Coat of arms of Copenhagen
The coat of arms of Copenhagen was granted 24 June 1661 by king Frederick III of Denmark in appraisal of its citizens efforts in repelling the Swedish siege and attack on Copenhagen in 1658-1659. An accompanying royal letter of privilege granted the citizens of Copenhagen the same rights to own fixed property as applied to the Danish nobility, the central feature of the full arms are three towers rising above water, a symbol appearing in the towns seal from 1296. The water element refers to the original name Havn meaning Harbour. The left and right towers represented Absalons castle and the tower a church building inside the castle. By the 16th century, the tower was no longer depicted as a church tower. The version granted by King Frederick III modified the original symbol by adding a knight carrying a sword in front of the gateway. The central tower features an oval with the kings F3 cypher above the city gate, the greater coat of arms features three helmets, banners and a wide assortment of military equipment.
An oversized golden crown is shown above but not affixed to the central helmet, official website of Copenhagen City of Copenhagen Design Guide
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and these are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site. In 2014,264,579 people resided in Comune di Venezia, together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is a metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC, the city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. Venice has been known as the La Dominante, Queen of the Adriatic, City of Water, City of Masks, City of Bridges, The Floating City, and City of Canals.
The City State of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its peak in the 14th century and this made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period, Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi. Venice has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of 2016, the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, and called by the Greeks Eneti. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti, Baltic Veneti, and the Slavic Wends. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean beloved, lovable, a connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color sea-blue, is possible.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia, some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as incolae lacunae, the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto — said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD166 to 168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the center in the area. The Roman defences were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. The tribuni maiores, the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the Lagoon, the traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio Anafesto, was actually Exarch Paul, and his successor, Marcello Tegalliano, was Pauls magister militum. In 726 the soldiers and citizens of the Exarchate rose in a rebellion over the controversy at the urging of Pope Gregory II
Louise of Hesse-Kassel
Louise of Hesse-Kassel was Queen of Denmark as the wife of King Christian IX of Denmark. Louise of Hesse was a descendant of an ancient German princely family, the Landgraves of Hesse and she was a daughter of Prince William of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Charlotte of Denmark. Her mother, a princess of Denmark, saw her become the countrys queen, as children, her brother Frederik Wilhelm, her sisters and she were the closest relatives of King Christian VIII who were likely to produce heirs. It was easy to see that the succession from King Frederick III of Denmark would probably become extinct within a generation. Louise was one of the descended from Frederick III of Denmark. Louise was married at the Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen on 26 May 1842 to her second cousin Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg and he was soon selected as hereditary prince of Denmark and ascended the throne of Denmark as King Christian IX. Louise and Christian lived a family life. Louises mother and siblings renounced their rights to the Danish throne to her, Louise herself in turn renounced her rights to the throne to her spouse Christian.
In 1852, this order was confirmed by the Nordic countries. In 1847, Prince Christian was, with the approval of Europes Great Powers and this resolved the succession to the Danish crown, but not Denmarks claim on the twin duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The result of conflict was the Second War of Schleswig. On 3 July 1853, King Frederick VII confirmed this succession, by that act and Christian became Crown Princess and Crown Prince of Denmark. Louise had a relationship with King Frederick VII, who contradicted the succession of her spouse. Therefore, the King and the Crown Prince couple did not see each other very often, on 15 November 1863, Louise and Christian became Queen and King of Denmark. Their life style is described as simple and puritan, and as this suited the contemporary view of a family life. As queen, Louise lived a life isolated from the people and she took no part in state affairs, her political interests focused on the arranged dynastic marriages of her children and were affected by her anti-German views.
The high status marriages she arranged for her children secured the newly established Danish dynasty international status, connecting Denmark to Great Britain, Russia and Greece. Known as The Mother-in-law of Europe, her annual family gatherings at Bernstorff and Fredensborg attracted more attention every year, Louise supported 26 different charity organizations
Bryggebroen is one of the new bicycle/pedestrian bridges in Copenhagen inner harbour and is a 190 metres combined pedestrian and bicyclist bridge directed east-west. The bridge is joined to Kalvebod Brygge and Cykelslangen bridge and Islands Brygge and thus connects Vesterbro on Zealand, the bridge has become a popular place for attaching love padlocks. The bridge which opened to public on 14 September 2006 is 5.5 metres wide, divided by a path and cycling path. The name of the bridge was among the suggestions in a project organized by the Danish daily Politiken in which more than 200 suggestions were submitted. The name Bryggebroen was elected by the newspaper as the winner because it connects the two quays Islands Brygge and Kalvebod Brygge, the Copenhagen street name committee accepted the name and it became official. When the bridge was opened, the area surrounding it was still a site which created a need for a construction of a temporary wooden bridge on the west side. Also, it was necessary to create a path, south of the shopping mall Fisketorvet.
Both construction resulting in expenses of approx
Langebro is a bascule bridge across the Inner Harbour of Copenhagen, connecting Zealandside H. C. Andersens Boulevard to Amagerside Amager Boulevard and it is one of only two bridges to carry motor vehicles across the harbour in central Copenhagen, the other being Knippelsbro. It was a structure with a drawbridge in the middle that allowed ships to pass. The bridge was built for the military but was open to civilian pedestrians. The bridge was refurbished several times, plans for a new Langebro were first presented in 1885 but not realized until 1903. The new bridge was located 400 ft to the south of the old one, Vestre Boulevard and it was a swing bridge resting on nine stone pillars. The swing bridge was used for both trams and the Amagerbanen railroad. With growing automobile traffic, the new bridge soon became outdated, the bridge was subject to sabotage on 23 March 1945. The temporary bridge was replaced by the current Langebro in 1954, Langebro is a play by Hans Christian Andersen, named for the bridge in Copenhagen.
Langebro is the name of Gasolins 1971 adaption of Joan Baezs version of Geordie, where the setting is shifted from London to Copenhagen and Langebro takes the place of London Bridge
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. There are many different designs that each serve a particular purpose, the Oxford English Dictionary traces the origin of the word bridge to an Old English word brycg, of the same meaning. The word can be traced back to Proto-Indo-European *bʰrēw-. The word for the game of the same name has a different origin. The first bridges made by humans were probably spans of cut wooden logs or planks and eventually stones, using a simple support, some early Americans used trees or bamboo poles to cross small caverns or wells to get from one place to another. Dating to the Greek Bronze Age, it is one of the oldest arch bridges still in existence, several intact arched stone bridges from the Hellenistic era can be found in the Peloponnese. The greatest bridge builders of antiquity were the ancient Romans, the Romans built arch bridges and aqueducts that could stand in conditions that would damage or destroy earlier designs.
An example is the Alcántara Bridge, built over the river Tagus, the Romans used cement, which reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone. One type of cement, called pozzolana, consisted of water, sand and mortar bridges were built after the Roman era, as the technology for cement was lost. In India, the Arthashastra treatise by Kautilya mentions the construction of dams, a Mauryan bridge near Girnar was surveyed by James Princep. The bridge was swept away during a flood, and repaired by Puspagupta, the use of stronger bridges using plaited bamboo and iron chain was visible in India by about the 4th century. A number of bridges, both for military and commercial purposes, were constructed by the Mughal administration in India and this bridge is historically significant as it is the worlds oldest open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge. European segmental arch bridges date back to at least the Alconétar Bridge, rope bridges, a simple type of suspension bridge, were used by the Inca civilization in the Andes mountains of South America, just prior to European colonization in the 16th century.
During the 18th century there were innovations in the design of timber bridges by Hans Ulrich Grubenmann, Johannes Grubenmann. The first book on bridge engineering was written by Hubert Gautier in 1716, a major breakthrough in bridge technology came with the erection of the Iron Bridge in Shropshire, England in 1779. It used cast iron for the first time as arches to cross the river Severn, with the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems of wrought iron were developed for larger bridges, but iron does not have the tensile strength to support large loads. With the advent of steel, which has a tensile strength, much larger bridges were built. In 1927 welding pioneer Stefan Bryła designed the first welded bridge in the world
For legal purposes motor vehicles are often identified within a number of vehicle classes including cars, motorcycles, off-road vehicles, light trucks and regular trucks. These classifications vary according to the codes of each country. ISO3833,1977 is the standard for road vehicles types, terms, as of 2010 there were more than one billion motor vehicles in use in the world excluding off-road vehicles and heavy construction equipment. Global vehicle ownership per capita in 2010 was 148 vehicles in operation per 1000 people, the United States has the largest fleet of motor vehicles in the world, with 239.8 million in 2010. Vehicle ownership per capita in the US is the highest in the world with 769 vehicles in operation per 1000 people. The Peoples Republic of China has the second largest fleet in the world, with more than 78 million vehicles. In 2011, a total of 80 million cars and commercial vehicles were built, led by China, the US publisher Wards, estimate that as of 2010 there were 1.015 billion motor vehicles in use in the world.
This figure represents the number of cars, light and heavy duty trucks, and buses, the world vehicle population passed the 500 million-unit mark in 1986, from 250 million motor vehicles in 1970. Between 1950 and 1970, the population doubled roughly every 10 years. Two US researchers estimate that the fleet will reach 2 billion motor vehicles by 2020. Navigant Consulting forecasts that the stock of light-duty motor vehicles will reach 2 billion units in 2035. The global rate of motorization increased in 2013 to 174 vehicles per 1000 inhabitants, in developing countries vehicle ownership rates rarely exceed 200 cars per 1,000 population. The five largest markets, Italy, the UK, the EU-27 member countries had in 2009 an estimated ownership rate of 473 passenger cars per 1000 people. According to Wards, Italy had the second highest vehicle ownership per capita in 2010, Germany had a rate of motorization of 534 vehicles per 1000 people and the UK of 525 vehicles per 1000 inhabitants, both in 2008.
France had a rate of 575 vehicles per 1000 people and Spain 608 vehicles per 1000 people in 2007, between 1991 and 2002 grew up 220% on its motorization rate, having had in 2002,560 cars per 1000 people. Italy leads in alternative fuel vehicles, with a fleet of 779,090 natural gas vehicles as of June 2012, with 225,000 flexible-fuel vehicles, has the largest flexifuel fleet in Europe by mid-2011. According to Wards, the United States has the largest fleet of vehicles in the world. Vehicle ownership per capita in the U. S. is the highest in the world with 769 vehicles in operation per 1000 inhabitants, or a ratio of 1,1.3 vehicles to people
A cartouche is an oval or oblong design with a slightly convex surface, typically edged with ornamental scrollwork. It is used to hold a painted or low relief design, in Early Modern design, since the early 16th century, the cartouche is a scrolling frame device, derived originally from Italian cartoccia. Such cartouches are characteristically stretched and scrolling, another cartouche figures prominently in the title page of Giorgio Vasaris Lives, framing a minor vignette with a device of pierced and scrolling papery cartoccia. The engraved trade card of the London clockmaker Percy Webster shows a vignette of the shop in a scrolling cartouche frame of Rococo design that is composed entirely of scrolling devices