A drover in Australia is a person an experienced stockman, who moves livestock sheep and horses "on the hoof" over long distances. Reasons for droving may include: delivering animals to a new owner's property, taking animals to market, or moving animals during a drought in search of better feed and/or water or in search of a yard to work on the livestock; the drovers who covered long distances to open up new country were known as "overlanders". Moving a small mob of quiet cattle is easy, but moving several hundreds or thousands head of wild station cattle over long distances is a different matter. Long-distance moving large mobs of stock was traditionally carried out by contract drovers. A drover had to be independent and tough, an excellent horseman, able to manage stock as well as men; the boss drover who had a plant contracted to move the mob at a predetermined rate according to the conditions, from a starting point to the destination. The priorities for a boss drover were the livestock, the horses, the men, as drovers were paid per head of stock delivered.
Drovers were sometimes on the road for as long as two years. Traditional droving could not have been done without horses; the horse plant was made up of work-horses, night-horses and packhorses, with each drover riding four or five horses during a trip. The horse tailer was the team member responsible for getting horses to water and feed, bringing them to the camp in the morning. A good night-horse was prized for its night vision and its ability to bring animals under control when a "rush", known elsewhere as a stampede, occurred at night; the standard team of men employed to move 1,200 cattle consisted of seven men: the boss drover, four stockmen, a cook and a horse-tailer. Store cattle were moved in larger mobs, of up to 1,500 head, while fat bullocks going to meatworks were taken in mobs of about 650 head, i.e. three train loads. The stockmen will ride in formation at the front and back of the mob, at least until the mob has settled into a routine pace. Cattle are expected to cover about ten miles a day, sheep about six miles, are permitted to spread up to 800 metres on either side of the road.
Mobs of horses were moved by drovers. A short camp is made for a lunch break, after which the cook and horse-tailer will move ahead to set up the night camp. A continual watch is kept over cattle during the night camp with one horseman riding around the mob, unless the cattle are restless when two riders would be used. A rush can be started by a sudden noise such as a dingo howl, a bolt of lightning, sparks from a fire, or a bush rat gnawing on a tender part of a hoof. Drovers tell vivid stories of the chaotic conditions that occur when several hundred cattle start a rush at night. If they head towards the drovers’ camp, the best option may be to climb a sturdy tree. Many drovers have been trampled to death in a rush, sometimes still in their swags. A good night-horse can be given its head, will wheel the leading cattle around until the mob is moving in a circle, calm can be restored. During long "dry stages" extra care will be taken of the stock, this may involve droving during the night to conserve the animals’ energy.
About three kilometers before water is reached, the animals will be held and small groups will be taken to drink in order that the cattle do not rush and injure or drown others. A "cattle train drover" is a person who accompanies a mob of cattle on a train while they are being transported to a new location; the goods trains provide special accommodation for these drovers in specially constructed guard’s vans. Queensland is now the only state to run cattle trains; the first droving over a significant distance occurred in 1836 when 300 cattle were moved by Joseph Hawdon in 26 days from the Murrumbidgee River to Melbourne, a distance of about 480 km. In 1836, Edward John Eyre drove stock from New South Wales to the Port Phillip district; as droving skills were developed, more challenging assignments were undertaken. During the late 1830s, settlers began to move into countryside near Adelaide. There followed expeditions to bring sheep and cattle to Adelaide from New South Wales; the first such expedition was led by Eyre, which started in December 1837 and followed the path of Charles Sturt along the Murray–Darling River system.
Eyre's party comprised eight stockmen, 1000 sheep, 600 head of cattle, which started out from Monaro in New South Wales. The party arrived in Adelaide in July 1838. During the following years, the traffic on the Murray–Darling route would grow enormously. At its height, there was an continuous train of sheep, bullock drays, horses along the route. Many Aborigines lived along the route, they sometimes received "injudicious treatment" from the Europeans—in the words of Governor George Gawler. Such treatment included wanton shooting of Aborigines; that led to an escalating cycle of conflicts between Europeans. For example, drover Henry Inman lost all 5000 of his sheep, when Aborigines attacked his party, in April 1841, and in August 1841, drover William Robinson and his party, together with a policing force, killed at least 30 Aborigines, in the Rufus River massacre. In 1863, boss drover George Gregory drove 8,000 sheep from near Rockhampton to the Northern Territory border, some 2,100 km, taking seven months.
In the early 1870s, Robert Christison overlanded 7,000 sheep from Queensland to Adelaide, a distance of 2,500 km. Patrick Durack and his brother Michael trekked across the north of Australia from their property on Coopers Creek in Queensland, which they left in 1879 along wit
Banksia is a genus of around 170 species in the plant family Proteaceae. These Australian wildflowers and popular garden plants are recognised by their characteristic flower spikes and fruiting "cones" and heads. Banksias range in size from prostrate woody shrubs to trees up to 30 metres tall, they are found in a wide variety of landscapes. Heavy producers of nectar, banksias are a vital part of the food chain in the Australian bush, they are an important food source for all sorts of nectarivorous animals, including birds, rats, stingless bees and a host of invertebrates. Furthermore, they are of economic importance to Australia's cut flower industries; however these plants are threatened by a number of processes including land clearing, frequent burning and disease, a number of species are rare and endangered. Banksias grow as trees or woody shrubs. Trees of the largest species, B. integrifolia and B. seminuda grow over 15 metres tall, some grow to standing 30 metres tall. Banksia species that grow as shrubs are erect, but there are several species that are prostrate, with branches that grow on or below the soil.
The leaves of Banksia vary between species. Sizes vary from the narrow, 1–1½ centimetre long needle-like leaves of B. ericifolia, to the large leaves of B. grandis, which may be up to 45 centimetres long. The leaves of most species have serrated edges. Leaves are arranged along the branches in irregular spirals, but in some species they are crowded together in whorls. Many species have differing adult leaves; the flowers are arranged in flower spikes or capitate flower heads. The character most associated with Banksia is the flower spike, an elongated inflorescence consisting of a woody axis covered in tightly-packed pairs of flowers attached at right angles. A single flower spike contains hundreds or thousands of flowers. Not all Banksia have an elongate flower spike, however: the members of the small Isostylis complex have long been recognised as Banksias in which the flower spike has been reduced to a head. Dryandra, they have capitate flower heads rather than spikes. Banksia flowers are a shade of yellow, but orange, red and violet flowers occur.
The colour of the flowers is determined by the colour of the perianth parts and the style. The style is much longer than the perianth, is trapped by the upper perianth parts; these are released over a period of days, either from top to bottom or from bottom to top. When the styles and perianth parts are different colours, the visual effect is of a colour change sweeping along the spike; this can be most spectacular in B. prionotes and related species, as the white inflorescence in bud becomes a brilliant orange. In most cases, the individual flowers are thin saccate in shape. Multiple flower spikes can form; this is most seen in Banksia marginata and B. ericifolia. As the flower spikes or heads age, the flower parts dry up and may turn shades of orange, tan or dark brown colour, before fading to grey over a period of years. In some species, old flower parts are lost. Old flower spikes are referred to as "cones", although they are not technically cones according to the botanical definition of the term: cones only occur in conifers and cycads.
Despite the large number of flowers per inflorescence, only a few of them develop fruit, in some species a flower spike will set no fruit at all. The fruit of Banksia is a woody follicle embedded in the axis of the inflorescence. In many species, the resulting structure is a massive woody structure called a cone; each follicle consists of two horizontal valves that enclose the seeds. The follicle opens to release the seed by splitting along the suture, in some species each valve splits too. In some species the follicles open as soon as the seed is mature, but in most species most follicles open only after stimulated to do so by bushfire; each follicle contains one or two small seeds, each with a wedge-shaped papery wing that causes it to spin as it falls to the ground. Specimens of Banksia were first collected by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr Daniel Solander, naturalists on the Endeavour during Lieutenant James Cook's first voyage to the Pacific Ocean. Cook landed on Australian soil for the first time on 29 April 1770, at a place that he named Botany Bay in recognition of "the great quantity of plants Mr Banks and Dr Solander found in this place".
Over the next seven weeks and Solander collected thousands of plant specimens, including the first specimens of a new genus that would be named Banksia in Banks' honour. Four species were present in this first collection: B. serrata, B. integrifolia, B. ericifolia and B. robur. In June the ship was careened at Endeavour River; the genus Banksia was described and named by Carolus Linnaeus the Younger in his April 1782 publication Supplementum Plantarum.
The Australian bustard is a large ground bird inhabiting grassland and open agricultural country across northern Australia and southern New Guinea. It is commonly referred to as the plains turkey, in Central Australia as bush turkey by Aboriginal people, though this name may be used for the Australian brushturkey as well as the orange-footed scrubfowl; the male is up to 1.2 m tall with a 2.3 m wingspan. The average weight for males is 6.3 kg, with a range of 4.3 to 12.76 kg. The female is quite a bit smaller at 80 cm tall, with a 1.8 m wingspan and an average body mass of 3.2 kg in a range of 2.4 to 6.35 kg but is coloured. The largest male recorded was 14.5 kg. Although it is the largest extant flying land bird in Australia, this long-legged bird is the smallest species in the genus Ardeotis; the back and tail are dull brown, mottled black and white markings on the wing coverts. The neck and head appear the crown black. Legs are yellow to cream coloured; when disturbed, Australian bustards adopt a cryptic pose with neck erect and bill pointed skywards.
They may stalk away or run if alarmed, taking flight as a last resort. Populations are nomadic following rain and feed, which includes seeds, centipedes, molluscs, young birds and small rodents; this bird remains common and widespread across most of northern Australia, but its range appears to have contracted in the south-east of the continent during the last century due to hunting, feral predators such as pigs and foxes and habitat destruction. Its nomadic habits make it difficult to assess. In 2012 IUCN downlisted the species to Least Concern; the Australian bustard is not listed as threatened on the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The Australian bustard is listed as threatened on the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. Under this Act, an Action Statement for the recovery and future management of this species has been prepared. On the 2007 advisory list of threatened vertebrate fauna in Victoria, this species is listed as critically endangered. Australian Aboriginals refer to this bird as the bush turkey.
It is an important food source for Aboriginal people from Central Australia, is still being killed and eaten today despite its protected status. The white feathers of the bird are used for ceremonial purposes; the Arrernte name for this bird is kere artewe. The Luritja name is kipara; the Larrakia name for this bird is danimila. There are important Dreaming stories associated with the bush turkey. A number of artists painting in the desert today paint bush turkey Dreaming; this means they have been given stories of the origins of the turkey in the Dreamtime and are entitled to tell this story and paint about it. Barossa Valley winery Turkey Flat takes its name from the Australian bustard.'Turkey Flat' was the local name given to Lot 1, 100 of Moorooroo on settlement in reference to the large flocks of the Australian bustard found along the river banks. The winery's logo features an Australian bustard as drawn by Rod Schubert. Frith, H Reader's Digest Complete Book of Australian Birds, 1977 ISBN 0-909486-50-6 Simpson, K and Day, N. Field Guide to the Birds of Australia 7th edition, 2004 ISBN 0-7136-6982-9 NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Threatened Species Information sheet
The emu is the second-largest living bird by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich. It is endemic to Australia where it is the largest native bird and the only extant member of the genus Dromaius; the emu's range covers most of mainland Australia, but the Tasmanian, Kangaroo Island and King Island subspecies became extinct after the European settlement of Australia in 1788. The bird is sufficiently common for it to be rated as a least-concern species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Emus are soft-feathered, flightless birds with long necks and legs, can reach up to 1.9 metres in height. Emus can travel great distances, when necessary can sprint at 50 km/h, they take in copious amounts of water when the opportunity arises. Breeding takes place in May and June, fighting among females for a mate is common. Females can lay several clutches of eggs in one season; the male does the incubation. The eggs hatch after around eight weeks, the young are nurtured by their fathers.
They reach full size after around six months, but can remain as a family unit until the next breeding season. The emu is an important cultural icon of Australia, appearing on the coat of various coins; the bird features prominently in Indigenous Australian mythology. Emus were first reported as having been seen by Europeans when explorers visited the western coast of Australia in 1696; the birds were known on the eastern coast before 1788. The birds were first mentioned under the name of the "New Holland cassowary" in Arthur Phillip's Voyage to Botany Bay, published in 1789 with the following description: This is a species differing in many particulars from that known, is a much larger bird, standing higher on its legs and having the neck longer than in the common one. Total length seven feet two inches; the bill is not different from that of the common Cassowary. The plumage in general consists of a mixture of brown and grey, the feathers are somewhat curled or bent at the ends in the natural state: the wings are so short as to be useless for flight, indeed, are scarcely to be distinguished from the rest of the plumage, were it not for their standing out a little.
The long spines which are seen in the wings of the common sort, are in this not observable,—nor is there any appearance of a tail. The legs are stout, formed much as in the Galeated Cassowary, with the addition of their being jagged or sawed the whole of their length at the back part; the species was named by ornithologist John Latham in 1790 based on a specimen from the Sydney area of Australia, a country, known as New Holland at the time. He collaborated on Phillip's book and provided the first descriptions of, names for, many Australian bird species. In his original 1816 description of the emu, the French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot used two generic names, first Dromiceius and Dromaius, it has been a point of contention since as to which name should be used. Most modern publications, including those of the Australian government, use Dromaius, with Dromiceius mentioned as an alternative spelling; the etymology of the common name "emu" is uncertain, but is thought to have come from an Arabic word for large bird, used by Portuguese explorers to describe the related cassowary in Australia and New Guinea.
Another theory is that it comes from the word "ema", used in Portuguese to denote a large bird akin to an ostrich or crane. In Victoria, some terms for the emu were Barrimal in the Dja Dja Wurrung language, myoure in Gunai, courn in Jardwadjali; the birds were known as murawung or birabayin to the local Eora and Darug inhabitants of the Sydney basin. The emu was long classified, with its closest relatives the cassowaries, in the family Casuariidae, part of the ratite order Struthioniformes. However, an alternate classification was proposed in 2014 by Mitchell et al. based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA. This splits off the Casuariidae into their own order, the Casuariformes, includes only the cassowaries in the family Casuariidae, placing the emus in their own family, Dromaiidae; the cladogram shown below is from their study. Two different Dromaius species were present in Australia at the time of European settlement, one additional species is known from fossil remains; the insular dwarf emus, D. n. baudinianus and D. n. minor present on Kangaroo Island and King Island both became extinct shortly after the arrival of Europeans.
D. n. diemenensis, another insular dwarf emu from Tasmania, became extinct around 1865. However, the mainland subspecies, D. n. novaehollandiae, remains common. The population of these birds varies from decade to de
Kalbarri National Park
Kalbarri National Park is located 485 km north of Perth, in the Mid West region of Western Australia. The major geographical features of the park include the Murchison River gorge which runs for nearly 80 km on the lower reaches of the Murchison River. Spectacular coastal cliffs are located on the coast near the mouth of the Murchison River and the town of Kalbarri. Kalbarri National Park preserves the inland desert regions of red and white striped Tumblagooda sandstone east of the town of Kalbarri the lower reaches of the Murchison River and its gorge, as well as the mouth of the river by Meanarra Hill; the western edge of the park protects the coastline south of the town which features cliffs more than 100 m high. The coastal area contains several wind and water eroded rock formations including a sea stack and a natural bridge; the park is open all year round though temperatures can be high from December through April. The park lies in the northernmost limits of the transition zone between a Mediterranean and a semi-arid climate.
Winters are warm with moderate precipitation. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures that exceed 40 °C in the inland part of the park. Inland areas can be more than 10 °C higher than along the coast and in town. Monthly precipitation levels are low with most rain falling from May through August. Heavy rainfalls may cause the roads to the gorge to be closed; the Kalbarri area is known for its extent of wildflowers. More than 800 species of wildflowers bloom from late winter through early summer with peak times in August and September. Twenty-one plant species are found only in the coastal cliff tops and gorge country predominantly in the National Park. One of the best known local plants is the Kalbarri catspaw, a small yellow or red plant, seen on burnt country from August to September. Several orchids can only be seen in and near the park, including the Kalbarri spider orchid and the Murchison hammer orchid; the small-petalled Beyeria or short-petalled Beyeria, once thought to be extinct, was re-discovered in the park in 1994.
The population in the park is one of only three known populations. The park area has observation records for about 200 different animal species in the interior of the park along the Murchison River. More than 400 species have been recorded around the town of Kalbarri; the threatened tammar wallaby was observed in the area but not lately. 150 bird species have been observed including the emu, wedge-tailed eagle and Australian pelican. Some of the recorded mammal species in the interior include the western grey kangaroo, short-beaked echidna and spinifex hopping mouse; the only observed bat in the park is the Finlayson's cave bat. The recorded reptile species include the thorny devil, western bearded dragon and central netted dragon; the only observed amphibian is Günther's toadlet. About 30 different arthropods have been recorded including a dragonfly called the Pilbara tiger and the savanna black tree ant; the most popular activities are sightseeing, fishing and bushwalking. Other activities include abseiling in the gorge and horseback riding, as well as scuba diving, snorkelling and swimming in the Indian Ocean at Red Bluff Beach and the small beach at Pot Alley.
From Kalbarri there are scenic cruises along the Murchison River and flights over Kalbarri National Park. There are no other accommodations and no water available within the park boundaries. All overnight visitors must use the facilities in the town unless they are on a multi-day bushwalk or boat tour. Coastal part, starting from the town of Kalbarri and moving south: Red Bluff Mushroom Rock Rainbow Valley Pot Alley Eagle Gorge Shellhouse and Grandstand Island Rock Natural BridgeInland part, along the Murchison River Gorge: Nature's Window The Loop Z Bend Hawks Head Ross Graham Lookout Protected areas of Western Australia EveryTrail travel site's guide for Kalbarri
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Beelu National Park
Beelu National Park is a national park east of Perth, Western Australia. Lying south of Mundaring, Western Australia, west of the Mundaring Weir Road, it is part of the group of parks known as the Parks of the Darling Range; the park was named Mundaring National Park. Mundaring National Park was established and gazetted in 1995 as part of the Protecting Out Old Growth Forests policy of the State Government; the park was renamed in 2008 as an acknowledgement of the traditional owners of the area. The word Beelu is derived from the Noongar word for stream; the Beelu people were the original peoples of the area whose district was bounded by the Helena and Canning Rivers. The park contains an abundance of native flora including Jarrah, Zamia, Bull Banksia and Grass tree; the park contains toilets, wood barbecues, picnic tables and a variety of hiking and mountain biking trails. An information centre, the Perth Hills National Parks Centre is located within the park and is open between 10.00am and 4.00pm to offer advice and refreshments to visitors.
A lookout is located South Ledge with a view over Lake CY O'Connor. The largest Oak Tree in Western Australia is found in Fred Jacby Park. Two campsites are available to use within the park. Protected areas of Western Australia Mitchell, Samille What's in a name? Parks of the Darling Range Landscope Volume 24 number 2, pp. 40–46