Geological Survey of India
The Geological Survey of India, founded in 1851, is a Government of India Ministry of Mines organisation, one of the oldest of such organisations in the world and the second oldest survey in India after Survey of India, for conducting geological surveys and studies of India, as the prime provider of basic earth science information to government and general public, as well as the official participant in steel, metals, power industries and international geoscientific forums. GSI as well as ASI, BSI, FiSI, FSI, IIEE, NIO, RGCCI and language survey), SI, ZSI are key national survey organisations of India. Formed in 1851 by East India Company, its roots can be traced to 1836 when the "Coal Committee", followed by more such committees, was formed to study and explore availability of coals in the eastern parts of India. British colonised India for the systematic financial exploitation of resources, leading to India's deindustrialization and Britain's Industrial Revolution, by using India as both a significant supplier of raw goods to British manufacturers and a large captive market for British manufactured goods, to sell British goods in India without any tariffs or duties and to tax local Indian producers with the imposition of Britain protectionist policies such as bans and high tariffs to restrict Indian finished goods from being sold in Britain, whereas raw material was imported from India without tariffs to British factories, resulting in decline of India's share of the world economy from 24.4% in 1700 to 4.2% in 1950, decline of India's share of global industrial output from 25% in 1750 down to 2% in 1900, corresponding increase in United Kingdom's share of the world economy rose from 2.9% in 1700 up to 9% in 1870.
David Hiram Williams, one of the first surveyors for the British Geological Survey, was appointed'Surveyor of coal districts and superintendent of coal works, Bengal' on 3 December 1845 and arrived in India the following February. The phrase "Geological Survey of India" was first used on his Dec 1847 map of the Damoodah and Adji Great Coal Field, together with Horizontal and Vertical sections of the map. On 4 February 1848, he was appointed the "Geological Surveyor of the Geological Survey of India", but he fell off his elephant and, soon after, died with his assistant, F. B. Jones, of'jungle fever' on 15 November 1848, after which John McClelland took over as the "Officiating Surveyor" until his retirement on 5 March 1851; until 1852, Geological Survey remained focused on exploration for coal for powering steam transport, oil reserves, ore deposits, when Sir Thomas Oldham, father of Richard Dixon Oldham, broadened the ambit of the scope of functioning of the Geological Survey of India by advancing the argument with the government that it was not possible to find coal without first mapping the geology of India.
Thus, the Geological Survey commenced to map the rock types, geological structures and relative ages of different rock types. The age of rock strata was estimated from the presence of index fossils, which consumed much of the geologists' efforts in finding these index fossils, as the method of Radiometric dating for estimating the age of rock strata was not developed at that time. In 19th and early 20th century GSI made important contributions to Seismology by its studies and detailed reports on numerous Indian earthquakes. Richard Dixon Oldham, like his father worked for GSI, first identified p- and s-waves, hypothesised and calculated the diameter of the Earth's core. On 8 April 2017 GSI began pilot project, with the first aerial survey of mineral stocks by GSI, to map the mineral stocks up to a depth of 20 km using specially-equipped aircraft; the GSI was restructured into 5 Missions relating to "Baseline Surveys". Vijay Kumar Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Mines of the Government of India.
Some of the geological parks include Tiruvakkarai National Fossil Wood Park national geo-heritage site with wood fossils scattered over 247 acres nine separate enclaves, Sathanur National Fossil Wood Park national geo-heritage site with an 18-meter 120 million years old fossilised tree trunk from the Cretaceous period, Nehru Zoological Park at Hyderabad with life size figures of T-Rex and other dinosaurs, Saketi Fossil Park near Chandigarh with a fossil museum and life size fiberglass models of six pre-historic animals. Geography of Asia Outline of geography List of National Geological Monuments in India Official website
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
Indian Railways is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways. It manages the fourth largest railway network in the world by size, with 67,368-kilometre route.. Routes are electrified with 25 kV AC electric traction while thirty three percent of them are double or multi-tracked. Indian Railway runs more than 20,000 passenger trains daily, on both long-distance and suburban routes, from 7,349 stations across India; the trains have a five-digit numbering system. Mail or express trains, the most common types, run at an average speed of 50.6 kilometres per hour. In the freight segment, IR runs more than 9,200 trains daily; the average speed of freight trains is around 24 kilometres per hour. As of March 2017, IR's rolling stock consisted of 277,987 freight wagons, 70,937 passenger coaches and 11,452 locomotives. IR owns coach-production facilities at several locations in India; the world's eighth-largest employer, it had 1.308 million employees as of March 2017. In the year ending March 2018, IR carried 8.26 billion passengers and transported 1.16 billion tonnes of freight.
In the fiscal year 2017–18, IR is projected to have revenue of ₹1.874 trillion, consisting of ₹1.175 trillion in freight revenue and ₹501.25 billion in passenger revenue, with an operating ratio of 96.0 percent. The first railway proposals for India were made in Madras in 1832; the country's first train, Red Hill Railway, ran from Red Hills to the Chintadripet bridge in Madras in 1837. In 1845, the Godavari Dam Construction Railway was built by Cotton at Dowleswaram in Rajahmundry, to supply stone for the construction of a dam over the Godavari River. In 1851, the Solani Aqueduct Railway was built by Proby Cautley in Roorkee to transport construction materials for an aqueduct over the Solani River. India's first passenger train, hauled by three steam locomotives, ran for 34 kilometres with 400 people in 14 carriages on 1,676 mm broad gauge track between Bori Bunder and Thane on 16 April 1853; the Thane viaducts, India's first railway bridges, were built over the Thane creek when the Mumbai-Thane line was extended to Kalyan in May 1854.
Eastern India's first passenger train ran 24 miles from Howrah, near Kolkata, to Hoogly on 15 August 1854. The first passenger train in South India ran 60 miles from Royapuram- Veyasarapady to Wallajah Road on 1 July 1856. On 24 February 1873, a horse-drawn 3.8-kilometre tram opened in Calcutta between Sealdah and Armenian Ghat Street. On 9 May 1874, a horse-drawn tramway began operation in Bombay between Parel. In 1897, lighting in passenger coaches was introduced by many railway companies. On 3 February 1925, the first electric passenger train in India ran between Victoria Terminus and Kurla; the organisation of Indian railways into regional zones began in 1951, when the Southern and Western zones were created. Fans and lights were mandated for all compartments in all passenger classes in 1951, sleeping accommodations were introduced in coaches. In 1956, the first air-conditioned train was introduced between Howrah and Delhi. Ten years the first containerized freight service began between Mumbai and Ahmedabad.
In 1986, computerized ticketing and reservations were introduced in New Delhi. In 1988, the first Shatabdi Express was introduced between New Jhansi. Two years the first self-printing ticket machine was introduced in New Delhi. In 1993, air-conditioned three-tier coaches and a sleeper class were introduced on IR; the CONCERT system of computerized reservations was deployed in New Delhi and Chennai in September 1996. In 1998, coupon validating machines were introduced at Mumbai Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus; the nationwide Concierge system began operation on 18 April 1999. In February 2000, the Indian Railways website went online. On 3 August 2002, IR began ticketing. Indian Railways announced on 31 March 2017 that the country's entire rail network would be electrified by 2022. Indian Railways is headed by a seven-member Railway Board whose chairman reports to the Ministry of Railways. Railway Board acts as the Ministry of Railways; the officers manning the office of Railway Board are from organised Group A Railway Services and Railway Board Secretariat Service.
IR is divided into 17 zones, headed by general managers. The zones are further subdivided into 68 operating divisions, headed by divisional railway managers; the divisional officers of the engineering, electrical and telecommunication, accounts, operating, commercial and safety branches report to their respective DRMs and are tasked with the operation and maintenance of assets. Station masters control individual stations and train movements through their stations' territory. In addition, there are a number of production units, training establishments, public sector enterprises and other offices working under the control of the Railway Board. IR is a major shareholder in 16 public sector undertakings and other organizations that are related to rail transport in India. Notable among this list include:Financing and project implementation: IRFC, RITES, IRCON, MRVC, RVNL Land and station development: RLDA, IRSDC Rail infrastructure: DFCCIL, PRCLPassenger and freight train operations: KRCL, CONCOR IT and communications: CRIS, RCIL Catering and tourism: IRCTC Staff are classified into gazetted an
Shiva known as Mahadeva is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the supreme being within one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism. Shiva is known as "The Destroyer" within the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity that includes Brahma and Vishnu. In Shaivism tradition, Shiva is the supreme being who creates and transforms the universe. In the tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism, the Goddess, or Devi, is described as supreme, yet Shiva is revered along with Vishnu and Brahma. A goddess is stated to be the energy and creative power of each, with Parvati the equal complementary partner of Shiva, he is one of the five equivalent deities in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta tradition of Hinduism. According to the Shaivism sect, the highest form of Shiva is formless, limitless and unchanging absolute Brahman, the primal Atman of the universe. There are many both fearsome depictions of Shiva. In benevolent aspects, he is depicted as an omniscient Yogi who lives an ascetic life on Mount Kailash as well as a householder with wife Parvati and his two children and Kartikeya.
In his fierce aspects, he is depicted slaying demons. Shiva is known as Adiyogi Shiva, regarded as the patron god of yoga and arts; the iconographical attributes of Shiva are the serpent around his neck, the adorning crescent moon, the holy river Ganga flowing from his matted hair, the third eye on his forehead, the trishula or trident, as his weapon, the damaru drum. He is worshipped in the aniconic form of Lingam. Shiva is a pan-Hindu deity, revered by Hindus, in India and Sri Lanka. Shiva is called as Bhramhan which can be said as Parabhramhan. Shiva means nothingness; the word shivoham means the consciousness of one individual, lord says that he is omnipotent, omnipresent, as he is present in the form of one's consciousness. In Tamil, he was called by different names other than Sivan. Nataraaja Rudra and Dhakshinamoorthy. Nataraja is the only form of Shiva worshipped in a human figure format. Elsewhere he is worshipped in Lingam figure. Pancha bootha temples are located in south India. Pancha Bhoota Stalam.
Tamil literature is enriched by Shiva devotees called 63 Nayanmars The Sanskrit word "Śiva" means, states Monier Monier-Williams, "auspicious, gracious, kind, friendly". The roots of Śiva in folk etymology are śī which means "in whom all things lie, pervasiveness" and va which means "embodiment of grace"; the word Shiva is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities, including Rudra. The term Shiva connotes "liberation, final emancipation" and "the auspicious one", this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature; the term evolved from the Vedic Rudra-Shiva to the noun Shiva in the Epics and the Puranas, as an auspicious deity, the "creator and dissolver". Sharva, sharabha presents another etymology with the Sanskrit root śarv-, which means "to injure" or "to kill", interprets the name to connote "one who can kill the forces of darkness"; the Sanskrit word śaiva means "relating to the god Shiva", this term is the Sanskrit name both for one of the principal sects of Hinduism and for a member of that sect.
It is used as an adjective to characterize certain practices, such as Shaivism. Some authors associate the name with the Tamil word śivappu meaning "red", noting that Shiva is linked to the Sun and that Rudra is called Babhru in the Rigveda; the Vishnu sahasranama interprets Shiva to have multiple meanings: "The Pure One", "the One, not affected by three Guṇas of Prakṛti". Shiva is known by many names such as Viswanatha, Mahandeo, Mahesha, Shankara, Rudra, Trilochana, Neelakanta, Subhankara and Ghrneshwar; the highest reverence for Shiva in Shaivism is reflected in his epithets Mahādeva, Maheśvara, Parameśvara. Sahasranama are medieval Indian texts that list a thousand names derived from aspects and epithets of a deity. There are at least eight different versions of the Shiva Sahasranama, devotional hymns listing many names of Shiva; the version appearing in Book 13 of the Mahabharata provides one such list. Shiva has Dasha-Sahasranamas that are found in the Mahanyasa; the Shri Rudram Chamakam known as the Śatarudriya, is a devotional hymn to Shiva hailing him by many names.
The Shiva-related tradition is a major part of Hinduism, found all over India, Sri Lanka, Bali. Scholars have interpreted early prehistoric paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters, carbon dated to be from pre-10,000 BCE period, as Shiva dancing, Shiva's trident, his mount Nandi. Rock paintings from Bhimbetka, depicting a figure with a trishul, have been described as Nataraja by Erwin Neumayer, who dates them to the mesolithic. Of several Indus valley seals that show animals, one seal that has attracted attention shows a large central figure, either horned or wearing a horned headdress and ithyphallic, seated in a posture reminiscent of the Lotus position, surrounded by animals; this figure was named by early excavators of Mohenjo-daro as Pashupati (Lord of Animals, Sansk
Tiruchirapalli Rock Fort
Tiruchirappalli Rockfort is a historic fortification and temple complex built on an ancient rock. It is located in the city of Tamil Nadu, India, it is constructed on a 83 metres high rock. There are two Hindu temples inside, the Ucchi Pillayar Temple and the Thayumanaswami Temple, Rockfort. Other local tourist attractions include the famous Pallava-era Ganesha temple and the Madurai Nayak-era fort; the fort complex has witnessed fierce battles between the Madurai Nayakas and Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur, Carnatic region and Maratha Imperial forces. The fort played an important part during the Carnatic Wars, helping lay the foundations of the British Empire in India; the Rockfort is the most prominent landmark of the city. The name "Rockfort" comes from frequent military fortification built here, first by the emperors of the Vijayanagara Empire and by the British Empire during the Carnatic Wars; the oldest structure in the fort is a cave temple built by the Pallavas in 580. During the Chola period, the nearby town of Woraiyur was their capital, but the Pallavas did not keep control of this strategic city and lost it to the Pandyas.
The Cholas reasserted themselves in the 10th century. Trichy continued to be in their possession until the decline of the empire, after which it became a Vijayanagara stronghold. In the mid 14th century, the region was controlled by the Delhi Sultanate after Malik Kafur's raid on South India, they were ousted and the region came under the control of Vijayanagara. During the early part of the 16th century, the region came under the control of the Madurai Nayaks, who were the earlier governors of Vijayanagara Empire. However, it was under the Nayaks of Madurai that Tiruchirapalli prospered in its own right and grew to be the city that it is today; the Madurai Nayaks constructed the Rock Fort Temple Lake along with major walls as foundations, establishing the town as a trading city and their capital. The fort palace witnessed the transfer of power from Queen Meenakshi to Chanda Sahib, as he ruled in conjunction with the alliance with the Kingdom of France, he lost this command when his uncle, the Nawab of the Carnatic along with the British, seized the fort after the Carnatic wars.
This enabled the British to gain a foothold in Tamil Nadu and all of South India. In modern times, the fort is maintained and administered by the Chennai Circle of the Archaeological Survey of India; the fort is one of the prominent tourist destinations in Tamil Nadu. As the Rockfort was the capital of the Madurai Nayaks, the fort has witnessed fierce battles. One of the largest was the Battle of Toppur for supremacy between the Aravidu dynasty of Vijayanagara and the Madurai Nayaks; the former won, with support from the rulers of Thanjavur in the 16th century. The Nayaks faced fierce attacks from Adil Shahi and Imperial Maratha troops; the Fort complex formed the northwest territory to the Nayaks. During their two-century rule, they had occasional skirmishes with their neighbours, the Thanjavur Nayak kingdom, the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom, more with the invading Adil Shahi, Kingdom of Mysore, Imperial Maratha armies. During the mid century, Chanda Sahib, aided by the French, made this fort his home base.
He battled with the combined forces of British. He was forced to cede his lands to the British. In the late 18th century, Hyder Ali was a major threat to the British, as were the French who were still fighting for their colonial supremacy in this region. By now, the town was established as a Cantonment town and the fort's gate was known as main guard gate. Robert Clive lived near the tank; the rock is said to be one of the oldest formations in the world. It is 3.8 billion years old, making it as old as the rocks in Greenland and older than the Himalayas. Quartz, used in glass making, feldspar, used in ceramics, are found in this rock formation; as the name suggests, the Rock Fort Temple is situated on 83 metre-high outcrops. The Pallavas built this temple, but the Nayaks made use of its fortified position and designed it again, it is a long climb up the 344 steps cut into the stone to the top. The temple complex in the fort complex is a collection of three temples: the Manikka Vinayakar temple at the foot of the hill, dedicated to Lord Ganesha the Ucchi Pillayar Temple at the top of the hill, dedicated to Lord Ganesha the Taayumaanavar Koyil Shivastalam, a rock cut temple dedicated to a Nayaka era saint, Taayumaanavar.
Mathrubutheswarar, dedicated to Lord Shiva, has a lingam, a projection of the rock itself. It is reached by a flight of steps on the way to Ucchi Pillayar Temple. There are two rock cut temples in the fort, one in the lower part of the fort called Lower Cave temple and other in the complex outside the Thayumanswamny on the way up to Uchi Pillayar Kovil, called the Upper Cave temple. An archaeological study in 2010 revealed that the layout of the rock-cut caves in the temple is similar to that of other rock-cut temples such as the Pundarikakshan Perumal Temple at Thiruvellarai and Pechipalai cave temple; the unfinished caves in the temple, along with the lower cave temples in Thiruvellarari and Tirupparankunram, each have a shrine for Shiva in the east and Vishnu in the west, separated by a central bay between them. The study revealed that the Lower Cave temple along with Kudumiyan Malai temple exhibited unique form of pillars, which are otherwise not seen in other temples in Tamil Nadu; the rock-cut temple in the hill temple complex was built during the Pallava era and is named Lalitankura Pallaveswaram, with several inscriptions attributed to Mahendravarman I.
The Cholas, the Vijayanagara emperors and the Nayaks of Madurai have
St. Thomas Mount
St. Thomas Mount is a small hillock in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, near the neighbourhood of Guindy and close to Chennai International Airport; the ancient Syrian Christian community of India trace the origin of their church to St. Thomas the Apostle. From the 17th century, this part of Chennai was populated predominantly by Anglo-Indians; the St. Thomas Garrison Church is at the foot of St Thomas Mount. St. Thomas Syro Malabar Catholic Church is located east of the shrine at North Silver Street, foot holds of the mountain shrine; the neighbourhood is served by the St. Thomas Mount railway station, on the southern line of the Chennai Suburban Railway Network. Integration of the Metro and MRTS with the suburban station in the neighbourhood, is expected to make the suburb the city's largest transit hub after Chennai Central. In the state assembly elections of 1967 and 1971, there was a constituency known as the Saint Thomas Mount; the St. Thomas Mount block is a revenue block in the Chennai district of India.
The following cities come under St Thomas Mount Panchayat Union: Agaramthen Cowl bazaar Mudichur Medavakkam Perumbakkam Nanmangalam Polichalur Trisulam Peerkankaranai Perungalathur A shrine dedicated to "Our Lady of Expectation" was built in 1523 on top of the mount. The altar of this shrine was built on the spot where St. Thomas' death traditionally believed to have been occurred. At the northern foot of the mount, is a gateway of four impressive arches surmounted by a cross bearing the inscribed date 1547. A flight of 160 steps leads up to the summit of the mount. There are 14 stations of the cross erected on the way to the summit. St. Thomas Mount National Shrine St. Thomas and San Thome, Mylapore