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Dropping the writ

Dropping the writ is the informal term for a procedure in some parliamentary government systems, where the head of government goes to the head of state and formally advises him or her to dissolve parliament. By convention, the head of state grants the request and issues writs of election for new members of parliament; the usage of the word "drop" in this context is derived from the phrase "draw up". The head of state has the right to refuse the request, in which case the prime minister is required by convention or statute to resign. For example, in the case of a minority government, the head of state can deny the request for dissolution and ask the leader of another parliamentary party to form a government. In some cases, such as with the President of Ireland, there are specific limitations on when a head of state can refuse the request; the right is exercised, as it is to precipitate a constitutional crisis, so it is possible that the right of a head of state to refuse a dissolution has become a lapsed power.

However, there is a more recent example in the 1985 election in Ontario. The incumbent Progressive Conservative party was reduced to minority status and lost a confidence motion. Lieutenant Governor John Black Aird asked the opposition Liberal leader to form a government with third-party NDP support, rather than issuing new writs of election. According to parliamentary law, the head of government must call an election but, it is otherwise within their discretion when to drop the writ, up to the time when the parliament has served its full term. At that point, an election must be called by issuing the writs. An exception to this principle is. In some states and territories of Australia, such as New South Wales, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory, it is required by law that the parliament must run its full term before issuing the writs. Early dissolutions are allowed by the Governor or federal Minister for Territories only if certain objective criteria are met – in particular, if the parliament is unable to agree on the annual budget.

In New Zealand, it is the norm for parliament to run full term unless the prime minister cannot govern or feels they must bring an important issue before the nation. Opposition parties can bring down the government by passing a motion of no confidence, in which the prime minister is required by convention or specific law to either drop the writ or resign; the phrase "drop the writ" is a debased form of the phrase "draw up the writ". Although it is still considered stylistically inappropriate by some, who assert that the correct phrase is, "the writs are issued" or "the writs are drawn up," the phrase is widely used in edited copy

Charles Kingsley (yacht designer)

Charles William Russell Kingsley V. R. D. A. R. I. N. A. was surveyor. His early life was spent on the Isle of Wight where he designed and sailed small boats or canoes of canvas covered wooden framed design. For most of his working life he was employed in London as a Victualling Clerk for the Orient Line, his hobby, which consumed much of his spare time, was yacht designing and surveying although most of the design activity reduced after the Second World War. During the war he served in the RNVR in the pay branch - he had poor eyesight - but volunteered to transfer to the Special Branch reaching the rank of Lieutenant Commander in 1947, he was a member of the Little Ship Club, which he joined aged 19, won first prize in their yacht design competition in 1933, for which he received the sum of £5 5s. The competition was judged among others, Laurent Giles. In December 1935 he had a new design for an 8-ton cruiser published in Yachting Monthly magazine, he was an associate of the Institution of Naval Architects between 1935 and 1964.

Official Lloyd's number 165032. Auxiliary Bermudian cutter. Long keel yacht of 9 tons and 36.0 ft LOA. Built by A. Everson & Sons of Woodbridge in 1936. Official Lloyd's numbers and signal letters: 166103 MMNM 400070 from between 1965 and 1978. Auxiliary cutter with Bermudian rig. Long keel yacht with counter stern and spoon bow. 11 tons, 37.4 ft LOA. Built by A. Everson & Sons of Woodbridge, Suffolk in 1937. Photographed by Beken & Son of Cowes. Photograph number 28728. Sail number 170. Official Lloyd's Number 185994. Auxiliary cutter with Bermudian rig. Full keel yacht with classic counter stern. 8 tons, 33 ft LOA. Built by Sharp & Brewster of Woodbridge, Suffolk in 1937. Built according to the winning design from the Little Ship Club competition. Official Lloyd's Number 165038. MVNU Auxiliary cutter. 13 tons, 40.3 ft LOA. Built by Harry King & Sons at Pin Mill in 1937. In 2005 Keryl and her owner, Simon Woodhouse, were the subject of the first two episodes of a TV programme Boat Yard presented by Tom Cunliffe.

They were first screened in 2005 on the Discovery Realtime TV channel

Flag of England

The flag of England is derived from Saint George's Cross. The association of the red cross as an emblem of England can be traced back to the Middle Ages, it was used as a component in the design of the Union Flag in 1606. Since the 1990s it has been in wide use at national sporting events. In 1188 Henry II of England and Philip II of France agreed to go on a crusade, that Henry would use a white cross and Philip a red cross. 13th-century authorities are unanimous on the point that the English king adopted the white cross, the French king the red one. It is not clear. There was a historiographical tradition claiming that Richard the Lionheart himself adopted both the flag and the patron saint from Genoa at some point during his crusade; this idea can be traced to the Victorian era, Perrin refers to it as a "common belief", it is still popularly repeated today though it cannot be substantiated as historical. Red crosses seem to have been used as a distinguishing mark worn by English soldiers from the reign of Edward I, or slightly earlier, in the Battle of Evesham of 1265, using a red cross on their uniforms to distinguish themselves from the white crosses used by the rebel barons at the Battle of Lewes a year earlier.

Perrin notes a roll of accounts from 1277 where the purchase of cloth for the king's tailor is identified as destined for the manufacture of a large number of pennoncels and bracers "of the arms of Saint George" for the use by the king's foot soldiers. Perrin concludes from this that the introduction of the Cross of St George as a "national emblem" is due to Edward I. By 1300, there was a greater "banner of St George", but not yet in a prominent function. Saint George had become popular as a "warrior saint" during the crusades, but the saint most associated with England was Edward the Confessor until the time of Edward III, who in thanks for Saint George's supposed intervention in his favour at the Battle of Crécy gave him a special position as a patron saint of the Order of the Garter in 1348. From that time, his banner was used with increasing prominence alongside the Royal Banner and became a fixed element in the hoist of the Royal Standard; the flag shown for England in the Book of All Kingdoms of 1367 is solid red.

The Wilton Diptych from the late 1390s shows a swallow-tailed St George cross flag held by an angel in between King Richard II and a scene of the Virgin and Child flanked by angels wearing Richard's own heraldic devices. St George's Day was considered a "double major feast" from 1415, but George was still eclipsed by his "rivals" Saints Edward and Edmund, he rose to the position of the primary patron saint of England during the English Reformation, with the revised prayer book of 1552, when all religious flags, including all saints' banners except for his were abolished. John Cabot, commissioned by Henry VII to sail "under our banners and ensigns," took St George's banner to Newfoundland in 1497; the first recorded use of St George's Cross as a maritime flag, in conjunction with royal banners, dates to 1545. In 1606, after the Union of the Crowns in 1603, it was combined with the Scottish St Andrew's Cross to form the Union Jack, which James VI & I ordered be flown from the main tops of ships from both England and Scotland.

The "Red Crosse" continued to be flown from the fore-top by James' subjects in "South Britaine" - i.e. the St George cross was used together with the new union flag on English vessels. In the 19th century, it became desirable for all nations of Europe to identify a national flag. Since during that time, the terms Britain and England were used interchangeably, the Union Flag was used as national flag de facto though never adopted; the observation that the Cross of St George is the "national flag of England" was made in the context of Irish irredentism, as noted by G. K. Chesterton in 1933, "As a sensible Irishman said in a letter to a Dublin paper:'The Union Jack is not the national flag of England.' The national flag of England is the Cross of St. George; the flag of England is one of the key components of the Union Flag. The Union Flag has been used in a variety of forms since the proclamation by Orders in Council 1606, when the flags of Scotland and England were first merged to symbolise the Union of the Crowns..

In Scotland, in particular on Scottish vessels at sea, historical evidence suggests that a separate design of Union Flag was flown to that used in England. In the Acts of Union of 1707, which united the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England to become the Kingdom of Great Britain, it was declared that "the Crosses of St. George and St. Andrew be conjoined, in such Manner as her Majesty shall think fit, used in all Flags, Banners and Ensigns, both at Sea and Land."From 1801, to symbolise the union of the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland, a new design which included the St Patrick's Cross was adopted for the flag of the Unite

Zepperen

Zepperen, a independent municipality, is now part of the city of Sint-Truiden in the province of Limburg in Belgium. This village developed in the humid part of Haspengouw close to the stream Melsterbeek; this rivulet starts about 15 kilometers to the south near the border between Flanders and Wallonia and merges with the river Gete near Geetbets. Traces of the prehistoric and Roman occupation were found alongside this river and alongside the Eigenbeek in the northern part of Zepperen; the name of the village, in his Latin form ‘Septimburias’ or seven cabins, was first mentioned in the late 8th century. In the life of Saint Trudo, the founder of the nearby city of Sint-Truiden, is noted how the holy boy held a nocturnal pilgrimage to Saint-Genevieve of Paris worshipped in Zepperen; the young Trudo met in Zepperen around 650 with the interim-bishop Remaclus to ask him for his advice concerning his vocation. In that period there was a basilica in Zepperen, dedicated to Saint-Genevieve. Till the end of the 18th century the village was an enclave owned by the chapter of Saint-Servaas of Maastricht amidst the land of the principality of Liège.

The popular pilgrimage to the so-called ‘Three holy sisters” stimulated this chapter to build a beautiful church in Zepperen. Only the defensive western tower of the Roman church from the 12th century still exists. During the whole of the 15th century a nave with transept was reconstructed towards this tower in the modern late gothic style. Zepperen has an elongated territory with the village square in the southwest corner; the communities of Roosbeek, Tereyken and d’Eygen are situated more to the east and north. Ekhout or Dekken, in the middle of this territory, was mentioned in a document of 1244; this pasture between Eigenbeek and Bergbeek was used to graze the cattle of the villagers and to grow Canadian poplars by the village administration. In the late 19th century Dekken was transformed into farmland en since the 1950s the government allocated this terrain to build houses; the proximity of the commercial and services center of Sint-Truiden makes Zepperen a living community for commuters.

Zepperen merged with Sint-Truiden in 1977. The filling of the gaps between the existing houses gave the village its monotone face of ribbon building; the road from Sint-Truiden-Brustem to Wellen-Borgloon through the elevated Honsberg in the south of Zepperen is of mediaeval or Roman age. Since the 19th century Zepperen was enclosed in the northeastern part of Greater Sint-Truiden between the new highways to Tongeren and Hasselt, the railways to Hasselt and Tongeren. New local roads were built around 1900 and in 1936. More the village is opened up in the north by the highway Sint-Truiden-Kortenbos and the connection highway Melveren-Ordingen in the west; the Saint-Genevieve church is known for its wallpaintings in late gothic style and the altarpiece wings in the same style. Nearby the church is a churchyard gate, the house of the curate, the presbytery, the house of the witchdoctor ’t Mesterke and the Ouwerx farmhouse; the famous Sint-Aloysius institute originated in the buildings of the former supreme convent of the Begards in the diocese of Liège, founded on the banks of the Melsterbeek in Zepperen in 1425.

In the interval of the 19th and early 20th century these buildings were transformed in a castle for the noblemen of the families de Pitteurs, d’Astier and Loyaerts. During the first world war a German Leib-Hussar was killed on 9 August 1914 and on the 17th a squadron of Belgian Guides was decimated by German Leib-Grenadiers. In the second World war there were two crashes in Zepperen: on the 30 July 1942 a German Junker 88-A4 was destroyed on landing, the three occupants died. On 27 April 1944 a Canadian Halifax MZ522 with the 431st crashed nearby the Sint-Aloysius institute. All the airmen got out safe by parachute. Two members of the resistance were shot dead near a crossroad “De Dikke Linde” by collaborationists of the German occupation force; the village of Zepperen, known as a fruit growing area, was the starting place of the firm HMZ, which build windturbines from 1978 on. Media related to Zepperen at Wikimedia Commons

David Gurr

David Hugh Courtney Gurr is a Canadian writer and author of literary novels and political thrillers. He was born William Le Breton Harvey Brisbane-Bedwell in 1936 in London, England but his name was changed by adoption in 1941, he was educated at Sherborne Prep and University College in England before emigrating with his family to Canada. He attended Belmont High School in Victoria, British Columbia, the Royal Canadian Naval College, the University of Victoria. Gurr served with the Royal Canadian Navy from 1954-1970 as an executive officer and computer systems analyst, his first interest was in the theatre, he received a scholarship to "tread the boards" at UBC in the summer of 1952. His name can still be seen painted on the backstage wall of the Old Auditorium. From 1971-1980 he built homes on Vancouver Island, he has been a writer since 1976. His works include: Troika, A Woman Called Scylla, The Action of the Tiger, An American Spy Story, On the Endangered List, The Ring Master plus various thrillers under pseudonyms.

Troika was short-listed for the John Creasey Memorial Award. The Ring Master was nominated for the Governor General's Award; the Voice of the Crane was short-listed for the Commonwealth Prize. He resides in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada; the Canadian Who's Who, Elizabeth Lumley The Canadian Encyclopedia, "Popular Literature in English: Mysteries" Interview with the author by Raymond H. Thompson on The Ring Master. 27 July 1989. Gale CENGAGE sources: Contemporary Authors, volume 132, Contemporary Authors - Brief Entry, volume 125, Contemporary Authors New Revision Series, volume 105, Interview in volume CA-132 Official website

Bound and free morphemes

In general linguistics, a bound morpheme is a morpheme that can appear only as part of a larger expression. A bound morpheme is a type of bound form, a free morpheme is a type of free form. Many roots in English are free morphemes, but others are bound (e.g. socio- in "sociology". Words like chairman that contain two free morphemes are referred to as compound words. Affixes are bound by definition. English language affixes are exclusively prefixes or suffixes: pre- in "precaution" and -ment in "shipment". Affixes may be inflectional, indicating how a certain word relates to other words in a larger phrase, or derivational, changing either the part of speech or the actual meaning of a word. Cranberry morphemes are a special form of bound morpheme whose independent meaning has been displaced and serves only to distinguish one word from another, like in cranberry, in which the free morpheme berry is preceded by the bound morpheme cran-, meaning "crane" from the earlier name for the berry, "crane berry".

An Empty Morpheme is a special type of bound morpheme with no inherent meaning. Empty morphemes offer no semantic value to the word as a whole. Examples: Words can be formed purely from bound morphemes, as in English permit from Latin per "through" + mittō "I send", where per- and -mit are bound morphemes in English. However, they are thought of as a single morpheme. A similar example is given in Chinese; the individual syllables and corresponding characters are used only in that word, while they can be interpreted as bound morphemes 蝴 hú- and 蝶 -dié, it is more considered a single disyllabic morpheme. See polysyllabic Chinese morphemes for further discussion. Linguists distinguish between productive and unproductive forms when speaking about morphemes. For example, the morpheme ten- in tenant was derived from the Latin word tenere, "to hold", the same basic meaning is seen in such words as "tenable" and "intention." But as ten- is not used in English to form new words, most linguists would not consider it to be a morpheme at all.

A language with a low ratio of morphemes to words is an isolating language. Since such a language uses few bound morphemes, it expresses most grammatical relationships by word order or helper words, so it is an analytic language. In contrast, a language that uses a substantial number of bound morphemes to express grammatical relationships is a synthetic language. Fixed expression Fossil word Unpaired word