A quarry is a type of open-pit mine in which dimension stone, construction aggregate, sand, gravel, or slate is excavated from the ground. The word quarry can include the underground quarrying for stone, such as Bath stone. Types of rock extracted from quarries include: Chalk China clay Cinder Clay Coal Construction aggregate Coquina Diabase Gabbro Granite Gritstone Gypsum Limestone Marble Ores Phosphate rock Quartz Sandstone Slate Many quarry stones such as marble, granite and sandstone are cut into larger slabs and removed from the quarry; the surfaces finished with varying degrees of sheen or luster. Polished slabs are cut into tiles or countertops and installed in many kinds of residential and commercial properties. Natural stone quarried from the earth is considered a luxury and tends to be a durable surface, thus desirable. Quarries in level areas with shallow groundwater or which are located close to surface water have engineering problems with drainage; the water is removed by pumping while the quarry is operational, but for high inflows more complex approaches may be required.
For example, the Coquina quarry is excavated to more than 60 feet below sea level. To reduce surface leakage, a moat lined with clay was constructed around the entire quarry. Ground water entering the pit is pumped up into the moat; as a quarry becomes deeper, water inflows increase and it becomes more expensive to lift the water higher during removal. Some water-filled quarries are worked by dredging. Many people and municipalities consider quarries to be eyesores and require various abatement methods to address problems with noise and appearance. One of the more effective and famous examples of successful quarry restoration is Butchart Gardens in Victoria, BC, Canada. A further problem is pollution of roads from trucks leaving the quarries. To control and restrain the pollution of public roads, wheel washing systems are becoming more common. Many quarries fill with water after abandonment and become lakes. Others are made into landfills. Water-filled quarries can be deep 50 ft or more, cold, so swimming in quarry lakes is not recommended.
Unexpectedly cold water can cause a swimmer's muscles to weaken. Though quarry water is very clear, submerged quarry stones and abandoned equipment make diving into these quarries dangerous. Several people drown in quarries each year. However, many inactive quarries are converted into safe swimming sites; such lakes lakes within active quarries, can provide important habitat for animals. Clay pit Coal mining Collecting fossils Gravel pit List of minerals List of rock types List of stones Miner Mountaintop removal mining Opencast mining Quarry lake Quarries
A tool is an object used to extend the ability of an individual to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates back hundreds of millennia, use tools to make other tools; the set of tools needed to perform different tasks that are part of the same activity is called gear or equipment. While one may apply the term tool loosely to many things that are means to an end speaking an object is a tool only if, besides being constructed to be held, it is made of a material that allows its user to apply to it various degrees of force. If repeated use wears part of the tool down, it may be possible to restore it, thus tool falls under the taxonomic category implement, is on the same taxonomic rank as instrument, device, or ware. Anthropologists believe; because tools are used extensively by both humans and wild chimpanzees, it is assumed that the first routine use of tools took place prior to the divergence between the two species.
These early tools, were made of perishable materials such as sticks, or consisted of unmodified stones that cannot be distinguished from other stones as tools. Stone artifacts only date back to about 2.5 million years ago. However, a 2010 study suggests the hominin species Australopithecus afarensis ate meat by carving animal carcasses with stone implements; this finding pushes back the earliest known use of stone tools among hominins to about 3.4 million years ago. Finds of actual tools date back at least 2.6 million years in Ethiopia. One of the earliest distinguishable stone tool forms is the hand axe. Up until weapons found in digs were the only tools of “early man” that were studied and given importance. Now, more tools are recognized as culturally and relevant; as well as hunting, other activities required tools such as preparing food, “…nutting, grain harvesting and woodworking…” Included in this group are “flake stone tools". Tools are the most important items that the ancient humans used to climb to the top of the food chain.
“Man the hunter” as the catalyst for Hominin change has been questioned. Based on marks on the bones at archaeological sites, it is now more evident that pre-humans were scavenging off of other predators' carcasses rather than killing their own food. Mechanical devices experienced a major expansion in their use in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome with the systematic employment of new energy sources waterwheels, their use expanded through the Dark Ages with the addition of windmills. Machine tools occasioned a surge in producing new tools in the industrial revolution. Advocates of nanotechnology expect a similar surge. One can classify tools according to their basic functions: Cutting and edge tools, such as the knife, scythe or sickle, are wedge-shaped implements that produce a shearing force along a narrow face. Ideally, the edge of the tool needs to be harder than the material being cut or else the blade will become dulled with repeated use, but resilient tools will require periodic sharpening, the process of removing deformation wear from the edge.
Other examples of cutting tools include gouges and drill bits. Moving tools move tiny items. Many are levers. Examples of force-concentrating tools include the hammer which moves a nail or the maul which moves a stake; these operate by applying physical compression to a surface. In the case of the screwdriver, the force called torque. By contrast, an anvil concentrates force on an object being hammered by preventing it from moving away when struck. Writing implements deliver a fluid to a surface via compression to activate the ink cartridge. Grabbing and twisting nuts and bolts with pliers, a glove, a wrench, etc. move items by some kind of force. Tools that enact chemical changes, including temperature and ignition, such as lighters and blowtorches. Guiding and perception tools include the ruler, set square, straightedge, microscope, clock, printer Shaping tools, such as molds, trowels. Fastening tools, such as welders, rivet nail guns, or glue guns. Information and data manipulation tools, such as computers, IDE, spreadsheetsSome tools may be combinations of other tools.
An alarm-clock is for example a combination of a perception tool. This enables the alarm-clock to be a tool. There is some debate on whether to consider protective gear items as tools, because they do not directly help perform work, just protect the worker like ordinary clothing, they do meet the general definition of tools and in many cases are necessary for the completion of the work. Personal protective equipment includes such items as gloves, safety glasses, ear defenders and biohazard suits. A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the magnitude of a force. In general, they are the simplest mechanisms; the six classical simple machines which were defined by Renaissance scientists are: Lever Wheel and axle Pulley Inclined plane Wedge Screw Often, by design or coincidence, a tool may share key functional attributes with one or more other tools. In this case, s
Stonemasonry or stonecraft is the creation of buildings and sculpture using stone as the primary material. It is one of the oldest professions in human history. Many of the long-lasting, ancient shelters, monuments, fortifications, roads and entire cities were built of stone. Famous works of stonemasonry include the Egyptian Pyramids, the Taj Mahal, Cusco's Incan Wall, Easter Island's statues, Angkor Wat, Tihuanaco, Persepolis, the Parthenon, the Great Wall of China, Chartres Cathedral, Pumapunku. Masonry is the craft of shaping rough pieces of rock into accurate geometrical shapes, at times simple, but some of considerable complexity, arranging the resulting stones together with mortar, to form structures. Quarrymen split sheets of rock, extract the resulting blocks of stone from the ground. Sawyers cut these rough blocks to required size with diamond-tipped saws; the resulting block if ordered for a specific component is known as sawn six sides. Banker masons are workshop-based, specialize in working the stones into the shapes required by a building's design, this set out on templets and a bed mould.
They can produce anything from stones with simple chamfers to tracery windows, detailed mouldings and the more classical architectural building masonry. When working a stone from a sawn block, the mason ensures that the stone is bedded in the right way, so the finished work sits in the building in the same orientation as it was formed on the ground. Though some stones need to be orientated for the application; the basic tools and skills of the banker mason have existed as a trade for thousands of years. Carvers cross the line from craft to art, use their artistic ability to carve stone into foliage, animals or abstract designs. Fixer masons specialize in the fixing of stones onto buildings, using lifting tackle, traditional lime mortars and grouts. Sometimes modern cements and epoxy resins are used on specialist applications such as stone cladding. Metal fixings, from simple dowels and cramps to specialised single application fixings, are used; the precise tolerances necessary make this a skilled job.
Memorial masons or monumental masons carve inscriptions. The modern stonemason undergoes comprehensive training, both in the classroom and in the working environment. Hands-on skill is complemented by intimate knowledge of each stone type, its application and best uses, how to work and fix each stone in place; the mason may be skilled and competent to carry out one or all of the various branches of stonemasonry. In some areas the trend is in other areas towards adaptability. Stonemasons use all types of natural stone: igneous and sedimentary. Granite is one of the hardest stones, requires much different techniques to sedimentary stones that it is a separate trade. With great persistence, simple mouldings can and have been carved from granite, for example in many Cornish churches and in the city of Aberdeen. However, it is used for purposes that require its strength and durability, such as kerbstones, countertops and breakwaters. Igneous stone ranges from soft rocks such as pumice and scoria to somewhat harder rocks such as tuff to hardest rocks such as granite and basalt.
Marble is a fine worked stone, that comes in various colours, but white. It has traditionally been used for carving statues, for facing many Byzantine and buildings of the Italian Renaissance; the first and most admirable marble carvers and sculptors were the Greeks, namely Antenor and Critias, Praxiteles and others who used the marble of Paros and Thassos islands, the whitest and brightest of all, the Pentelikon marble. Their work was preceded by older sculptors from Mesopotamia and Egypt, but the Greeks were unmatched in plasticity and realistic presentation, either of Gods, or humans; the famous Acropolis of Athens is said to be constructed using the Pentelicon marble. The traditional home of the marble industry is the area around Carrara in Italy, from where a bright and fine, whitish marble is extracted in vast quantities. Slate is a popular choice of stone for memorials and inscriptions, as its fine grain and hardness means it leaves details sharp, its tendency to split into thin plates has made it a popular roofing material.
Many of the world's most famous buildings have been built of sedimentary stone, from Durham Cathedral to St Peter's in Rome. There are two main types of sedimentary stone used in masonry work and sandstones. Examples of limestones include Portland stone. Yorkstone and Sydney sandstone are most used sandstone. Types of stonemasonry are: Fixer Masons This type of masons have specialized into fixing the stones onto the buildings, they might do this with grouts and lifting tackle. They might use things like single application specialized fixings, simple cramps, dowels as well as stone cladding with things like epoxy resins and modern cements. Memorial Masons These are the masons that make carve the inscriptions on them. Today’s stonemasons undergo training, quite comprehensive and is done both in the work environment and in the classroom, it isn’t enough to have hands-on skill anymore. One must have knowledge of the types of stones as well as its best uses and how to work it as well as how to fix i