, which has a given start and finish point, with riders allowed to choose their own course in-between.
This race is run over the open New Forest, with the general area of the finishing point publicised only within the fortnight before the race, the starting point kept secret until the day of the race itself. It includes races for children and veteran riders; the majority of the races are for riders on purebred New Forest ponies, but some races are open to horses and ponies of other breeds. Point-to-Point races are run over a minimum of three miles, but certain races, including some blue riband events are longer, Maiden races for young horses can be run over 2½ miles. Most Point-to-Point courses are laid out on ordinary farm land, although a few are placed on the inside of professional courses such as Bangor-on-Dee racecourse or Hexham. There are 110 point-to-point courses throughout the United Kingdom divided into nine regions. Devon & Cornwall: 15 - Bishops Court, Bratton Down, Buckfastleigh Racecourse Buckfastleigh, Flete Park, Great Trethew, Stafford Cross, Umberleigh, Upcott Cross, Wadebridge.
East: 8 - Ampton, Fakenham, High Easter, Horseheath, Marks Tey, Northaw. Midlands: 14 - Bitterley, Brafield-on-the-Green, Brocklesby Park, Chaddesley Corbett, Clifton-on-Dunsmore, Eyton-on-Severn, Guilsborough, North Carlton, Thorpe Lodge, Whitfield. North: 21 - Alnwick, Charm Park, Dalston, Dalton Park, Duncombe Park, Flagg Moor, Hexham, Hornby Castle, Hutton Rudby, Sherriff Hutton, Tranwell, Whitcliffe Grange, Whitwell-on-the-Hill, Witton Castle. Scotland: 4 - Balcormo Mains, Friars Haugh, Overton. South & Central: 4 - Hackwood Park, Kingston Blount, Lockinge. South: 7 - Aldington, Charing, Parham, Peper Harow. South West: 26 - Andoversford, Badbury Rings, Brampton Bryan, Charlton Horethorne, Chipley Park, Cold Harbour, Cotley, Garnons, Kingston St Mary, Little Windsor, Maisemore Park, Milborne St Andrew, Siddington, Ston Easton, Treborough Hill, Upper Sapey, Upton-on-Severn, Whitwick Manor, Woodford. Wales: 11 - Bangor-on-Dee, Howick, Llanvapley, Lower Machen, Llwyn Du in Glais replaces the course in Pentreclwydau, Trecoed, Ystradowen.
A three-mile race is invariably two circui
A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer and cider. It is a relaxed, social drinking establishment and a prominent part of British, Breton, New Zealand, South African and Australian cultures. In many places in villages, a pub is the focal point of the community. In his 17th-century diary Samuel Pepys described the pub as "the heart of England". Pubs can be traced back to Roman taverns, through the Anglo-Saxon alehouse to the development of the tied house system in the 19th century. In 1393, King Richard II of England introduced legislation that pubs had to display a sign outdoors to make them visible for passing ale tasters, who would assess the quality of ale sold. Most pubs focus on offering beers and similar drinks; as well, pubs sell wines and soft drinks and snacks. The owner, tenant or manager is known as the pub landlord or landlady, or publican. Referred to as their "local" by regulars, pubs are chosen for their proximity to home or work, the availability of a particular beer or ale or a good selection, good food, a social atmosphere, the presence of friends and acquaintances, the availability of recreational activities such as a darts team, a skittles team, a pool or snooker table.
The pub quiz was established in the UK in the 1970s. The inhabitants of the British Isles have been drinking ale since the Bronze Age, but it was with the arrival of the Roman Empire on its shores in the 1st century, the construction of the Roman road networks that the first inns, called tabernae, in which travellers could obtain refreshment, began to appear. After the departure of Roman authority in the 5th century and the fall of the Romano-British kingdoms, the Anglo-Saxons established alehouses that grew out of domestic dwellings; the Anglo-Saxon alewife would put a green bush up on a pole to let. These alehouses evolved into meeting houses for the folk to congregate and arrange mutual help within their communities. Herein lies "pub" as it is colloquially called in England, they spread across the kingdom, becoming so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village. A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, but a demand for hostelries grew with the popularity of pilgrimages and travel.
The Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. A survey in 1577 of drinking establishment in England and Wales for taxation purposes recorded 14,202 alehouses, 1,631 inns, 329 taverns, representing one pub for every 187 people. Inns are buildings where travellers can seek lodging and food and drink, they are located in the country or along a highway. In Europe, they first sprang up when the Romans built a system of roads two millennia ago; some inns in Europe are several centuries old. In addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation, if anything, that now distinguishes inns from taverns and pubs; the latter tend to provide alcohol, but less accommodation. Inns tend to be older and grander establishments: they provided not only food and lodging, but stabling and fodder for the traveller's horse and on some roads fresh horses for the mail coach.
Famous London inns include The George and The Tabard. There is, other kinds of establishment. Many pubs use "Inn" in their name, either because they are long established former coaching inns, or to summon up a particular kind of image, or in many cases as a pun on the word "in", as in "The Welcome Inn", the name of many pubs in Scotland; the original services of an inn are now available at other establishments, such as hotels and motels, which focus more on lodging customers than on other services, although they provide meals. In North America, the lodging aspect of the word "inn" lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn, in some state laws that refer to lodging operators as innkeepers; the Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery in London started as ordinary inns where barristers met to do business, but became institutions of the legal profession in England and Wales. The 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments due to the introduction of gin. Brought to England by the Dutch after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, gin became popular after the government created a market for "cuckoo grain" or "cuckoo malt" by allowing unlicensed gin and beer production while imposing a heavy duty on all imported spirits.
As thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England, brewers fought back by increasing the number of alehouses. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer and, because of its cheapness, it became popular with the poor, leading to the so-called Gin Craze. Over half of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London were gin shops; the drunkenness and lawlessness created by gin was seen to lead to the ruination and degradation of the working classes. The different effects of beer and gin were illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane; the Gin Act 1736 imposed high taxes on retailers and led to riots in the streets