The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Frederick III of Denmark
Frederick III was king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. He governed under the name Frederick II as diocesan administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and he instituted absolute monarchy in Denmark-Norway in 1660, confirmed by law in 1665 as the first in Western historiography. He ordered the creation of the Throne Chair of Denmark and he was born the second-eldest son of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg. Frederick was only considered an heir to the throne after the death of his older brother Prince Christian in 1647, in order to be elected king after the death of his father, Frederick conceded significant influence to the nobility. As king, he fought two wars against Sweden and he was defeated in the Dano-Swedish War of 1657–1658, but attained great popularity when he weathered the 1659 Assault on Copenhagen and won the Dano-Swedish War of 1658–1660. Later that year, Frederick used his popularity to disband the elective monarchy in favour of absolute monarchy and he married Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with whom he fathered Christian V of Denmark.
Frederick was born at Haderslev in Slesvig, the son of Christian IV, in his youth and early manhood, there was no prospect of his ascending the Danish throne, as his older brother Christian was elected heir apparent in 1608. Frederick was educated at Sorø Academy and studied in the Netherlands, as a young man, he demonstrated an interest in theology, natural sciences, and Scandinavian history. He was a reserved and enigmatic prince who seldom laughed, spoke little, and wrote less, even though he lacked the impulsive and jovial qualities of his father, Frederick possessed the compensating virtues of moderation and self-control. On 1 October 1643 Frederick wed Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the daughter of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who had an energetic, passionate and he was an enthusiastic collector of books and his collection became the foundation for the Copenhagen Royal Library. In his youth, Frederick became the instrument of his fathers political schemes in the Holy Roman Empire and he was granted administration of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and named coadjutor of the Bishopric of Halberstadt.
Thus, from an age, he had considerable experience as an administrator. At the age of eighteen, he was the commandant of the Bremian fortress of Stade. During the Torstenson War of 1643–45, Frederick lost control of his possessions within the empire and he was appointed commander in the royal shares in the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein by his father. His command was not successful, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal Anders Bille and this was Fredericks first collision with the Danish nobility, who afterwards regarded him with extreme distrust. The death of his elder brother Christian in June 1647 opened the possibility for Frederick to be elected heir apparent to the Danish throne, this issue was still unsettled when Christian IV died on 28 February 1648. After long deliberation among the Danish Estates and in the Rigsraadet, on 6 July, Frederick received the homage of his subjects, and he was crowned on 23 November. The Haandfæstning included provisions curtailing the already diminished royal prerogative in favour of increased influence for the Rigsraadet, in the first years of his reign, the Rigsraadet was the main power center of Danish politics
Kalvebod Brygge is a waterfront area in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The name refers to a section of the Ring 2 ring road follows the waterfront from Langebro in the north to the H. C. Ørsted Power Station in the south, the area is dominated by office buildings, Tivoli Conference Center, several hotels and the shopping centre Fisketorvet. The northern part of the road, northeast of Bernstoffsgade, belongs to the Indre By district and it is bounded to the north by the small Rysensteen Quarter where the Copenhagen Police Headquarters is located. Both Kalvebod Brygge and the terrain, which separates the area from the rest of Vesterbro, are located on reclaimed land. The coast south of Copenhagen was formerly known as Kalvebod Beach, the first land reclamations took place as early as 1755 when the area just outside the West Ramparts Rysensten Bastion was used for establishment of lumberyards. A little further to the south, Copenhagens first gasworks, known as Vestre Gasværk, the railway was constructed on reclaimed land between 1897 and 1901. A new goods station was built on the grounds.
It was designed by DSBs head architect Heinrich Wenck and opened in 1901 and it was replaced by a modern goods station designed by Ole Hagen in 1968. The new railway obstructed the Western Gasworks access to the harbor, the Danish State Railways therefore agreed to building a new Gasworks Harbour on the east side of the railway as part of the project. The waterfront was redeveloped in the late 1990s, beginning from the north, the buildings along the quay are Nykredits Head Office, Copenhagen Marriott Hotel, The Engineers House and the Fisketorvet shopping centre. The Havneholmen mixed-use development was built on reclaimed land in front of Fisketorvet. In 2011, Nykredit expanded their headquarters with a new building, The Crystal, a new plaza was created in front of the building. The Kalvebod Wave was designed by JDS Architects and Klar and inaugurated in 2013 and it consists of an undulating wooden boardwalk which creates various new spaces for sitting and water-related activities. A masterplan competition for the part of the railway terrain along Kalvebod Brygge was won by Lundgaard & Tranberg.
The plan involves a greenway which will connect the area around Copenhagen Central Station to the South Harbour. Lundgaard & Tranberg has designed two buildings for SEB Bank & Pension, which, on the corner of Bernstoffsgade and Kalvebod Brygge, the surrounding landscape is designed by Stig L. Anderson. The greenway continues across the roof of the goods station
St. Matthew's Church, Copenhagen
St. Mathews Church is the oldest and largest church in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The decommissioning of Copenhagens Bastioned Fortifications was a gradual and prolonged process and this was the case with Vesterbro outside the former Western City Gate which developed into a crowded and poor working-class neighbourhood. Constructed between 1879 and 1880, St. Matthews Church was the first church to be built in the area, at that time the parish had around 2,000 inhabitants. Its architect was Ludvig Fenger who had just completed St. James Church in Østerbro, up until the mid-1890s, St. Matthews remained the only church in Vesterbro. At the turn of the 20th century the population had grown to about 7,000, like many other Danish buildings of its time, St. Matthews Church is inspired by North Italian Romanesque brick architecture. A distinctive feature of the exterior is the many pinnacles along the eaves as well as on the corners of the tower, most of the inventory is designed by Ludvig Fenger, including the organ case.
The organ works were created by A. H. Busch & Sønner in 1880, the altarpiece is a mural painted directly on the wall behind the altar by Henrik Olrik depicting the Sermon on the Mount. St. Johns Church, Copenhagen Jesus Church, Valby
DGI-byen is situated within the Meat District, a historical industrial area that was transformed into a recreation area for cultural and leisure activities from 1993. However, most of DGI-byen consists of new buildings, in contrast to the rest of the Meat District, one exception is Øksnehallen, formerly a stable for 1,600 cattle, now an exhibition and events venue. First parts of the complex were opened in 1999 and it is named after Danske Gymnastik- og Idrætsforeninger, the main umbrella organisation of 5,000 local sports associations in Denmark with 1,3 million members. The second part of the name is by, Danish for town or city, the main building is a 22,000 square metre facility situated directly behind Copenhagen Central Station. A walled-off portion provides infrastructure for DGI-byens numerous cultural activities and events, DGI-byen is a rapidly expanding area of the city, with ongoing construction. DGI-byen hosts a variety of banquets, etc, one recognizable landmark seen from the Central Station is a giant outdoor climbing gym wall.
The recreational facilities are aimed at the public, rather than a business or upscale segment. DGI-byen website DGI-byen website DGI-byen history Category, Schmidt hammer lassen buildings
Sophie Amalienborg was a pleasure palace roughly located where Amalienborg stands today in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was built by Queen Consort Sophie Amalie who lived there until her death in 1685 after her husband, King Frederick III and it burnt down to the ground on 19 April 1689 in a fire which caused many casualties. The land had originally acquired by King Christian IV early in the century. Other parts of the land had been used for Rosenborg Castle and Nyboder even before the changes in the course of the fortifications, the queens acquisitions occupied an area roughly defined by present-day Bredgade, Frederiksgade and Sankt Annæ Plads. Work on the began in 1664 and from 1666 to 1667 the Frenchman Michel le Roy was responsible for its design, particularly that of the fountains. The pleasure palace was built from 1669 to 1673 after Sophie Amalie had succeeded in providing the means in spite of the hard times following the war. It is unclear who was the architect of the building but it is attributed to Albertus Mathiesen.
Another possibility is that le Roy was involved in the design of the palace, in early documents he is referred to merely as Ingenieur, while he is titulated Baumeister der Koniginn. The King died in 1670, and the Queen Dowager lived there until her death on 20 February 1685, after Sophie Amalies death her son King Christian V took over the palace. The presentation was a success, and it was repeated a few days on 19 April. However, immediately after the start of the performance a stage decoration caught fire, causing the theatre and the palace to burn to the ground. The King planned to rebuild the palace, whose church, Royal Household, ole Rømer headed the preparatory work for the rebuilding of Sophie Amalienborg in the early 1690s. In 1694 the King negotiated a deal with the Swedish building master Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and his drawing and model were completed in 1697. However, the king found the plans too ambitious. The reclaimed building materials were used to build the new Garrison Church, the second Amalienborg was built by Frederick IV at the beginning of his reign.
It was a modest summerhouse, a pavilion with orangeries. On one side of the buildings was a French-style garden, the pavilion had a dining room on the groundfloor. On the upper floor was a salon overlooking the harbour, the garden and this building was ultimately demolished to make room for Frederiksstaden
Sluseholmen is an artificial peninsula in the South Harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark. It takes its name from Slusen, a lock immediately to the south and it is connected to Teglholmen by the Teglværk Bridge. Sluseholmen used to be dominated by industry, including a Ford car factory. As industry left the area, a plan was conceived to develop Sluseholmen into a canal district and this was the result of co-operation between Sjoerd Soeters, the Port of Copenhagen and the City of Copenhagen. Construction started in 2004, the first residents arrived in 2007, Sluseholmen today is dominated by the Sluseholmen Canal District development of 1,150 apartments, located on artificial islands and separated by dug-out canals. Its design has been inspired by the tower on Langebro. Along the eastern waterfront of the district lies a row of old, brightly-painted wooden sheds. When the canal district was planned, the intention was to relocate the boat club. Ultimately it was decided to spare the boat club and its premises to preserve the atmosphere, create an appealing juxtaposition of old and new.
The boat club has a restaurant open to the public, in late 2011, the third Copenhagen Harbour Bath opened at Sluseholmen. It was designed by Kasper Danielsen Arkitekter, the Teglværksbroen Bridge connecting Sluseholmen to Teglholmen opened in January 2011. The bridge was designed by the Danish architectural firm Hvidt & Mølgaard, Sluseholmen had a reputation for poor public transport serving the area. This was due to the delay in building a bridge to Teglholmen. Since September 2009, Sluseholmen has been served by Route 901/902 of the Copenhagen Harbour Buses
Havneholmen is a mixed-use development located on reclaimed land off Kalvebod Brygge in the harbor of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located just east of the shopping centre Fisketorvet from which it is separated by a narrow canal, Havneholmen is connected to Islands Brygge on the other side of the harbor by Brygge Bridge, a foot and cycling bridge. Tømmergraven Canal deparates it from Enghave Brygge to the south, the area was formerly known as Kalvebod Pladsvej and was an industrial site. The plan for its redevelopment was adopted by the City in 2003, a masterplan for the area was created by Gert Wingårdh and construction began in 2006. The development comprises about 91,000 square metres of buildings and it consists of a mixture of housing, offices and a hotel. The Havneholmen Housing Estate was built by Sjælsø Group between 2005 and 2009 and it was designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg and received the RIBA European Award in 2001. Another residential project, consisting of 148 apartments distributed on four buildings in a fan-like arrangement perpendicular to the water, is designed by Vilhelm Lauritzen Arkitekter, Aller House is the headquarters of Aller Media and was designed by PLH Arkitekter.
376-roomm Hotel Copenhagen Island is located on its own island and it was designed by Kim Utzon for the Arp-Hansen Hotel Group. Havneholmen Atrium and Havneholmen Towers were designed by Wingårdh, the nearest S-train station is Dybbølsbro station. The station is served by the A, B, C, E and H trains, nearby bus lines include 1A which travls along Ingerslevsgade on the other side of the railway tracks on its way to Kongens Nytorv. The super bikeway Søruten connects Havneholmen and the Brygge Bridge to Østerbrogade along the west side of The Lakes, on the other side of the harbor, the Lake Route connects to Universitetsruten and Havneruten, which continues to University of Copenhagens Søndre Campus and along the harbourfront respectively. The new bicycle bridge Cykelslangen, opened at Havneholmen in 2014 to ensure fast, the structure was designed by Dissing + Weitling
Vesterbrogade is the main shopping street of the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The 1.5 km long street runs from the City Hall Square in the east to Pile Allé in Frederiksberg in the west where it turns into Roskildevej, on its way, it passes Copenhagen Central Station as well as the small triangular square Vesterbros Torv. It is one of four such -bro streets, the other being Nørrebrogade, Østerbrogade and Amagerbrogade, vesterbroghade originates in the 12th-century country road that led in and out of Copenhagens Western City Gate. The road passed Sankt Jørgens Bæk on its way to Valby, on 20 August 1624, Christian IV ordered that the road be cobbled, first to Vernedamsvej and all the way to Valby. The road was at this point called Alvejen (The Public Road= or Adelvejen and it is one of four such -bro streets. New buildings began to long the street in the 1850s. In 1866–67, Vesterbrogade was extended in a line from Tivoli to the Haymarket. The first section of the street, between the Vity Hall Square and the new Central Central Station, was out as a broad.
Among the buildings that were built along it, including Industriforeningens new Exhibition Building from 1872, at the turn of the 20th century, Vesterbros Passage was the backbone in a westward expansion of Copenhagens city centre. Most of the old buildings were replaced by new and larger ones over the course of the next decades, industriens Hus is the headquarters of the Confederation of Danish Industries. An expansion and complete make-over of the building was completed in 2013, next to the building is the main entrance of Tivoli Gardens. Saxo Towers, a complex consisting of four interconnected culinders, is currently under construction on the other side of the street. Axelborg, originally a building, now contains the headquarters of the Danish Agriculture. The former SAS Royal Hotel, now operated by Radison Blu, was designed by Arne Jacobsen and his Egg and Swan chairs were designed for the building. AArbejdernes Landsbank has their headquarters in the so-called Panoptikon Building at No.5, the small Savoy Hotel, known as Løvenborg, is one of the earliest examples of the art nouveau style in Copenhagen.
The building was designed by Anton Rosen who a few years designed the two buildings that flank thDet Ny Teater in the same style. The Association of Danish Law Firms is based at No.32, the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Societys former main building at No.59 is from 1780s. It now houses the Museum of Copenhagen, the former Vesterbro Pharmacy was built in 1853 to design by P. C