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Dick Robertson (songwriter)

Dick Robertson was an American popular big band singer and songwriter of the 1930s and 1940s. He sang for many bandleaders such as Leo Reisman and Roger Wolfe Kahn and His Orchestra, was on the artist roster at Banner Records. In fact, he was one of the most prolific New York based vocalists on scores of records from late 1928 through the mid 1930s. A series of records issued on Melotone/Perfect/Banner/Oriole/Romeo, Bluebird from 1930-1934 were issued under his name or are listed in the 2010 edition of "American Dance Bands on Record and Film" by Richard J. Johnson and Bernard H. Shirley as being under his nominal leadership, his last recording session as a singer was in 1949. He used the pseudonym Bob Richardson for some recordings on Mayfair Records; as a songwriter his biggest hit was "We Three" in 1940. The Sinatra version of the song was re-released on The Song Is You and again on Frank Sinatra & the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra. Jukebox Ella: The Complete Verve Singles, Vol. 1 "I'd Do It All Over Again" 1945 co-written with Frank Weldon and James Cavanaugh.

Singin' in the Bathtub, 1929 Lazy Day, 1932 Lovable, 1932 If I Ever Get a Job Again, 1933 All I Do Is Dream of You, 1934 She Had to Go and Lose It at the Astor, 1940 - banned by the BBC Any Bonds Today?, 1940 Ferryboat Serenade, 1941 - Number 1 in Australia My Dreams Are Getting Better All the Time, 1945

Precast concrete

Precast concrete is a construction product produced by casting concrete in a reusable mold or "form", cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place. In contrast, standard concrete is cured on site. Precast stone is distinguished from precast concrete using a fine aggregate in the mixture, so the final product approaches the appearance of occurring rock or stone. More expanded polystyrene is being used as the cores to precast wall panels; this has better thermal insulation. Precast is used within interior walls. By producing precast concrete in a controlled environment, the precast concrete is afforded the opportunity to properly cure and be monitored by plant employees. Using a precast concrete system offers many potential advantages over onsite casting. Precast concrete production can be performed on ground level, which helps with safety throughout a project. There is greater control over material quality and workmanship in a precast plant compared to a construction site.

The forms used in a precast plant can be reused hundreds to thousands of times before they have to be replaced making it cheaper than onsite casting when looking at the cost per unit of formwork. There are many different types of precast concrete forming systems for architectural applications, differing in size and cost. Precast architectural panels are used to clad all or part of a building facade or free-standing walls used for landscaping and security walls, some can be prestressed concrete structural elements. Stormwater drainage and sewage pipes, tunnels make use of precast concrete units. To complete the look of the four precast wall panel types — sandwich, plastered sandwich, inner layer and cladding panels — many surface finishes are available. Standard cement is grey, though different colors can be added with pigments or paints; the color and size of aggregate can affect the appearance and texture of concrete surfaces. The shape and surface of the precast concrete molds have an effect on the look: The mold can be made of timber, plastic, rubber or fiberglass, each material giving a unique finish.

Ancient Roman builders made use of concrete and soon poured the material into moulds to build their complex network of aqueducts and tunnels. Modern uses for pre-cast technology include a variety of architectural and structural applications — including individual parts, or entire building systems. In the modern world, precast panelled buildings were pioneered in Liverpool, England, in 1905; the process was invented by city engineer John Alexander Brodie, a creative genius who invented the idea of the football goal net. The tram stables at Walton in Liverpool followed in 1906; the idea was not taken up extensively in Britain. However, it was adopted all over the world in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. In the US, precast concrete has evolved as two sub-industries, each represented by a major association; the precast concrete products industry focuses on utility and other non-prestressed products, is represented by the National Precast Concrete Association. The precast concrete structures industry focuses on prestressed concrete elements and on other precast concrete elements used in above-ground structures such as buildings, parking structures, bridges.

This industry is represented by of the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. In Australia, The New South Wales Government Railways made extensive use of precast concrete construction for its stations and similar buildings. Between 1917 and 1932, they erected 145 such buildings. Beyond cladding panels and structural elements, entire buildings can be assembled from precast concrete. Precast assembly enables fast completion of commercial offices with minimal labor. For example, the Jim Bridger Building in Williston, North Dakota, was precast in Minnesota with air, electrical and fiber utilities preinstalled into the building panels; the panels were transported over 800 miles to the Bakken oilfields, the commercial building was assembled by three workers in minimal time. The building houses over 40,000 square feet of offices; the entire building was fabricated in Minnesota. Reinforcing concrete with steel improves strength and durability. On its own, concrete has good compressive strength, but lacks tension and shear strength and can be subject to cracking when bearing loads for long periods of time.

Steel offers high shear strength to make up for what concrete lacks. Steel behaves to concrete in changing environments, which means it will shrink and expand with concrete, helping avoid cracking. Rebar is the most common form of concrete reinforcement, it is made from steel, manufactured with ribbing to bond with concrete as it cures. Rebar assembled to support the shape of any concrete structure. Carbon steel is the most common rebar material. However, stainless steel, galvanized steel, epoxy coatings can prevent corrosion; the following is a sampling of the numerous products. While this is not a complete list, the majority of precast/prestressed products fall under one or Precast concrete products can withstand the most extreme weather conditions and will hold up for many decades of constant usage. Products include bunker silos, cattle feed bunks, cattle grid, agricultural fencing, H-bunks, J-bunks, livestock slats, livestock watering trough, feed troughs, concrete panels, slurry channels, more.

Prestressed concrete panels are used i

Transcorp Hotels plc

Transcorp Hotels Plc Transnational Hospitality & Tourism Services Limited, is the hospitality subsidiary of Transnational Corporation of Nigeria Plc, a diversified conglomerate with interests in the power, hospitality and oil and gas sectors, headquartered in Lagos. It was listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange in January 2015. With a property in Abuja; as part of a consortium, Transcorp plc purchased a proprietary stake in the company and became the core investor, while the federal government retained the remaining 49 per cent. Hilton International LLC was engaged to manage the property. In 2007, the name NIRMSCO Properties Limited was changed to Transnational Hotels & Tourism Services Limited. THTSL was the hospitality subsidiary of Transcorp. In 2013, Transcorp bought out other consortium members and became the sole owner of the 51 per cent controlling shares in THTSL, it secured hosting rights for the World Economic Forum on Africa in 2014. THTSL was rebranded Transcorp Hotels plc in 2014, ahead of an initial public offering in October 2014

Breast Tax

The Breast Tax was a tax imposed on the lower caste and untouchable Hindu women by the Kingdom of Tranvancore if they wanted to cover their breasts in public, until 1924. The lower caste and untouchable women were expected to pay the government a tax on their breasts, as soon as they started developing breasts; the lower caste men had to pay a similar tax, called tala-karam, on their heads. Travancore tax collectors would visit every house to collect breast tax from any lower caste women who passed the age of puberty; the tax was evaluated by the tax collectors depending on the size of their breasts. The breast tax was forced by the land-owning Brahmins on lower caste Hindu women, to be paid if they wanted to cover their breasts and was further assessed in proportion to the size of their breasts; this was seen as a sign of respect towards the upper caste and the lower castes including Nadar and Ezhava women had to pay the "breast tax". Dr Sheeba KM, Professor of gender ecology and Dalit studies says the purpose of the breast tax was to maintain the caste hierarchy.

The law resulted from Travancore's tradition, in which the breast was bared as a symbol of respect to higher-status people. For example, the Nair women were not allowed to cover their bosoms while in front of the Namboodiri Brahmins or entering the temples, while the Brahmins bared their breasts only to the images of the deities; the people of the lower castes, such as Nadars and untouchables castes, were not allowed cover their breasts at all. With the spread of Christianity in the 19th century, the Christian converts among the Nadar women started covering their upper body, even the Hindu Nadar women adopted this practice. After a series of protests, the Nadar women were granted the right to cover their breasts in 1859. Multiple historians have documented that uncovering one's breasts was revered as a symbolic token of homage from the lower castes towards the upper castes in the state of Travancore and a state-law prevented this covering which served to demarcate the caste hierarchy in a prominent manner and served as the core locus of spontaneous rebellions by lower castes.

During the time of Travancore, lower-caste women were not allowed to wear clothes that covered their breasts. Higher-class women covered both breasts and shoulders, whereas lower castes including Nadar and Ezhava women were not allowed to cover their breasts, to show their low status, they had to pay the breast tax if they wanted to cover themselves Uneasy with their social status, a large number of Nadars embraced Christianity, started to wear long cloths. When many more Nadar women turned to Christianity, many Hindu Nadar women started to wear the Nair breast cloth; this led to violence between lower caste people. From 1813 to 1859 several laws were enacted and removed by the Kingdom of Travancore regarding the upper cloth issue. On one such occasion the members of the king's council argued that this right would remove the caste-differences and pollute the kingdom. Agitations and violence continued against the lower caste Christian and Hindu women on the right to cover their breasts and several schools and churches were burned.

Several waves of violence continued for four decades. In 1859 the violence reached its peak when two Nadar women were stripped of their upper clothes and hung on a tree in public for covering their breasts by Travancore officials; the Nadars revolted in ferocity and started to terrorize the upper caste neighborhoods and looted their shops. Thus the kingdom was forced to take action on the upper cloth law to bring peace in the kingdom. In the same year, under pressure from the Madras governor, the king issued the right for all Nadar women to cover their breasts, yet they were still not allowed in the style of the higher-class women which the Nadar women did not follow. The village-legend Nangeli is about a woman lived in the early 19th century at Cherthala in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore in India and cut off her breasts in an effort to protest against the caste-based breast tax; the village officer of Travancore, came to her home to survey her breasts and collect the breast tax. Nangeli revolted against the harassment.

She died soon from loss of blood. Nangeli's husband, seeing her mutilated body was overcome by grief and jumped into her funeral pyre – in what was the first male sati. Following the death of Nangeli, a series of people's movements were set off. Soon the place she lived had come to be called as Mulachiparambu. However, It is not recognized in any of historical accounts and its authenticity is debatable


The Krauatungalung are an indigenous Australian tribe of East Gippsland, in Victoria. According to Norman Tindale, their inclusion as one of the five tribes constituting the Gunai is artificial, their descendants now identify themselves with the GunaiKurnai nation. According to A. W. Howitt the ethnonym Krauatungalung is composed of krauat and -galung, a suffix meaning'of'/'belonging to'. In their own language, they refer to themselves as Mukdhang, meaning'good speech' The Krauatungalung country is an estimated 2,200 sq. miles of tribal territory, from Cape Everard to Lakes Entrance. It covers several rivers, the Cann, Brodribb and the Snowy River, its inland boundary is at the Black Mountain. Kroatungolung. Krow-ithun-koolo. Krowathun-Koolung. Krauatun-kurnai. Muk-dhang Gunggala-dhang; this was the Bidhawal exonym for them. Thangkwai; this was another exonym, meaning'rough speech'. Karnathun. (This was composed of ngatban and ka:nai